Vitamin D in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3065

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Rheumatology, St. Paul’s Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: rheumatoid arthritis; tumour necrosis factor; fatty acids; treatment
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Guest Editor
Asclepeion Hospital, Athens, Greece
Interests: rheumatoid arthritis; diabetes mellitus; oncology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamin D is a hormone with multiple actions and potent immunomodulatory properties, as it may enhance the innate immune response and may modulate the adaptive immune response. Vitamin D deficiency has been observed in various autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic sclerosis. Vitamin D may be a useful addition in the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis as it may modulate the autoimmune process involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Vitamin D administration may also be useful in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus. Vitamin D may enhance the innate immune response and may be helpful in the fight against infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency has been related to the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its administration may be a useful addition in the armamentarium against this disease.

In this Special Issue, all articles related to vitamin D, its immunomodulatory properties, and its relationship with autoimmune and infectious diseases are welcome.

Dr. Panagiotis Athanassiou
Dr. Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou
Prof. Dr. Yehuda Shoenfeld
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • vitamin D
  • autoimmunity
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • systemic sclerosis
  • infectious agents
  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 460 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Analysis of Vitamin D Deficiency in an Adult Population of Arad County, Western Romania (2019–2022)
by Daniela Teodora Marti, Alexandru Nesiu, Cornel Balta, Tudor Rares Olariu, Alin Gabriel Mihu, Anca Hermenean and Daniela Adriana Oatis
Life 2024, 14(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020274 - 18 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Vitamin D, a steroid hormone synthesized primarily in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet light, is widely deficient across global populations. This study aimed to fill the data gap in Western Romania by measuring 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in a cohort of 7141 from [...] Read more.
Vitamin D, a steroid hormone synthesized primarily in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet light, is widely deficient across global populations. This study aimed to fill the data gap in Western Romania by measuring 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in a cohort of 7141 from Arad County. It was observed that women, younger adults (18–29 years), and older adults (70–79 years) had notably lower vitamin D levels compared to the average population. Additionally, there was a rise in vitamin D levels over the four-year span of 2018–2022, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our research provides fresh data on those most susceptible to vitamin D deficiency and lays the groundwork for educational campaigns on vitamin D supplementation benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 1709 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Levels as a Marker of Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Lambros Athanassiou, Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Sofia Nikolakopoulou, Alexandra Konstantinou, Olga Mascha, Evangelos Siarkos, Charilaos Samaras, Panagiotis Athanassiou and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Life 2024, 14(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020210 - 31 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 virus may cause severe infection, which is associated with diverse clinical manifestations. Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties and may enhance the body’s defense system against invading pathogenic organisms. The aim was to assess 25(OH)D3 levels in patients hospitalized for severe [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus may cause severe infection, which is associated with diverse clinical manifestations. Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties and may enhance the body’s defense system against invading pathogenic organisms. The aim was to assess 25(OH)D3 levels in patients hospitalized for severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and explore the relationship between 25(OH)D3 and outcomes. In a group of 88 patients hospitalized for severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and a control group matched for age and sex, the levels of 25(OH)D3 were analyzed. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were 17.36 ± 8.80 ng/mL (mean ± SD) compared with 24.34 ± 10.34 ng/mL in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and the control group, respectively, p < 0.001 (Student’s t-test). 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly related to outcomes, i.e., survival as opposed to non-survival, as more patients with 25(OH)D3 deficiency (0–10 ng/mL) and insufficiency (10–20 ng/mL) had a fatal outcome as compared with those with vitamin D sufficiency (p < 0.001, chi-square test, p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Levels of 25(OH)D3 were inversely related to C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, d-dimer, and fibrinogen levels (p < 0.001, linear regression analysis, beta coefficient of variation, −0.176, −0.160, −0.178, and −0.158, respectively). Vitamin D deficiency observed in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was related to disease outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases)
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Review

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10 pages, 552 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Vitamin D on Immune Function and Its Role in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: A Narrative Review
by Michela Soda, Claudia Priante, Ciro Pesce, Giovanni De Maio and Mauro Lombardo
Life 2024, 14(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14060771 - 17 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Vitamin D, an essential nutrient, plays a crucial role in numerous biological functions, acting as a hormone and being important for the proper functioning of the immune system. This review illustrates the interactions between adequate vitamin D levels and an appropriate immune response, [...] Read more.
Vitamin D, an essential nutrient, plays a crucial role in numerous biological functions, acting as a hormone and being important for the proper functioning of the immune system. This review illustrates the interactions between adequate vitamin D levels and an appropriate immune response, highlighting the implications for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), a chronic inflammation of the thyroid characterized by the production of autoantibodies. A comprehensive review of the existing literature shows that vitamin D inhibits the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an improvement in the clinical picture in HT by switching from a pro-inflammatory to immune balance. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce elevated serum levels of thyroid peroxidase antibodies, a key marker of HT. Although the results are conflicting, the evidence suggests that an adequate vitamin D intake supports the immune function and counteracts autoimmune conditions such as HT by improving their symptoms. There is evidence of vitamin D’s key role in supporting the immune system function and managing autoimmunity, such as in HT. An adequate vitamin D intake is crucial for improving the clinical picture and the symptoms of HT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases)
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