Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Land Planning and Landscape Architecture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 December 2023) | Viewed by 50131

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Forest Science and Ecology, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas District, LT-53361 Akademija, Lithuania
Interests: forest management; wood production; biodiversity conservation; spatial planning; forest disturbances; historic and current landscape development; ecosystem services and human well-being

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Guest Editor
1. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 43, SE 73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden
2. Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, N-2480 Koppang, Norway
Interests: forest governance; sustainable forest management; social–ecological systems; natural forest dynamics; spatial planning; biodiversity conservation

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Geography and Geology, Dept. of Geography, Alexandru Ioan Cuza Univ. of Iaşi, Bd. Carol I 20A, 700506 Iaşi, Romania
Interests: forest dynamics; forest conservation; spatial analysis applied in forest management; GIS; multi-criteria analysis; vulnerability assessments; seismic vulnerability

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Guest Editor
Department of Ecology and Biomonitoring, Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynskyi Street, 58012 Chernivtsi, Ukraine
Interests: biodiversity conservation; ecosystem services; forest management traditions; honey bees; adaptive monitoring

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you be part of this Special Issue.

Around the world, forest landscapes provide multiple ecosystem services that are essential for human wellbeing and welfare, and they form the habitats for a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species. Unfortunately, forest management strategies focusing on the maximum sustained yield of wood have compromised the patterns and processes of naturally dynamic forest ecosystems. In response, forest policies and novel management strategies call for the development of planning and management approaches toward sustainable forest management. Sustainable forest management is defined as the “stewardship and use of forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems” (MCPFE 1993; Montreal Process 2009; European Commission 2021). This means that wood production should operate within the borders of resilient ecosystems and their biodiversity. However, to do this requires the development of “close-to-nature” forest governance and management. This includes the identification of key indicators and thresholds that can be used to assess progress towards sustainable forest management and landscape planning.

At present, forestry is hotly debated among stakeholders and actors. This Special Issue aims at publishing innovative research that supports sustainable forest management and landscape planning in different parts of the cycle of policy creation, implementation, management, and assessment of progress. We welcome research that includes local case studies, international comparisons, and transdisciplinary studies of relevance for sustainable forest management and landscape planning.

In this Special Issue, we welcome original research articles and reviews that focus on innovative research that supports sustainable forest management and landscape planning.

We look forward to receiving your contributions. 

Dr. Michael Manton
Prof. Dr. Per Angelstam
Dr. Andra-Cosmina Albulescu
Prof. Dr. Mariia Fedoriak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • close to nature forestry
  • function
  • structure
  • successional dynamics
  • biodiversity
  • sustainable forest management
  • monitoring
  • forest history, pattern and process
  • spatial planning
  • landscape planning

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 6158 KiB  
Article
Composition of the Anuran Community in a Forest Management Area in Southeastern Amazonia
by Fabrício Otávio do Nascimento Pereira, Graciliano Galdino Alves dos Santos, Anderson Borges Serra, Cleuton Lima Miranda, Guilherme da Silva Araújo and Emil José Hernández Ruz
Land 2023, 12(7), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071437 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Forest management strategies often compromised the patterns and processes of the naturally dynamic forest ecosystems. As species occurrence and diversity are directly associated with ecological and environment factors, this study evaluated the effect of low-impact forest management on the structure of the anuran [...] Read more.
Forest management strategies often compromised the patterns and processes of the naturally dynamic forest ecosystems. As species occurrence and diversity are directly associated with ecological and environment factors, this study evaluated the effect of low-impact forest management on the structure of the anuran community, considering the effects of the environment types generated by the management and the post-exploitation time in the Fazenda Uberlândia, southeastern Amazonia (Portel, Pará, Brazil). Field data were collected in the period of the highest rainfall in the region (February to March 2021) by sampling 84 linear transects (25 m each) at a minimum distance of 500 m between them. The time elapsed since logging that took place in the study sites varied from 2 to 17 years. We analyzed an area without forest management (used as a control) and three environment types formed by logging activities: secondary roads, skid trails, and storage yard. Our results showed no differences in species richness, abundance, and composition of the anuran community with respect to time since exploitation. Meanwhile, we found significant differences across different environment types, suggesting that the observed pattern of richness and abundance may benefit the assembly of anurans in the short term. Still, over a longer period, it may have a homogenizing effect, gradually modifying the anurofauna assemblage in managed areas to favor species adapted to more open environments, resulting in damage to the local diversity of anurans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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24 pages, 2925 KiB  
Article
Attitudes toward Conservation of the Transboundary Białowieża Forest among Ecotourism Businesses in Poland and Belarus
by Marek Giergiczny, Sviataslau Valasiuk, Mikita Yakubouski, Mikołaj Kowalewski, Jędrzej Maskiewicz and Per Angelstam
Land 2023, 12(6), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061150 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
The Białowieża Forest is a contested transboundary forest massif in Poland and Belarus. Reflecting on transitions from value chains built on sustained yield forestry to ecotourism, we pioneer documentation of how country-specific legacies shape preferences toward increased forest protection at the expense of [...] Read more.
The Białowieża Forest is a contested transboundary forest massif in Poland and Belarus. Reflecting on transitions from value chains built on sustained yield forestry to ecotourism, we pioneer documentation of how country-specific legacies shape preferences toward increased forest protection at the expense of wood production. For both countries, we used a quantitative ordered logit model based on questionnaires to Polish and Belarusian ecotourism business owners to, for the first time, empirically study drivers of their preferences toward different Białowieża Forest values, and we used qualitative data to identify attitudes toward the expansion of protected areas in the Białowieża Forest. Whilst Belarusian ecotourism business owners supported increased area protection, the opposite was true for their Polish counterparts. The proportion of foreign guests co-varied with support toward increased area protection. Conversely, local origin, size of hospitality business, and role of foresters as customers decreased interest in area protection. The qualitative data revealed that narratives against extended area protection were spread in Poland but not in Belarus. The conflict over the conservation of the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest involves actors and stakeholders with competing interests. A solution is that this remnant massif of the once widespread European temperate lowland forest becomes subject to a regional planning and zoning perspective. Encouraging multiple value chains and evidence-based collaborative learning are key components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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58 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Challenges and Solutions for Forest Biodiversity Conservation in Sweden: Assessment of Policy, Implementation Outputs, and Consequences
by Per Angelstam, Terrence Bush and Michael Manton
Land 2023, 12(5), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12051098 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6183
Abstract
Swedish policies aim at conserving biological production, biodiversity, cultural heritage and recreational assets. This requires compositionally and structurally functional networks of representative habitats, the processes that maintain them, and resilient ecosystems. The term green infrastructure (GI) captures this. We review (1) policy concerning [...] Read more.
Swedish policies aim at conserving biological production, biodiversity, cultural heritage and recreational assets. This requires compositionally and structurally functional networks of representative habitats, the processes that maintain them, and resilient ecosystems. The term green infrastructure (GI) captures this. We review (1) policy concerning forest biodiversity conservation from the 1990s; (2) the implementation outputs, including the formulation of short-term and evidence-based long-term goals for protected areas, education, and the development of hierarchical spatial planning; (3) the consequences in terms of formally protected and voluntarily set-aside forest stands, as well as conservation management and habitat restoration. We assess the successes and failures regarding policy, outputs and consequences, discuss challenges to be addressed, and suggest solutions. Policies capture evidence-based knowledge about biodiversity, and evidence-based conservation planning as an output. However, the desired consequences are not met on the ground. Thus, the amount of formally protected and voluntary set-aside forests are presently too low, and have limited quality and poor functional connectivity. GI functionality is even declining because of forestry intensification, and insufficient conservation. Challenges include limited collaborative learning among forest and conservation planners, poor funding to conserve forest habitats with sufficient size, quality and connectivity, and national politics that ignores evidence-based knowledge. As solutions, we highlight the need for diversification of forest management systems with a landscape perspective that matches forest owner objectives and regional social-ecological contexts. This requires integrative approaches to knowledge production, learning and spatial planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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12 pages, 5780 KiB  
Article
Census and Dynamics of Trees Outside Forests in Central Italy: Changes, Net Balance and Implications on the Landscape
by Marco Ottaviano and Marco Marchetti
Land 2023, 12(5), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12051013 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 966
Abstract
Trees outside forests (TOFs) are important landscape features that provide numerous functions (ecosystem services) that are not valued due to a lack of knowledge about these resources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by the anthropogenic land use [...] Read more.
Trees outside forests (TOFs) are important landscape features that provide numerous functions (ecosystem services) that are not valued due to a lack of knowledge about these resources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by the anthropogenic land use change in relation to their effects on TOFs. The dynamics of TOFs were examined through detailed photointerpretation mapping and characterization by land use/land cover and other environmental variables. The landscape function of TOFs and relative dynamics were analyzed, revealing landscape simplification due to the loss of TOFs, both in number and area, and a relative loss of connectivity. In 2000, TOFs accounted for 2.6% more forest area than mapped in the regional forest map; in fifteen years, about 30% of the total area has been lost, one-third of which has been converted to forest and the remainder permanently lost. The causes of the loss of TOFs are partly due to the abandonment of agricultural land, but also to the actions of farmers who remove these elements for various reasons. In protected areas (Natura 2000 network), the loss is less due to the different characteristics of land use/cover and land management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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21 pages, 2273 KiB  
Article
Periphery and Integrated Planning: Coping with Rural and Touristic Challenges across Scales in the German Wadden Sea Region
by Nora Mehnen, Ingo Mose, Peter Schaal, Frans Sijtsma, José Muñoz-Rojas, Mariia Fedoriak and Per Angelstam
Land 2023, 12(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040904 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Rural landscapes face multiple challenges, but they can be attractive for developing nature-based tourism. Encouraging place-based participatory governance in local communities represents a relevant transdisciplinary landscape approach. In this study, we map (1) rural and touristic challenges and (2) coping strategies in peripheral–rural [...] Read more.
Rural landscapes face multiple challenges, but they can be attractive for developing nature-based tourism. Encouraging place-based participatory governance in local communities represents a relevant transdisciplinary landscape approach. In this study, we map (1) rural and touristic challenges and (2) coping strategies in peripheral–rural municipalities, and we (3) discuss the need for integration of local and regional-level actions. Two island and two mainland municipalities with different demographic profiles and different degrees of touristic specialization in the German Wadden Sea Region were selected as case studies. Through meetings and interviews we mapped perceived challenges and analyzed policies and other coping strategies. We then discuss the need for integration at multiple scales. Island municipalities were more exposed to tourism development challenges than mainland municipalities. Securing public services and welfare, and the sustainable conservation of ecological green infrastructures were particularly challenging. Applying a participatory approach was a coping strategy at the local level. However, there is a need for activities at multiple scales. In coping with rural development challenges, local level participatory approaches and regional planning complement each other. Combination and integration of local and regional-level concepts should be encouraged to support collaborative learning through evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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28 pages, 6833 KiB  
Article
Legal Risk in the Management of Forest Cover in a River Basin San Juan, Cuba
by R. Y. Alarcón Borges, Ofelia Pérez Montero, Rogelio García Tejera, María Teresa Durand Silveira, José Celeiro Montoya, Dayniel Hernández Mestre, Jorge Mesa Vazquez, Carlos Mestanza-Ramon, Diego Hernandez-Guzmán and Celene B. Milanes
Land 2023, 12(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040842 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
The protection of forest cover in Cuba is a state priority. It is part of the state plan to deal with climate change. The purpose of this paper is to assess the legal risks associated with the protection of forest cover, which is [...] Read more.
The protection of forest cover in Cuba is a state priority. It is part of the state plan to deal with climate change. The purpose of this paper is to assess the legal risks associated with the protection of forest cover, which is essential to ensure the sustainability of hydrological watershed management in Cuba. The qualitative method of social research was followed. Techniques of content analysis, semi-structured interviews, and legal exegetics were applied. Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were also used to triangulate data and results. This article provided a robust analytical framework for generating innovative laws for land planning through a three-phase methodological design associated with configuring, interpreting, and applying tools for stopping deforestation processes based on watershed management. As a result, it was demonstrated that limitations reveal a deficient legal application with risk in the river basin, and a significant causal relationship between institutions and communities. Furthermore, the study indicated that although there are legal norms that regulate the protection of forest cover in the studied basin, its vulnerabilities generate uncertainty about the foreseeable results in management of forest cover. It is recommended that the Provincial Council of Hydrographic Basins include the design of legal risk indicators for forest cover management into the sub-plan for forest area increase. These recommendations constitute a set of related actions to improve the sustainability of the above-mentioned management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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22 pages, 5466 KiB  
Article
Agricultural Intensification Reduces the Portfolio of Wetland Ecosystem Services: European Danube River Lowlands as a Global Biodiversity Hotspot
by Tudor Racoviceanu, Constantin Cazacu, Mihai Adamescu, Relu Giucă, Magdalena Bucur, Mariia Fedoriak and Per Angelstam
Land 2023, 12(3), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030722 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Anthropogenic landscape transformations have promoted the provision of ecosystem services (ES) at the expense of other ES, biodiversity, and human well-being. We analysed the transformation portfolios of ES provisions, the costs of transformation, and the rivalry between ES categories and biodiversity conservation during [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic landscape transformations have promoted the provision of ecosystem services (ES) at the expense of other ES, biodiversity, and human well-being. We analysed the transformation portfolios of ES provisions, the costs of transformation, and the rivalry between ES categories and biodiversity conservation during the pre-communist and communist eras. We also examined EU influences in Romania’s Danube River lowlands. The environmental history of social-ecological systems was used to: (1) map transformations of natural environments; (2) analyse the outputs of human modes of production, including crops, fish, timber, and livestock, using economic valuation methods and by appropriating the primary means of production; and (3) describe ideologies and values as drivers of ES transformations. During the communist era, the surface area of the agricultural land increased at the expense of natural ecosystems. This resulted in increased provisions being made for crops and timber at the expense of the fish supply; it also caused a reduction in livestock. The costs of land reclamation, hydrotechnical works, and the use of fertilizers and pesticides, resulted in a net annual loss of EUR 36 million for the entire case study area, disregarding the losses of other ES. Achieving a balanced portfolio of ES requires a discussion about the need for nature restoration, transdisciplinary social-ecological research, and the identification of key leverage points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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19 pages, 8184 KiB  
Communication
Forest Biodiversity Declines and Extinctions Linked with Forest Degradation: A Case Study from Australian Tall, Wet Forests
by David B. Lindenmayer
Land 2023, 12(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030528 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Tens of thousands of species are at risk of extinction globally. In many ecosystems, species declines are associated with deforestation. However, forest degradation also can profoundly affect biodiversity. I present a detailed case study of species declines associated with forest degradation in southeastern [...] Read more.
Tens of thousands of species are at risk of extinction globally. In many ecosystems, species declines are associated with deforestation. However, forest degradation also can profoundly affect biodiversity. I present a detailed case study of species declines associated with forest degradation in southeastern Australia’s montane ash (Eucalyptus spp.) forests. The case study is based on ~40 years of long-term monitoring focused on declines (and potential extinction trajectories) of arboreal marsupials and birds, with a particular emphasis on key drivers, especially logging, wildfire, habitat loss, climate change, and interactions among these drivers. I discuss policy failures contributing to species declines, including ongoing logging of high-conservation-value forests, poor regulation of forest management, and inadequate design of reserves. I conclude with general lessons for better conservation and forest management efforts aimed at reducing forest degradation and loss of ecosystem integrity. I contend that ongoing logging in already highly degraded montane ash forests is inconsistent with the Australian government’s commitment at the Glasgow COP26 meeting in 2021 on halting forest degradation. Similarly, the Australian Government has committed to preventing further extinctions in Australia, yet its current support for ongoing logging in montane ash forests through federal–state legislation will likely promote extinctions for some species. The inherent conflicts and contradictions between conservation and logging policies need to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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19 pages, 3449 KiB  
Article
Ecological Sustainability at the Forest Landscape Level: A Bird Assemblage Perspective
by Asko Lõhmus
Land 2022, 11(11), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11111965 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Maintaining landscape integrity in terms of ecological functions is a key principle of sustainable forest management. Bird assemblages use all parts of forest landscapes and provide an opportunity to analyze their broad-scale integrity in those regions where bird census data are of sufficient [...] Read more.
Maintaining landscape integrity in terms of ecological functions is a key principle of sustainable forest management. Bird assemblages use all parts of forest landscapes and provide an opportunity to analyze their broad-scale integrity in those regions where bird census data are of sufficient quality and detail. In this study, I modelled likely landscape-composition consequences of different scenarios of even-aged (clear-cutting-based) silviculture on breeding-bird assemblages. The models were parameterized using high-quality territory-mapping data from Estonia. I considered three approaches for obtaining the model parameters. Of these, (i) a formal analysis of rank-abundance curves was rejected due to the inconsistency of the curve shapes among habitat types. Two other approaches were used and complemented each other: (ii) smoothed forest-type specific functions of total assemblage densities along post-clear-cut succession, and (iii) empirical average densities of each species by forest type and age class (for species composition analyses). The modelling revealed a parallel loss of bird densities and, to a lesser extent, of species at shorter rotations; currently, this effect is disproportionately large on productive soils. For conserving the productive hotspots, the 30% protection target of the EU Biodiversity Strategy overperformed other scenarios. In all landscape settings, typologically representative old-forest reserves (even artificially drained stands) helped to mitigate rotational forestry. The potential of even-aged production forestry to host early-successional species was already realized at much longer rotations than currently (given uniform stand-age structure). Comparing potential and realized bird assemblages provides a tool for assessing ecological integrity at the landscape scale, and the results can be used for elaborating regional management goals of ecologically sustainable forestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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16 pages, 2563 KiB  
Article
Diversifying Forest Landscape Management—A Case Study of a Shift from Native Forest Logging to Plantations in Australian Wet Forests
by David Lindenmayer and Chris Taylor
Land 2022, 11(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11030407 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4348
Abstract
Natural forests have many ecological, economic and other values, and sustaining them is a challenge for policy makers and forest managers. Conventional approaches to forest management such as those based on maximum sustained yield principles disregard fundamental tenets of ecological sustainability and often [...] Read more.
Natural forests have many ecological, economic and other values, and sustaining them is a challenge for policy makers and forest managers. Conventional approaches to forest management such as those based on maximum sustained yield principles disregard fundamental tenets of ecological sustainability and often fail. Here we describe the failure of a highly regulated approach to forest management focused on intensive wood production in the mountain ash forests of Victoria, Australia. Poor past management led to overcutting with timber yields too high to be sustainable and failing to account for uncertainties. Ongoing logging will have negative impacts on biodiversity and water production, alter fire regimes, and generate economic losses. This means there are few options to diversify forest management. The only ecologically and economically viable option is to cease logging mountain ash forests altogether and transition wood production to plantations located elsewhere in the state of Victoria. We outline general lessons for diversifying land management from our case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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25 pages, 4974 KiB  
Article
Fire Occurrence in Hemi-Boreal Forests: Exploring Natural and Cultural Scots Pine Fire Regimes Using Dendrochronology in Lithuania
by Michael Manton, Charles Ruffner, Gintautas Kibirkštis, Gediminas Brazaitis, Vitas Marozas, Rūtilė Pukienė, Ekaterina Makrickiene and Per Angelstam
Land 2022, 11(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020260 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Fire is an important natural disturbance and a driver of hemi-boreal forest successional trajectories, structural complexity, and biodiversity. Understanding the historic fire regime is an important step towards sustainable forest management. Focusing on Lithuania’s hemi-boreal forests, we first mapped the potential natural fire [...] Read more.
Fire is an important natural disturbance and a driver of hemi-boreal forest successional trajectories, structural complexity, and biodiversity. Understanding the historic fire regime is an important step towards sustainable forest management. Focusing on Lithuania’s hemi-boreal forests, we first mapped the potential natural fire regimes based on the relationship between site conditions, vegetation, and fire frequency using the ASIO model. The ASIO model revealed that all the fire frequency categories (Absent, Seldom, Intermittent, Often) are found in Lithuania. Scots pine forests dominated the often fire frequency category (92%). Secondly, focusing on a fire-prone forest landscape, Dzūkija, we analyzed the fire occurrence of Scots pine forest types using dendrochronological records. We sampled and cross-dated 132 Scots pine samples with fire scars from four dry forest stands (n = 92) and four peatland forest stands (n = 40), respectively. In total, the fire history analysis revealed 455 fire scars and 213 fire events during the period of 1742–2019. The Weibull median fire intervals were 2.7 years (range 1–34) for the dry forest types and 6.3 years (range 1–27) for the peatland forest types. Analysis pre- and post-1950 showed the Weibull median fire interval increased from 2.2 to 7.2 for the dry forest types but decreased from 6.2 to 5.2. for the peatland forest types. A superposed epoch analysis revealed significant precipitation fluxes prior to the fire events after 1950. Thus, the Dzūkija landscape of Lithuania has been strongly shaped by both human and naturally induced fires. The combination of theory (the ASIO model) with the examination of biological archives can be used to help guide sustainable forest management to emulate forest disturbances related to fire. As traditional forest management focusing on wood production has eliminated fire, and effectively simplified forest ecosystems, we recommend introducing educational programs to communicate the benefits and history of forest fires as well as adaptive management trials that use low-intensity prescribed burning of Scots pine stands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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Review

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24 pages, 1882 KiB  
Review
Lodgepole Pine and White Spruce Thinning in Alberta―A Review of North American and European Best Practices
by Mark Baah-Acheamfour, Amanda Schoonmaker, Mark Dewey and Brian Roth
Land 2023, 12(6), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061261 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
A significant portion of the harvested land base in western Canada is becoming old enough or entering a phase where thinning is a legitimate forest management option. A comprehensive review of the existing knowledge of commercial thinning (CT) treatments applied to pine and [...] Read more.
A significant portion of the harvested land base in western Canada is becoming old enough or entering a phase where thinning is a legitimate forest management option. A comprehensive review of the existing knowledge of commercial thinning (CT) treatments applied to pine and spruce-dominated stands in Alberta was conducted, with particular regard to the intensity, timing of interventions, method, and impacts on crop tree growth responses. Although the geographical focus of this review is Alberta, information on this topic is more complete in other areas of North America and Europe, where there is a long history of density management. In areas of eastern North America, our review revealed that CT from below, with tree removal levels from 27 to 43% of the basal area, could increase total merchantable wood produced from 11 to 60 m3 ha−1 over a rotation, depending on stand age and intensity of thinning. For Alberta conditions, and considering the risks, we conclude that commercial thinning basal area removal should be in the range of 25 to 40%, depending on a variety of factors such as species, wind firmness, and insect or disease incidence and risk. Thinning too aggressively and/or too late will increase the blowdown risk but the literature is fairly consistent in suggesting that live crown ratios should be >40% to maximize the chance of growth response and minimize the blowdown risk. In cases where stands are also threatened by stressors such as drought, wind, and insect or disease outbreaks, CT treatments likely offer the potential at limiting the overall risk, but localized knowledge and experience are critical. It is intended that the information presented may support ongoing and future research trials and growth and yield (G&Y) model development about potential CT treatments to apply and the likely results of practical application to commercial forestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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62 pages, 1375 KiB  
Review
A Chronicle of Indonesia’s Forest Management: A Long Step towards Environmental Sustainability and Community Welfare
by Hunggul Yudono Setio Hadi Nugroho, Yonky Indrajaya, Satria Astana, Murniati, Sri Suharti, Tyas Mutiara Basuki, Tri Wira Yuwati, Pamungkas Buana Putra, Budi Hadi Narendra, Luthfy Abdulah, Titiek Setyawati, Subarudi, Haruni Krisnawati, Purwanto, M. Hadi Saputra, Yunita Lisnawati, Raden Garsetiasih, Reny Sawitri, Indra Ardie Surya Liannawatty Purnamawan Putri, Ogi Setiawan, Dona Octavia, Hesti Lestari Tata, Endang Savitri, Abdurachman, Acep Akbar, Achmad Rizal Hak Bisjoe, Adi Susilo, Aditya Hani, Agung Budi Supangat, Agung Wahyu Nugroho, Agus Kurniawan, Ahmad Junaedi, Andhika Silva Yunianto, Anita Rianti, Ardiyanto Wahyu Nugroho, Asep Sukmana, Bambang Tejo Premono, Bastoni, Bina Swasta Sitepu, Bondan Winarno, Catur Budi Wiati, Chairil Anwar Siregar, Darwo, Diah Auliyani, Diah Irawati Dwi Arini, Dian Pratiwi, Dila Swestiani, Donny Wicaksono, Dony Rachmanadi, Eko Pujiono, Endang Karlina, Enny Widyati, Etik Erna Wati Hadi, Firda Mafthukhakh Hilmya Nada, Fajri Ansari, Fatahul Azwar, Gerson Ndawa Njurumana, Hariany Siappa, Hendra Gunawan, Hengki Siahaan, Henti Hendalastuti Rachmat, Heru Dwi Riyanto, Hery Kurniawan, Ika Heriansyah, Irma Yeny, Julianus Kinho, Karmilasanti, Kayat, Luthfan Meilana Nugraha, Luthfi Hanindityasari, Mariana Takandjandji, Markus Kudeng Sallata, Mawazin, Merryana Kiding Allo, Mira Yulianti, Mohamad Siarudin, Muhamad Yusup Hidayat, Muhammad Abdul Qirom, Mukhlisi, Nardy Noerman Najib, Nida Humaida, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Nina Mindawati, Nining Wahyuningrum, Nunung Puji Nugroho, Nur Muhamad Heriyanto, Nuralamin, Nurhaedah Muin, Nurul Silva Lestari, Oki Hidayat, Parlin Hotmartua Putra Pasaribu, Pratiwi, Purwanto, Purwanto Budi Santosa, Rahardyan Nugroho Adi, Ramawati, Ratri Ma’rifatun Nisaa, Reni Setyo Wahyuningtyas, Resti Ura, Ridwan Fauzi, Rosita Dewi, Rozza Tri Kwatrina, Ryke Nandini, Said Fahmi, Sigit Andy Cahyono, Sri Lestari, Suhartono, Sulistya Ekawati, Susana Yuni Indriyanti, Tien Wahyuni, Titi Kalima, Tri Atmoko, Tri Rizkiana Yusnikusumah, Virni Budi Arifanti, Vivi Yuskianti, Vivin Silvaliandra Sihombing, Wahyu Catur Adinugroho, Wahyudi Isnan, Wanda Kuswanda, Wawan Halwany, Wieke Herningtyas, Wuri Handayani, Yayan Hadiyan and Yulizar Ihrami Rahmilaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Land 2023, 12(6), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061238 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 12387
Abstract
Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world, with 17,000 islands of varying sizes and elevations, from lowlands to very high mountains, stretching more than 5000 km eastward from Sabang in Aceh to Merauke in Papua. Although occupying only 1.3% of the [...] Read more.
Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world, with 17,000 islands of varying sizes and elevations, from lowlands to very high mountains, stretching more than 5000 km eastward from Sabang in Aceh to Merauke in Papua. Although occupying only 1.3% of the world’s land area, Indonesia possesses the third-largest rainforest and the second-highest level of biodiversity, with very high species diversity and endemism. However, during the last two decades, Indonesia has been known as a country with a high level of deforestation, a producer of smoke from burning forests and land, and a producer of carbon emissions. The aim of this paper is to review the environmental history and the long process of Indonesian forest management towards achieving environmental sustainability and community welfare. To do this, we analyze the milestones of Indonesian forest management history, present and future challenges, and provide strategic recommendations toward a viable Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) system. Our review showed that the history of forestry management in Indonesia has evolved through a long process, especially related to contestation over the control of natural resources and supporting policies and regulations. During the process, many efforts have been applied to reduce the deforestation rate, such as a moratorium on permitting primary natural forest and peat land, land rehabilitation and soil conservation, environmental protection, and other significant regulations. Therefore, these efforts should be maintained and improved continuously in the future due to their significant positive impacts on a variety of forest areas toward the achievement of viable SFM. Finally, we conclude that the Indonesian government has struggled to formulate sustainable forest management policies that balance economic, ecological, and social needs, among others, through developing and implementing social forestry instruments, developing and implementing human resource capacity, increasing community literacy, strengthening forest governance by eliminating ambiguity and overlapping regulations, simplification of bureaucracy, revitalization of traditional wisdom, and fair law enforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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21 pages, 2630 KiB  
Review
In-between Environmental Sustainability and Economic Viability: An Analysis of the State, Regulations, and Future of Italian Forestry Sector
by Maria Lanfredi, Rosa Coluzzi, Vito Imbrenda, Bogdana Nosova, Massimiliano Giacalone, Rosario Turco, Marcela Prokopovà and Luca Salvati
Land 2023, 12(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12051001 - 3 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
Forest management is a complex topic at the interface between sustainability and the resilience of socioeconomic and environmental systems. The influence of market forces, supranational, country and regional policies, as well as climate change, on forest goods and services, is expected to increase [...] Read more.
Forest management is a complex topic at the interface between sustainability and the resilience of socioeconomic and environmental systems. The influence of market forces, supranational, country and regional policies, as well as climate change, on forest goods and services, is expected to increase in the near future. Such a complex interplay between economic and environmental forces is common to most European countries. The aim of this study is to operationally delineate and discuss the transition of the environmental sustainability and economic viability of forestry in Italy. This country encompasses the typical Mediterranean ecosystems with broad forest coverage in mountainous and hilly areas, where expanding woodland areas have been observed in the last decades mainly as a consequence of the decline of agropastoral activities, especially in disadvantaged and marginal areas. The consequent increase in wood biomass was frequently conceived as an element of environmental criticality, exposing woods to high vulnerability to wildfires and a consequent reduction in their economic value, possibly exacerbated by local warming. These dynamics usually took place in contexts where only a part of the overall forest heritage was subjected to regular management, despite the efforts made through various policies such as the Constitutional Law 3/2001 and the recent Law on Forests and Forestry Supply Chains. The latter policy tool, enhancing the concept of “active forest management” aimed to establish a sustainable approach to forest resources, leading to a broader forest area for formal planning and controlled harvesting. These dynamics took place in parallel with the inherent expansion in forest certification schemes formally promoting long-term environmental sustainability and a wider spectrum of forest ecosystems. Timber and non-wood materials and products are key elements from the perspective of achieving sustainable (climate-neutral) development in advanced economies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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17 pages, 1308 KiB  
Review
Concept for Genetic Monitoring of Hemiboreal Tree Dynamics in Lithuania
by Raimundas Petrokas and Darius Kavaliauskas
Land 2022, 11(8), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081249 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
In this review, we focus on the importance of the dynamics of hemiboreal trees in the existing forest landscape and habitats for the genetic monitoring of community phenology, in order to obtain characteristic plant cycles as well as their responses to seasonal and [...] Read more.
In this review, we focus on the importance of the dynamics of hemiboreal trees in the existing forest landscape and habitats for the genetic monitoring of community phenology, in order to obtain characteristic plant cycles as well as their responses to seasonal and climatic changes. The goal of our review is to: (i) determine the regenerative behaviour of hemiboreal tree species, (ii) propose a concept for the genetic monitoring of tree dynamics in the main forest habitat types of Lithuania’s forest landscape based on field observations, e.g., community phenology, and (iii) discuss ways of forest self-regulation, natural regeneration, and reproduction. We have chosen Lithuania as a case study for this review because it is a Northern European country that falls completely within the hemiboreal forest zone, which is often overlooked in terms of climate change effects. Our review highlights the importance of understanding the genetic responses of individual tree species and how they interact in the forest community after disturbance, as well as the need to sustainably monitor them at habitat and landscape scales. To enhance the adaptive potential and associated ecosystem services of forests, we propose the development of landscape-genetic monitoring of the differential dynamic properties of ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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29 pages, 2969 KiB  
Review
The Winding Road towards Sustainable Forest Management in Romania, 1989–2022: A Case Study of Post-Communist Social–Ecological Transition
by Andra-Cosmina Albulescu, Michael Manton, Daniela Larion and Per Angelstam
Land 2022, 11(8), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081198 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
Forest ecosystems are a prime example of the heated debates that have arisen around how forests should be managed, and what services and benefits they should deliver. The European transitions in governance to and from communist regimes have had significant impacts on forests [...] Read more.
Forest ecosystems are a prime example of the heated debates that have arisen around how forests should be managed, and what services and benefits they should deliver. The European transitions in governance to and from communist regimes have had significant impacts on forests and their management. Unstable legislative and institutional changes prior to, during, and after a communist regime, combined with unique remnant areas of high-conservation-value forests, make Romania an ideal case study to explore the social–ecological transitions of forest landscapes. The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we present the origins of, the evolution of, and the current state of forest management and ownership in Romania during transitions between the pre-communist (–1945), communist (1945–1989), and EU periods (2007–). Second, we focus on the enablers and barriers in Romania towards sustainable forest management as defined by pan-European forest policies. We used a semi-systematic, five-step scientific literature review on forest ownership, governance, and management in Romania. The analysis shows that both enablers (e.g., forest certification) and barriers (e.g., redundancy and the questionable effectiveness of the network of protected areas; illegal, unsustainable, and unreported logging; loopholes in the legislative framework) have contributed to the current approaches to interpreting forests, forestry, and forest management. The installation of the communist regime translated into sustained wood yield forest management under singular forest ownership, which opposed the previous system and forest ownership pluralism. In the post-communist period, forestland restitution led to significant legislative changes, but forest management must still confront remnant elements of the communist approach. Both communist and post-communist policies related to forests have shaped the evolution of forest landscape management in Romania, thus stressing the need to learn from the past towards securing sustainable forest management into the future. These lessons provide insights on both positive and negative drivers of forest management, which can contribute to smooth future transition towards more sustainable forest management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversifying Forest Landscape Management Approaches)
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