Special Issue "Fish Gelatins: Their Production, Functional Properties, and Nutraceutical Applications"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Chun-Yung Huang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Hai-Chuan Rd., Nan-Tzu District, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
Fax: +886-7-3640634
Interests: brown seaweed; chitin/chitosan; extrusion technology; fish scale gelatin; neutraceuticals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gelatin is a polypeptide derived by partial hydrolysis of collagen, the principle fibrous protein constituent in the bones, cartilages and skin of animal. Insoluble native collagen must be pre-treated before it can be converted into a form suitable for extraction; this pre-treatment is normally accomplished by heating in water and the heat cleaving the hydrogen and covalent bonds to destabilize the triple-helix, resulting in helix-to-coil transition and conversion into soluble gelatin. Gelatin is traditionally extracted from the skin and bone collagen of certain mammalian species, primarily cows and pigs. However, gelatin production from alternative non-mammalian species has grown in importance due to religious sentiments and safety considerations, especially bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). These socio-cultural and safety concerns have led to rigorous research to identify and develop alternatives to mammal-derived gelatin.

The classical application of gelatin in food, photographic, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry is based mainly on its gel-forming and viscoelastic properties. Recently, a variety of new applications of gelatin have been found in emulsifiers, foaming agents, colloid stabilizers, fining agents, biodegradable packaging materials and micro-encapsulating agents. In this Special Issue “Fish Gelatins: Their Production, Functional Properties, and Nutraceutical Applications” of Marine Drugs will cover the whole scope of production, functional properties, and nutraceutical applications of fish gelatin. This Special Issue is focused on (but not limited to) nutraceutical and therapeutic applications of fish gelatin including gelatin hydrolysate with biological activities, gelatin peptides and proteins, nutraceutical delivery systems, gelatin nanoparticles, micro-encapsulating agents, and complementary therapeutic effects.

We look forward to your input.

Prof. Dr. Chun-Yung Huang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biological functions
  • biopolymer
  • complementary therapeutic effects
  • drug delivery systems
  • extraction method
  • fish gelatin
  • gelatin hydrolysate
  • gelatin peptides
  • micro-encapsulating agents
  • nutraceuticals

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Nanogels Derived from Fish Gelatin: Application to Drug Delivery System
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040246 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The gelatin extracted from mammals of porcine and bovine has been prominently used in pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetic products. However, there have been some concerns for their usage due to religious, social and cultural objections, and animal-to-human infectious disease. Recently, gelatin from marine [...] Read more.
The gelatin extracted from mammals of porcine and bovine has been prominently used in pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetic products. However, there have been some concerns for their usage due to religious, social and cultural objections, and animal-to-human infectious disease. Recently, gelatin from marine by-products has received growing attention as an alternative to mammalian gelatin. In this study, we demonstrate the formation of nanogels (NGs) using fish gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and their application possibility to the drug delivery system. The fabrication of fish GelMA NGs is carried out by crosslinking through the photopolymerization of the methacryloyl substituent present in the nanoemulsion droplets, followed by purification and redispersion. There were different characteristics depending on the aqueous phase in the emulsion and the type of solvent used in redispersion. The PBS-NGs/D.W., which was prepared using PBS for the aqueous phase and D.W. for the final dispersion solution, had a desirable particle size (<200 nm), low PdI (0.16), and high drug loading efficiency (77%). Spherical NGs particles were observed without aggregation in TEM images. In vitro release tests of doxorubicin (DOX)-GelMA NGs showed the pH-dependent release behavior of DOX. Also, the MTT experiments demonstrated that DOX-GelMA NGs effectively inhibited cell growth, while only GelMA NGs exhibit higher percentages of cell viability. Therefore, the results suggest that fish GelMA NGs have a potential for nano-carrier as fine individual particles without the aggregation and cytotoxicity to deliver small-molecule drugs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin and Antioxidant Peptides from Gelatin Hydrolysate of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Bone Stimulated by in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020078 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
In China, a large amount of fish bones are produced during the processing of tuna cans production. For full use of those by-products, gelatin (STB-G) with a yield of 6.37 ± 0.64% was extracted from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) bone using [...] Read more.
In China, a large amount of fish bones are produced during the processing of tuna cans production. For full use of those by-products, gelatin (STB-G) with a yield of 6.37 ± 0.64% was extracted from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) bone using water at 60 °C for 8 h. Amino acid analysis showed that STB-G contained Gly (340.3 residues/1000 residues) as the major amino acid and its imino acid content was 177.3 residues/1000 residues. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum investigations confirmed that the physicochemical properties of STB-G were similar to those of type I collagen from skipjack tuna bone (STB-C), but partial high molecular weight components of STB-G were degraded during the extraction process, which induced that the gelatin was easier to be hydrolyzed by protease than mammalian gelatins and was suitable for preparation of hydrolysate. Therefore, STB-G was hydrolyzed under in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin-trypsin system) and five antioxidant peptides were purified from the resulted hydrolysate (STB-GH) and identified as GPDGR, GADIVA, GAPGPQMV, AGPK, and GAEGFIF, respectively. Among the gelatin hydrolysate, fractions, and isolated peptides, GADIVA and GAEGFIF exhibited the strongest scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (EC50 0.57 and 0.30 mg/mL), hydroxyl radical (EC50 0.25 and 0.32 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical (EC50 0.52 and 0.48 mg/mL), and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical (EC50 0.41 and 0.21 mg/mL). Moreover, GADIVA and GAEGFIF showed a high inhibiting ability on lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. The strong activities of five isolated peptides profited by their small molecular sizes and the antioxidant amino acid residues in their sequences. These results suggested that five isolated peptides (STP1–STP5), especially GADIVA and GAEGFIF, might serve as potential antioxidants applied in health food industries. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Marine Biomaterial-Based Bioinks for Generating 3D Printed Tissue Constructs
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120484 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Biologically active materials from marine sources have been receiving increasing attention as they are free from the transmissible diseases and religious restrictions associated with the use of mammalian resources. Among various other biomaterials from marine sources, alginate and fish gelatin (f-gelatin), with their [...] Read more.
Biologically active materials from marine sources have been receiving increasing attention as they are free from the transmissible diseases and religious restrictions associated with the use of mammalian resources. Among various other biomaterials from marine sources, alginate and fish gelatin (f-gelatin), with their inherent bioactivity and physicochemical tunability, have been studied extensively and applied in various biomedical fields such as regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and pharmaceutical products. In this study, by using alginate and f-gelatin’s chemical derivatives, we developed a marine-based interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel consisting of alginate and f-gelatin methacryloyl (f-GelMA) networks via physical and chemical crosslinking methods, respectively. We then evaluated their physical properties (mechanical strength, swelling degree, and degradation rate) and cell behavior in hydrogels. Our results showed that the alginate/f-GelMA hydrogel displayed unique physical properties compared to when alginate and f-GelMA were used separately. These properties included high mechanical strength, low swelling and degradation rate, and an increase in cell adhesive ability. Moreover, for the first time, we introduced and optimized the application of alginate/f-GelMA hydrogel in a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting system with high cell viability, which breaks the restriction of their utilization in tissue engineering applications and suggests that alginate/f-GelMA can be utilized as a novel bioink to broaden the uses of marine products in biomedical fields. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Antioxidant and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitory Activities of Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared from Extrusion-Pretreated Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Scale
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100346 - 22 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Fish gelatin hydrolysates have been shown to possess various biological activities due to their unique Gly-Pro-Y and Gly-X-Hyp sequences. In the current study, fish gelatin was extracted from non-extruded milkfish scale (FSG1) or extrusion-pretreated milkfish scale (FSG2); extracted gelatins were hydrolyzed with different [...] Read more.
Fish gelatin hydrolysates have been shown to possess various biological activities due to their unique Gly-Pro-Y and Gly-X-Hyp sequences. In the current study, fish gelatin was extracted from non-extruded milkfish scale (FSG1) or extrusion-pretreated milkfish scale (FSG2); extracted gelatins were hydrolyzed with different combinations of Flavourzyme and Alcalase to give four different hydrolysates, namely: FSGH1 (FSG1 hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme), FSGH2 (FSG1 hydrolyzed with Alcalase + Flavourzyme), FSGH3 (FSG2 hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme), and FSGH4 (FSG2 hydrolyzed with Alcalase + Flavourzyme). The extrusion-pretreatment process enhanced the extraction yield of gelatin from fish scale. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses showed the extracts FSG1 and FSG2 possessed characteristics of gelatin. Moreover, the physicochemical characteristics of FSGH1–FSGH4 were examined by analyses of their degree of hydrolysis, amino acid composition, UV spectrum, FTIR spectrum, molecular weight, and RP-HPLC profile. Additional biological functional analyses showed that all of the studied gelatin hydrolysates FSGH1–FSGH4 possessed antioxidant activity dose-dependently as revealed by DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging, and reducing power analyses. In addition, FSGH2 and FSGH4 showed higher angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity as compared to FSGH1 and FSGH3. Taken together, FSGH2 and FSGH4 showed high antioxidant activity and potent anti-ACE activity. Due to the potential antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of FSGH2 and FSGH4, further research is needed to explore their possible use as natural supplementary raw materials in food and nutraceutical products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Processing Optimization and Characterization of Angiotensin-Ι-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Lizardfish (Synodus macrops) Scale Gelatin
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070228 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Hypertension can cause coronary heart disease. Synthetic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are effective antihypertensive drugs but often cause side effects. The aim of this study was to prepare potential ACE inhibitors from scales. Gelatin was extracted from lizardfish scales. Then, scale gelatin was [...] Read more.
Hypertension can cause coronary heart disease. Synthetic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are effective antihypertensive drugs but often cause side effects. The aim of this study was to prepare potential ACE inhibitors from scales. Gelatin was extracted from lizardfish scales. Then, scale gelatin was enzymolyzed to prepare ACE inhibitory peptides using response surface methodology. Proteolytic conditions after optimization were as follows: pH 7.0, enzyme substrate ratio 3.2%, temperature 47 °C, and proteolysis lasting 2 h and 50 min. The experimental ACE inhibitory activity under optimal conditions was 86.0 ± 0.4%. Among the 118 peptides identified from gelatin hydrolysates, 87.3% were hydrophilic and 93.22% had a molecular weight <2000 Da. Gelatin peptides had high stability upon exposure to high temperature and pH as well as gastrointestinal tract enzymes. Gelatin peptides showed an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats at a dosage of 2 g/kg in the long-term experiments. A new ACE inhibitory peptide was isolated from gelatin hydrolysates, and was identified as AGPPGSDGQPGAK with an IC50 value of 420 ± 20 μM. In this way, ACE inhibitory peptides derived from scale gelatin have the potential to be used as healthy ACE-inhibiting drug raw materials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop