Special Issue "Fish Gelatins: Their Production, Functional Properties, and Potential Applications in Food, Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals, and Nutraceuticals"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Chun-Yung Huang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Interests: brown seaweed; chitin/chitosan; extrusion technology; fish gelatin; fucoidan
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Yong-Han Hong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
I-Shou University (Yanchao Campus), Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Interests: nutritional biochemistry and immunology; animal models related with nutrition and disease; cell culture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,                

Gelatin is a polypeptide derived by the partial hydrolysis of collagen, the principle fibrous protein constituent of the bones, cartilages, and skin of animals. Insoluble native collagen must be pre-treated before it can be converted into a form suitable for extraction; this pre-treatment is normally accomplished by heating in water, which cleaves hydrogen and covalent bonds destabilizing the triple-helix and resulting in helix-to-coil transition and conversion into soluble gelatin. Gelatin is traditionally extracted from the skin and bone collagen of certain mammalian species, primarily cows and pigs. However, gelatin production from alternative non-mammalian species has grown in importance due to religious sentiments and safety considerations, especially, concern about bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). These socio-cultural and safety concerns have promoted rigorous research to identify and develop alternatives to mammal-derived gelatin.

The classical applications of gelatin in the food, photographic, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries are based mainly on its gel-forming and viscoelastic properties. Recently, a variety of new applications of gelatin have been found in the production of emulsifiers, foaming agents, colloid stabilizers, fining agents, biodegradable packaging materials, and micro-encapsulating agents. This Special Issue “Fish Gelatins: Their Production, Functional Properties, and Potential Applications in Food, Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals, and Neutraceuticals” of Marine Drugs will cover the whole scope of production, functional properties, and potential applications of fish gelatin in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. This Special Issue is focused on (but not limited to) food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and therapeutic applications of fish gelatin, including gelatin hydrolysate, with biological activities, gelatin peptides, and proteins, nutraceutical delivery systems, gelatin nanoparticles, micro-encapsulating agents, and their complementary therapeutic effects.

We look forward to your input.

Prof. Dr. Chun-Yung Huang
Prof. Dr. Yong-Han Hong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biological functions
  • biopolymer
  • complementary therapeutic effects
  • drug delivery systems
  • extraction method
  • fish gelatin
  • gelatin hydrolysate
  • gelatin peptides
  • micro-encapsulating agents
  • nutraceuticals
  • cosmetics
  • pharmaceuticals

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Chemical Characterization of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) Collagen Hydrolyzed Using Enzyme Preparation Derived from Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Its Potential as a Core Component of Bacterial Culture Medium
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080472 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) processing wastes are massive and unutilized in the Murmansk region of Russia. The samples of skin-containing waste of Atlantic cod fillets production were hydrolyzed using enzyme preparations derived [...] Read more.
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) processing wastes are massive and unutilized in the Murmansk region of Russia. The samples of skin-containing waste of Atlantic cod fillets production were hydrolyzed using enzyme preparations derived from red king crab hepatopancreases, porcine pancreases, and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The activity of enzymes from crab hepatopancreases was significantly higher than the activity of enzymes derived from other sources. The optimal conditions of the hydrolysis process have been figured out. The samples of cod processing waste hydrolysate were analyzed for amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The samples of hydrolysate were used as core components for bacterial culture medium samples. The efficiency of the medium samples was tested for Escherichia coli growth rate; the most efficient sample had an efficiency of 95.3% of that of a commercially available medium based on fish meal. Substitution of medium components with those derived from industrial by-products is one of the ways to decrease a cost of a culture medium in biopharmaceutical drug production. Full article
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Article
Application of the Gadidae Fish Processing Waste for Food Grade Gelatin Production
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080455 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Waste from fish cutting (heads, swim bladders, fins, skin, and bones) is a high-value technological raw material for obtaining substances and products with a wide range of properties. The possibility of using waste from cutting fish of the Gadidae family: the Alaska pollock [...] Read more.
Waste from fish cutting (heads, swim bladders, fins, skin, and bones) is a high-value technological raw material for obtaining substances and products with a wide range of properties. The possibility of using waste from cutting fish of the Gadidae family: the Alaska pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), processed in the coastal zone, is scientifically substantiated. In this work, a technology has been developed for processing accumulated waste from fish cutting in order to obtain fish gelatin, which is characterized by high protein content (more than 80.0%) and a full set of essential and nonessential amino acids. We studied the quality of fish gelatin obtained from wastes from cutting the fish of the Gadidae family. The possibility of using fish gelatin as a component of fish products is shown; the dose of its introduction into the fish products is substantiated. The data obtained made it possible to recommend the use of fish processing waste products as a gelling component and a source of amino acids in multicomponent food systems. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Gelatin and Gelatin Hydrolysates Obtained from Extrusion-Pretreated Fish (Oreochromis sp.) Scales
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050275 - 14 May 2021
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Abstract
Fish gelatin and its hydrolysates exhibit a variety of biological characteristics, which include antihypertensive and antioxidant properties. In this study, fish gelatins were extracted from extrusion-pretreated tilapia scales, and then subjected to analyses to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the [...] Read more.
Fish gelatin and its hydrolysates exhibit a variety of biological characteristics, which include antihypertensive and antioxidant properties. In this study, fish gelatins were extracted from extrusion-pretreated tilapia scales, and then subjected to analyses to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the extracted gelatins. Our findings indicate that TSG2 (preconditioned with 1.26% citric acid) possessed the greatest extraction yield, as well as higher antioxidant activities compared with the other extracted gelatins. Hence, TSG2 was subjected to further hydrolyzation using different proteases and ultrafiltration conditions, which yielded four gelatin hydrolysates: TSGH1, TSGH2, TSGH3, and TSGH4. The results showed that TSGH4 (Pepsin + Pancreatin and ultrafiltration < 3000 Da) had a higher yield and greater antioxidant activity in comparison with the other gelatin hydrolysates. As such, TSGH4 was subjected to further fractionation using a Superdex peptide column and two-stage reverse-phase column HPLC chromatography, yielding a subfraction TSGH4-6-2-b, which possessed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity compared with the other fractions. Further LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of TSGH4-6-2-b suggested two novel peptides (GYDEY and EPGKSGEQGAPGEAGAP), which could have potential as naturally-occurring peptides with antioxidant properties. These promising results suggest that these antioxidant peptides could have applications in food products, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Full article
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Article
Type II Collagen from Cartilage of Acipenser baerii Promotes Wound Healing in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and in Mouse Skin
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(10), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18100511 - 11 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Type II collagen is an important component of cartilage; however, little is known about its effect on skin wound healing. In this study, type II collagen was extracted from the cartilage of Acipenser baerii and its effect on in vitro and in vivo [...] Read more.
Type II collagen is an important component of cartilage; however, little is known about its effect on skin wound healing. In this study, type II collagen was extracted from the cartilage of Acipenser baerii and its effect on in vitro and in vivo wound healing was compared to type I collagen derived from tilapia skin. Sturgeon cartilage collagen (SCC) was composed of α1 chains and with a thermal denaturation (Td) at 22.5 and melting temperature (Tm) at 72.5 °C. Coating SCC potentiated proliferation, migration, and invasion of human dermal fibroblast adult (HDFa) cells. Furthermore, SCC upregulated the gene expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components (col Iα1, col IIIα1, elastin, and Has2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules (N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-1) in HDFa. Pretreatment with Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors significantly attenuated the HDFa invasion caused by SCC. In mice, the application of SCC on dorsal wounds effectively facilitated wound healing as evidenced by 40–59% wound contraction, whereas the untreated wounds were 18%. We observed that SCC reduced inflammation, promoted granulation, tissue formation, and ECM deposition, as well as re-epithelialization in skin wounds. In addition, SCC markedly upregulated the production of growth factors in the dermis, and dermal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue; in contrast, the administration of tilapia skin collagen (TSC) characterized by typical type I collagen was mainly expressed in the epidermis. Collectively, these findings indicate SCC accelerated wound healing by targeting fibroblast in vitro and in vivo. Full article
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Review

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Review
Cosmetic, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Fish Gelatin/Hydrolysates
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030145 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
There are several reviews that separately cover different aspects of fish gelatin including its preparation, characteristics, modifications, and applications. Its packaging application in food industry is extensively covered but other applications are not covered or covered alongside with those of collagen. This review [...] Read more.
There are several reviews that separately cover different aspects of fish gelatin including its preparation, characteristics, modifications, and applications. Its packaging application in food industry is extensively covered but other applications are not covered or covered alongside with those of collagen. This review is comprehensive, specific to fish gelatin/hydrolysate and cites recent research. It covers cosmetic applications, intrinsic activities, and biomedical applications in wound dressing and wound healing, gene therapy, tissue engineering, implants, and bone substitutes. It also covers its pharmaceutical applications including manufacturing of capsules, coating of microparticles/oils, coating of tablets, stabilization of emulsions and drug delivery (microspheres, nanospheres, scaffolds, microneedles, and hydrogels). The main outcomes are that fish gelatin is immunologically safe, protects from the possibility of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and foot and mouth diseases, has an economic and environmental benefits, and may be suitable for those that practice religious-based food restrictions, i.e., people of Muslim, Jewish and Hindu faiths. It has unique rheological properties, making it more suitable for certain applications than mammalian gelatins. It can be easily modified to enhance its mechanical properties. However, extensive research is still needed to characterize gelatin hydrolysates, elucidate the Structure Activity Relationship (SAR), and formulate them into dosage forms. Additionally, expansion into cosmetic applications and drug delivery is needed. Full article
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