Special Issue "Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology"

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Research Group in Sports Biomechanics (GIBD), Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
2. Biophysics and Medical Physics Group, Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Interests: sports science; biomechanics; running biomechanics; cycling biomechanics; infrared thermography; exercise thermoregulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleague,

The purpose of this Special Issue is to show relevant works in sports science from the biomechanical and physiological perspective. Sports biomechanics can be defined as the science which explains human movements and how forces influence this movement. However, as we know, this definition is often more extended, for example in studying the interaction between the athlete, his or her equipment, and environment. Exercise physiology involves the functions and activities of organs, tissues, cells, chemical phenomena, etc. Both areas usually have the same objective in experimental studies: to improve performance and reduce injury risk. Therefore, although sometimes experimental studies focus their analyses in a specific methodology of one of these perspectives, they more often combine both sciences because their connection allows a better understanding of the research problem. We invite authors to submit papers with original results from research related to exercise biomechanics and physiology. Review manuscript and paper with contributions about methodologies and advances in the technology are also invited.

Prof. Dr. Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sports science
  • sport performance
  • injury biomechanics, human movement
  • kinematics
  • kinetics
  • sport medicine
  • neuromuscular activation
  • fatigue
  • external load
  • internal load
  • muscle damage
  • cardiovascular response
  • exercise metabolism
  • exercise thermoregulation
  • extreme environments

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology
Life 2021, 11(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020159 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Biomechanics was defined by Hatze in 1974 as the study of the movement of living things using the science of mechanics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Development of Sham Yoga Poses to Assess the Benefits of Yoga in Future Randomized Controlled Trial Studies
Life 2021, 11(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020130 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
Background: Although research has demonstrated the benefits of yoga to people who have been diagnosed with diabetes or at risk of diabetes, studies have not confirmed these effects can be ascribed to the specific features of the traditional postures, called asanas. Instead, the [...] Read more.
Background: Although research has demonstrated the benefits of yoga to people who have been diagnosed with diabetes or at risk of diabetes, studies have not confirmed these effects can be ascribed to the specific features of the traditional postures, called asanas. Instead, the effects of asanas could be ascribed to the increase in cardiovascular activity and expenditure of energy or to the expectation of health benefits. Therefore, to establish whether asanas are beneficial, researchers need to design a control condition in which participants complete activities, called sham poses, that are equivalent to traditional asanas in physical activity and expectation of benefits. Objectives: The aim of this research was to design an appropriate suite of sham poses and to demonstrate these poses and traditional asanas are equivalent in energy expenditure, cardiovascular response, and expectations of health benefits. Methods: Twenty healthy men at medium to high risk of developing diabetes volunteered to partake in the current study. These men completed two sessions that comprised traditional asanas and two sessions that comprised sham poses—poses that utilize the same muscle groups as the asanas and were assigned fictitious Sanskrit labels. Before and after each session, heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, triglycerides levels, and oxygen saturation were measured to gauge the intensity of exercise. After each session, using a standard measure, participants also indicated the degree to which they expected the poses to improve health. Results: The degree to which the sessions affected the physiological measures (for example, pre-exercise, the heart rate for yoga and sham was 71.06 ± 4.79 and 73.88 ± 6.05, respectively, and post-exercise, the heart rate was 70.19 ± 6.16 and 73 ± 7.55, respectively) and the expectations of health improvements did not differ between the traditional asanas and the sham poses. Likewise, the degree to which each session influenced these physiological measures was negligible in both conditions. Conclusions: This study developed a series of poses that elicit similar physiological and psychological effect as traditional yoga asanas. These poses can be used in an active control group in future randomized trial studies that are designed to assess the benefits of asanas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
β-Catenin Regulates Cardiac Energy Metabolism in Sedentary and Trained Mice
Life 2020, 10(12), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120357 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
The role of canonical Wnt signaling in metabolic regulation and development of physiological cardiac hypertrophy remains largely unknown. To explore the function of β-catenin in the regulation of cardiac metabolism and physiological cardiac hypertrophy development, we used mice heterozygous for cardiac-specific β-catenin knockout [...] Read more.
The role of canonical Wnt signaling in metabolic regulation and development of physiological cardiac hypertrophy remains largely unknown. To explore the function of β-catenin in the regulation of cardiac metabolism and physiological cardiac hypertrophy development, we used mice heterozygous for cardiac-specific β-catenin knockout that were subjected to a swimming training model. β-Catenin haploinsufficient mice subjected to endurance training displayed a decreased β-catenin transcriptional activity, attenuated cardiomyocytes hypertrophic growth, and enhanced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinase–Akt (Pi3K–Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2) signaling pathways compared to trained wild type mice. We further observed an increased level of proteins involved in glucose aerobic metabolism and β-oxidation along with perturbed activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes (OXPHOS) in trained β-catenin haploinsufficient mice. Taken together, Wnt/β-catenin signaling appears to govern metabolic regulatory programs, sustaining metabolic plasticity in adult hearts during the adaptation to endurance training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Time Course and Magnitude of Tolerance to the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine on the Second Ventilatory Threshold
Life 2020, 10(12), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120343 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Pre-exercise caffeine ingestion has been shown to increase the workload at ventilatory threshold, suggesting an ergogenic effect of this stimulant on submaximal aerobic exercise. However, the time course of tolerance to the effect of caffeine on ventilatory threshold is unknown. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Pre-exercise caffeine ingestion has been shown to increase the workload at ventilatory threshold, suggesting an ergogenic effect of this stimulant on submaximal aerobic exercise. However, the time course of tolerance to the effect of caffeine on ventilatory threshold is unknown. This study aimed to determine the evolution of tolerance to the ergogenic effect of caffeine on the ventilatory threshold. Methods: Eleven participants (age 32.3 ± 4.9 yrs, height 171 ± 8 cm, body mass 66.6 ± 13.6 kg, VO2max = 48.0 ± 3.8 mL/kg/min) took part in a longitudinal, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover experimental design. Each participant took part in two identical treatments: in one treatment, participants ingested a capsule containing 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass per day (mg/kg/day) for twenty consecutive days; in the other treatment, participants ingested a capsule filled with a placebo for the same duration and frequency. During these treatments, participants performed a maximal ramp test on a cycle ergometer three times per week and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was assessed by using the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Results: A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures (substance × time) revealed statistically significant main effects of caffeine (p < 0.01) and time (p = 0.04) on the wattage obtained at VT2, although there was no interaction (p = 0.09). In comparison to the placebo, caffeine increased the workload at VT2 on days 1, 4, 6 and 15 of ingestion (p < 0.05). The size of the ergogenic effect of caffeine over the placebo on the workload at VT2 was progressively reduced with the duration of the treatment. In addition, there were main effects of caffeine (p = 0.03) and time (p = 0.16) on VO2 obtained at VT2, with no interaction (p = 0.49). Specifically, caffeine increased oxygen uptake at VT2 on days 1 and 4 (p < 0.05), with no other caffeine–placebo differences afterwards. For heart rate obtained at VT2, there was a main effect of substance (p < 0.01), while the overall effect of time (p = 0.13) and the interaction (p = 0.22) did not reach statistical significance. Heart rate at VT2 was higher with caffeine than with the placebo on days 1 and 4 (p < 0.05). The size of the effect of caffeine on VO2 and heart at VT2 tended to decline over time. Conclusion: Pre-exercise intake of 3 mg/kg/day of caffeine for twenty days enhanced the wattage obtained at VT2 during cycling ramp tests for ~15 days of ingestion, while there was a progressive attenuation of the size of the ergogenic effect of caffeine on this performance variable. Therefore, habituation to caffeine through daily ingestion may reduce the ergogenic effect of this stimulant on aerobic exercise of submaximal intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Influence of Artificial Turf Surface Stiffness on Athlete Performance
Life 2020, 10(12), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10120340 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Properties of conventional playing surfaces have been investigated for many years and the stiffness of the surface has potential to influence athletic performance. However, despite the proliferation of different infilled artificial turfs with varying properties, the effect of surface stiffness of these types [...] Read more.
Properties of conventional playing surfaces have been investigated for many years and the stiffness of the surface has potential to influence athletic performance. However, despite the proliferation of different infilled artificial turfs with varying properties, the effect of surface stiffness of these types of surfaces on athlete performance remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to determine the influence of surface stiffness of artificial turf systems on athlete performance. Seventeen male athletes performed four movements (running, 5-10-5 agility, vertical jumping and sprinting) on five surfaces of varying stiffness: Softest (−50%), Softer (−34%), Soft (−16%), Control, Stiff (+17%). Performance metrics (running economy, jump height, sprint/agility time) and kinematic data were recorded during each movement and participants performed a subjective evaluation of the surface. When compared to the Control surface, performance was significantly improved during running (Softer, Soft), the agility drill (Softest) and vertical jumping (Soft). Subjectively, participants could not discern between any of the softer surfaces in terms of surface cushioning, however, the stiffer surface was rated as harder and less comfortable. Overall, changes in surface stiffness altered athletic performance and, to a lesser extent, subjective assessments of performance, with changes in performance being surface and movement specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Mouthguard Use Effect on the Biomechanical Response of an Ankylosed Maxillary Central Incisor during a Traumatic Impact: A 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Life 2020, 10(11), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110294 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
(1) Background: Trauma is a very common experience in contact sports; however, there is an absence of data regarding the effect of athletes wearing mouthguards (MG) associated with ankylosed maxillary central incisor during a traumatic impact. (2) Methods: To evaluate the stress distribution [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Trauma is a very common experience in contact sports; however, there is an absence of data regarding the effect of athletes wearing mouthguards (MG) associated with ankylosed maxillary central incisor during a traumatic impact. (2) Methods: To evaluate the stress distribution in the bone and teeth in this situation, models of maxillary central incisor were created containing cortical bone, trabecular bone, soft tissue, root dentin, enamel, periodontal ligament, and antagonist teeth were modeled. One model received a MG with 4-mm thickness. Both models were subdivided into finite elements. The frictionless contacts were used and a nonlinear dynamic impact analysis was performed in which a rigid object hit the model at 1 m·s−1. For each model, an ankylosed periodontal ligament was simulated totaling 4 different situations. The results were presented in von-Mises stress maps. (3) Results: A higher stress concentration in teeth and bone was observed for the model without a MG and with ankylosed tooth (19.5 and 37.3 MPa, respectively); the most promising mechanical response was calculated for patients with healthy periodontal ligament and MG in position (1.8 and 7.8 MPa, respectively). (4) Conclusions: The MG’s use is beneficial for healthy and ankylosed teeth, since it acts by dampening the generated stresses in bone, dentin, enamel and periodontal ligament. However, patients with ankylosed tooth are more prone to root fracture even when the MG is in position compared to a healthy tooth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Kinematics and Kinetics of Bulgarian-Bag-Overloaded Sprints in Young Athletes
Life 2020, 10(11), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110282 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Background: Effective sprinting requires large acceleration capabilities. To accelerate, large amount of force must be produced and applied effectively. The use of different implements such as sleds and vests can increase the amount of force produced and alter sprinting effectiveness. We propose the [...] Read more.
Background: Effective sprinting requires large acceleration capabilities. To accelerate, large amount of force must be produced and applied effectively. The use of different implements such as sleds and vests can increase the amount of force produced and alter sprinting effectiveness. We propose the use of increasing overload via the Bulgarian Bag (BB) as a means to modify athletes’ sprint and acutely increase force and power production. Methods: 24 young athletes performed three sprints over 20 m in three different conditions: unloaded (BW) and loaded with BB weighing 2.5% (BB2.5) and 5% (BB5) of the athlete’s body mass. Sprint times at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 m were acquired and used to compute the force–velocity relationship for the sprints. Maximal velocity (V0), peak force (F0), peak power (PP), and decrease in ratio of force (DRF) were computed. Results: the additional load caused a decrease in sprint times (p < 0.05) and V0 (p = 0.028), conversely no differences were found for F0 (p = 0.21), PP (p = 0.50), and DRF (p = 0.83). Conclusions: Based on those findings, BB can be an alternative method to effectively overload sprint training toward improving sprinting performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Changes in the Plantar Flexion Torque of the Ankle and in the Morphological Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of the Achilles Tendon after 12-Week Gait Retraining
Life 2020, 10(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10090159 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Purpose: Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the largest and strongest tendon, it remains one of the most vulnerable tendons among elite and recreational runners. The present study aims to explore the effects of 12-week gait retraining (GR) on the plantar flexion torque [...] Read more.
Purpose: Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the largest and strongest tendon, it remains one of the most vulnerable tendons among elite and recreational runners. The present study aims to explore the effects of 12-week gait retraining (GR) on the plantar flexion torque of the ankle and the morphological and mechanical properties of the AT. Methods: Thirty-four healthy male recreational runners (habitual rearfoot strikers) who never tried to run in minimal shoes were recruited, and the intervention was completed (20 in the GR group vs. 14 in the control (CON) group). The participants in the GR group were asked to run in minimal shoes (INOV-8 BARE-XF 210) provided by the investigators with forefoot strike patterns during the progressive 12-week GR. Meanwhile, the participants in the CON group were instructed to run in their own running shoes, which they were familiar with, with original foot strike patterns and intensities. The morphological properties of the AT, namely, length and cross-sectional area (CSA), were obtained by using an ultrasound device. A dynamometer was utilized simultaneously to measure and calculate the plantar flexion torque of the ankle, the rate of torque development, the peak force of the AT, and the stress and strain of the AT. Results: After 12-week GR, the following results were obtained: (1) A significant time effect in the peak ankle plantarflexion torque was observed (p = 0.005), showing a 27.5% increase in the GR group; (2) A significant group effect in the CSA was observed (p = 0.027), specifically, the increase in CSA was significantly larger in the GR group than the CON group; (3) A significant time effect in the peak AT force was observed (p = 0.005), showing a 27.5% increase in the GR group. Conclusion: The effect of 12 weeks of GR is an increase in AT CSA, plantar flexor muscle strength of the ankle, and peak AT force during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction test. These changes in AT morphology and function could be positive for tendon health and could prevent future AT injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep Quality in Adults with Primary Hypertension and Obesity before and after an Aerobic Exercise Program: EXERDIET-HTA Study
Life 2020, 10(8), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10080153 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Background: The purposes of the study were to: analyze, by objective (accelerometry) and subjective (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ) methodologies, the physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in healthy adults (HEALTHY, n = 30) and individuals with primary hypertension (HTN) and overweight/obesity [...] Read more.
Background: The purposes of the study were to: analyze, by objective (accelerometry) and subjective (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ) methodologies, the physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in healthy adults (HEALTHY, n = 30) and individuals with primary hypertension (HTN) and overweight/obesity (n = 218); assess the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep quality in the HTN group; and evaluate the relationship between objectively measured and subjectively reported PA and SB. Methods: The measurements were performed before a 16-week exercise intervention period in both HEALTHY and HTN groups and after the intervention period only in the HTN group, randomized to attention control or exercise training (ExT) subgroups. Results: The HEALTHY group showed more moderate-to-vigorous PA (p < 0.05) and better sleep quality (p < 0.05) than the HTN group, but no difference in SB. After the intervention, HTN participants’ PA and SB, objectively measured by accelerometry, were unchanged, but increased PA and decreased SB (p < 0.05) were observed through IPAQ in ExT. The intervention was effective in improving sleep quality in HTN participants. Conclusions: The differences in moderate-to-vigorous PA and SB may be useful in defining the health profile of a population. The supervised aerobic exercise program was effective in increasing PA, reducing SB, and improving sleep quality in overweight/obese adults with HTN. Accelerometer-measured and self-reported data were not comparable, but complementary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Effect of a Single Session of Tai Chi Chuan Practice on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Related Hormones
Life 2020, 10(8), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10080145 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Background: To examine the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice on glucose and lipid metabolism and related hormones in TCC practitioners. Methods: Twenty-one TCC practitioners and nineteen healthy controls were included in this study. Classical Yang’s TCC was practiced by the TCC [...] Read more.
Background: To examine the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice on glucose and lipid metabolism and related hormones in TCC practitioners. Methods: Twenty-one TCC practitioners and nineteen healthy controls were included in this study. Classical Yang’s TCC was practiced by the TCC practitioners. The percentage changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), serum glucose (SG), serum insulin, serum insulin level, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), log(HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) before and 30 min after resting or TCC practice were compared between healthy controls and TCC practitioners. Results: Before TCC or resting, the serum insulin level, HOMA-IR, and log(HOMA-IR) of the TCC practitioners were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects, whereas the QUICKI of the TCC practitioners was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects. Thirty min after TCC practice, the %TC, %HDL-C, %QUICKI, and %ET-1 were all significantly decreased, whereas the %SG, %serum insulin, and %HOMA-IR were significantly increased in the TCC group as compared to the control group 30 min after resting. Conclusions: The serum glucose, insulin level and insulin resistance were enhanced, whereas the cholesterol, HDL-C and ET-1 levels were reduced 30 min after TCC practice. The mechanism underlying these effects of TCC 30 min after TCC is not clear yet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Effects of Kinesiology Taping on Shoulder Posture and Peak Torque in Junior Baseball Players with Rounded Shoulder Posture: A Pilot Study
Life 2020, 10(8), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10080139 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Rounded shoulder posture (RSP) causes an imbalance of the adjacent joints due to the malalignment of the shoulder joint, and thus affects the strength of the muscles surrounding the shoulder. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rounded shoulder taping (RST) on [...] Read more.
Rounded shoulder posture (RSP) causes an imbalance of the adjacent joints due to the malalignment of the shoulder joint, and thus affects the strength of the muscles surrounding the shoulder. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rounded shoulder taping (RST) on shoulder posture and muscle strength in junior baseball players. Nineteen junior baseball players participated in the study, which used a crossover design at an interval of 1 week. The participants were randomized to receive rounded shoulder taping (RST) and sham kinesiology taping (SKT) using kinesiology tape. RSP was measured using two 12-inch combination squares, and shoulder peak torques were measured by isokinetic equipment. The results showed that RST led to significant changes in RSP (p < 0.05), but no significant changes were observed with SKT (p < 0.05). RST led to significant changes in the peak torques of external rotation and internal rotation of the shoulder (p < 0.05), but no significant changes were observed with SKT (p < 0.05). These results suggest that RST could help to correct RSP and improve peak torque of external and internal rotation of the shoulders of junior baseball players with RSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Article
Muscular Strength Imbalances Are not Associated with Skin Temperature Asymmetries in Soccer Players
Life 2020, 10(7), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10070102 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Although strength imbalances using isokinetic dynamometer have been examined for injury risk screening in soccer players, it is very expensive and time-consuming, making the evaluation of new methods appealing. The aim of the study was to analyze the agreement between muscular strength imbalances [...] Read more.
Although strength imbalances using isokinetic dynamometer have been examined for injury risk screening in soccer players, it is very expensive and time-consuming, making the evaluation of new methods appealing. The aim of the study was to analyze the agreement between muscular strength imbalances and skin temperature bilateral asymmetries as well as skin temperature differences in the hamstrings and quadriceps. The skin temperature of the anterior and posterior thigh of 59 healthy male soccer athletes was assessed at baseline using infrared thermography for the identification of hamstrings-quadriceps skin temperature differences and thermal asymmetries (>0.5 °C). Subsequently, concentric and eccentric peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings were considered in the determination of the ratios, as well as muscular asymmetries (>15%). When considering the torque parameters, 37.3% (n = 22) of the players would be classified as high risk for injuries. The percentage of those presenting skin temperature imbalances superior to 0.5 °C was 52.5% (n = 31). The skin temperature assessment showed sensitivity (22%) and specificity (32.2%) to identify torque asymmetries, demonstrating the inability to identify false negatives (15.3%) and false positives (30.5%) from all soccer athletes. In conclusion, skin temperature differences between hamstrings and quadriceps could be more related to thermoregulatory factors than strength imbalances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Resistance Exercise on Balance Ability: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Life 2020, 10(11), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110284 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
With this systematic review, we explored whether resistance exercise (RE) could be used to improve balance in addition to muscular strength and power. Scientific databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of RE on the performance of various balance [...] Read more.
With this systematic review, we explored whether resistance exercise (RE) could be used to improve balance in addition to muscular strength and power. Scientific databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of RE on the performance of various balance tests. Studies were considered if they involved healthy participants of any age group. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed moderate to large improvements in balance ability following RE in older adults, as reflected in functional reach test (mean difference (MD): +4.22 cm, p < 0.001), single-leg standing test (MD: +1.9–37.6 s, p < 0.001) and timed-up-and-go test (MD: −0.55 s; p = 0.002). Moderate to large improvements following RE were seen in adults in star excursion balance test (MD: +4.09–5.17 cm; p = 0.001–0.020), but not for Y-balance test score (MD: +4.94%, p = 0.14). The results implicate that RE interventions may significantly improve balance ability in adults and older adults. Therefore, RE could be used to improve balance in these populations, while further studies are needed to investigate children populations. Performing RE alone could be a time-efficient compromise for individuals who are unwilling or unable to perform large volumes of exercise or different exercise modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Biomechanics and Physiology)
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