Special Issue "Fungal Endophytes in Plants"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gary A. Strobel

Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: all aspects of endophytic fungi especially their secondary products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will be dedicated to fungi that are found as endophytes in the world’s plants. Among many other things, it will cover newly-discovered fungi that are endophytic. The role of the endophyte in the plant microbiome is of emerging interest, and aspects of it will be included. Secondary products of endophytes are receiving renewed attention as some have been found that are potential fuels, antibiotics, antioxidants, and anticancer agents, as well as immunosuppressive compounds. Aspects concerning the physiological/biochemical/role of the endophyte, as it relates to its host are also of interest. It goes without saying that this volume will also include aspects of the genetics and epigenetics of endophytes, especially as they relate to the host genome or the production of valuable and important products. Finally, any new developments occurring in this field will also be included.

Dr. Gary A. Strobel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Endophytic fungus
  • Endophytes
  • Endophyte-Host Interactions
  • Secondary products and their uses
  • Endophytes as the plant microbiome
  • Epigenetics and endophytes

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Fungal Endophytes in Plants
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030104
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle A Solvent-Free Approach for Converting Cellulose Waste into Volatile Organic Compounds with Endophytic Fungi
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030102
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 26 August 2018
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Abstract
Simple sugars produced from a solvent-free mechanocatalytic degradation of cellulose were evaluated for suitability as a growth medium carbon source for fungi that produce volatile organic compounds. An endophytic Hypoxylon sp. (CI-4) known to produce volatiles having potential value as fuels was initially
[...] Read more.
Simple sugars produced from a solvent-free mechanocatalytic degradation of cellulose were evaluated for suitability as a growth medium carbon source for fungi that produce volatile organic compounds. An endophytic Hypoxylon sp. (CI-4) known to produce volatiles having potential value as fuels was initially evaluated. The growth was obtained on a medium containing the degraded cellulose as the sole carbon source, and the volatile compounds produced were largely the same as those produced from a conventional dextrose/starch diet. A second Hypoxylon sp. (BS15) was also characterized and shown to be phylogenetically divergent from any other named species. The degraded cellulose medium supported the growth of BS15, and approximately the same quantity of the volatile compounds was produced as from conventional diets. Although the major products from BS15 grown on the degraded cellulose were identical to those from dextrose, the minor products differed. Neither CI-4 or BS15 exhibited growth on cellulose that had not been degraded. The extraction of volatiles from the growth media was achieved using solid-phase extraction in order to reduce the solvent waste and more efficiently retain compounds having low vapor pressures. A comparison to more conventional liquid–liquid extraction demonstrated that, for CI-4, both methods gave similar results. The solid-phase extraction of BS15 retained a significantly larger variety of the volatile compounds than did the liquid–liquid extraction. These advances position the coupling of solvent-free cellulose conversion and endophyte metabolism as a viable strategy for the production of important hydrocarbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Antiplasmodial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Endophytic Fungi from Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae)
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020070
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
There is continuing need for new and improved drugs to tackle malaria, which remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Natural products represent credible sources of new antiplasmodial agents for antimalarial drug development. Endophytes that
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There is continuing need for new and improved drugs to tackle malaria, which remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Natural products represent credible sources of new antiplasmodial agents for antimalarial drug development. Endophytes that widely colonize healthy tissues of plants have been shown to synthesize a great variety of secondary metabolites that might possess antiplasmodial benefits. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antiplasmodial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from Symphonia globulifera against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (PfINDO). Sixty-one fungal isolates with infection frequency of 67.77% were obtained from the bark of S. globulifera. Twelve selected isolates were classified into six different genera including Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Bipolaris. Extracts from the 12 isolates were tested against PfINDO, and nine showed good activity (IC50 < 10 μg·mL−1) with three fungi including Paecilomyces lilacinus (IC50 = 0.44 μg·mL−1), Penicillium janthinellum (IC50 = 0.2 μg·mL−1), and Paecilomyces sp. (IC50 = 0.55 μg·mL−1) showing the highest promise. These three isolates were found to be less cytotoxic against the HEK293T cell line with selectivity indices ranging from 24.52 to 70.56. Results from this study indicate that endophytic fungi from Symphonia globulifera are promising sources of hit compounds that might be further investigated as novel drugs against malaria. The chemical investigation of active extracts is ongoing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Restoring Waning Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Endophytic Fungus Hypoxylon sp. (BS15)
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020069
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
Certain endophytic fungi belonging to the Hypoxylon genus have recently been found to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have potential relevance as hydrocarbon fuels. Here, a recently discovered Hypoxylon sp. (BS15) was demonstrated to also produce VOCs, but with diminished VOC production
[...] Read more.
Certain endophytic fungi belonging to the Hypoxylon genus have recently been found to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have potential relevance as hydrocarbon fuels. Here, a recently discovered Hypoxylon sp. (BS15) was demonstrated to also produce VOCs, but with diminished VOC production after an extended period of in vitro growth. Restoring VOC production was partially achieved by growing BS15 in growth media containing finely ground woody tissue from the original host plant (Taxodium distichum). In an effort to isolate VOC production modulators, extracts from this woody tissue were made by sequentially extracting with dichloromethane, methanol, and water. Both the dichloromethane and water extracts were found to modulate VOC production, while the methanol extract had no effect. Surprisingly, the woody tissue remaining after exhaustive extraction was also shown to act as a VOC production modulator when included in the growth media, with changes observed in the production of four compounds. This woody tissue also induced production of two compounds not observed in the original BS15 extract. Filter paper had the same modulating effect as exhaustively extracted woody tissue, suggesting the modulation was perhaps due to cellulose degradation products. Overall, this study demonstrated that VOC production in BS15 can be influenced by multiple compounds in the woody tissue rather than a single modulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activities of Volatile Secondary Metabolites of Four Diaporthe Strains Isolated from Catharanthus roseus
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020065
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Four endophytic fungi were isolated from the medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus, and were identified as Diaporthe spp. with partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone H3 (HIS), calmodulin (CAL) genes, and rDNA
[...] Read more.
Four endophytic fungi were isolated from the medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus, and were identified as Diaporthe spp. with partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone H3 (HIS), calmodulin (CAL) genes, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (TEF1-TUB-HIS--CAL-ITS) multigene phylogeny suggested for species delimitation in the Diaporthe genus. Each fungus produces a unique mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with an abundant mixture of terpenoids analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber-GC/MS. These tentatively-detected terpenes included α-muurolene, β-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, and α-thujene, as well as other minor terpenoids, including caryophyllene, patchoulene, cedrene, 2-carene, and thujone. The volatile metabolites of each isolate showed antifungal properties against a wide range of plant pathogenic test fungi and oomycetes, including Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, and Phytophthora cinnamomi. The growth inhibition of the pathogens varied between 10% and 60% within 72 h of exposure. To our knowledge, the endophytic Diaporthe-like strains are first reported from Catharanthus roseus. VOCs produced by each strain of the endophytic Diaporthe fungi were unique components with dominant monoterpenes comparing to known Diaporthe fungal VOCs. A discussion is presented on the inhibitive bioactivities of secondary metabolites among endophytic Diaporthe fungi and this medicinal plant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Observations on the Early Establishment of Foliar Endophytic Fungi in Leaf Discs and Living Leaves of a Model Woody Angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa (Salicaceae)
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020058
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few
[...] Read more.
Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few studies have visualized endophytic fungi in leaf tissues, and the process through which most endophytes colonize leaves has not been studied thoroughly. We inoculated leaf discs and the living leaves of a model woody angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa, which has endophytes that represent three distantly-related genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma). We used scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to evaluate the timeline and processes by which they colonize leaf tissue. Under laboratory conditions with high humidity, conidia germinated on leaf discs to yield hyphae that grew epiphytically and incidentally entered stomata, but did not grow in a directed fashion toward stomatal openings. No cuticular penetration was observed. The endophytes readily colonized the interiors of leaf discs that were detached from living leaves, and could be visualized within discs with light microscopy. Although they were difficult to visualize within the interior of living leaves following in vivo inoculations, standard methods for isolating foliar endophytes confirmed their presence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Fungi as Endophytes in Artemisia thuscula: Juxtaposed Elements of Diversity and Phylogeny
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010017
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Artemisia is a plant genus highly studied for its medicinal applications. The studies on the associated fungal endophytes are scarce. Ten plants specimens of Artemisia thuscula from Tenerife and La Palma were sampled to isolate the endophytic fungi. Identification of the endophytic fungi
[...] Read more.
Artemisia is a plant genus highly studied for its medicinal applications. The studies on the associated fungal endophytes are scarce. Ten plants specimens of Artemisia thuscula from Tenerife and La Palma were sampled to isolate the endophytic fungi. Identification of the endophytic fungi was based on morphology, Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and Large Subunit (LSU) regions sequencing and indicates 37 fungal species affiliated to 25 fungal genera. Colonization rate varied among plants (CR = 25% to 92.11%). The most dominant colonizers found were Alternaria alternata (CF = 18.71%), Neofusicoccum sp. (CF = 8.39%) and Preussia sp. (CF = 3.23). Tendency for host specificity of most endophytic fungal species was observed. Sorensen–Dice index revealed that of 45 cases in the matrix, 27 of them were of zero similarity. Further, only one case was found to have 57% similarity (TF2 and TF7) and one case with 50% similarity (TF1 and TF4). The rest of the cases had values ranging between 11% and 40% similarity. Diversity indices like Brillouin, Margalef species richness, Simpson index of diversity and Fisher’s alpha, revealed plants from La Palma with higher values than plants from Tenerife. Three nutrient media (i.e., potato dextrose agar―PDA, lignocellulose agar―LCA, and tomato juice agar―V8) were used in a case study and revealed no differences in terms of colonization rate when data was averaged. Colonization frequency showed several species with preference for nutrient medium (63% of the species were isolated from only one nutrient medium). For the phylogenetic reconstruction using the Bayesian method, 54 endophytic fungal ITS sequences and associated GenBank sequences were analyzed. Ten orders (Diaporthales, Dothideales, Botryosphaeriales, Hypocreales, Trichosphaeriales, Amphisphaeriales, Xylariales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales and Eurotiales) were recognized. Several arrangements of genera draw the attention, like Aureobasidium (Dothideales) and Aplosporella (Botryosphaeriales) which are clustered with a recent ancestor (BS = 0.97). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Mangrove-Associated Fungi: A Novel Source of Potential Anticancer Compounds
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030101
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of cases is increasing alarmingly every year. Current research focuses on the development of novel chemotherapeutic drugs derived from natural as well as synthetic sources. The abundance and diversity in natural
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of cases is increasing alarmingly every year. Current research focuses on the development of novel chemotherapeutic drugs derived from natural as well as synthetic sources. The abundance and diversity in natural resources offer tremendous potential for the discovery of novel molecules with unique mechanisms for cancer therapy. Mangrove-derived fungi are rich source of novel metabolites, comprising novel structure classes with diverse biological activities. Across the globe, coastal areas are primarily dominated by mangrove forests, which offer an intensely complex environment and species that mostly remain unexplored. In recent years, many structurally diverse compounds with unique skeletons have been identified from mangrove fungi and evaluated for their antiproliferative properties. These compounds may serve as lead molecules for the development of new anticancer drugs. Mangrove endophytes can be modulated using epigenetic means or culture optimization methods to improve the yield or to produce various similar analogs. The present review provides an insight into the bioactive metabolites from mangrove endophytes reported during the period from 2012 to 2018 (up to April, 2018) along with their cytotoxic properties, focusing on their chemical structures and mode of action, as indicated in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessReview Endophytic Fungi: A Source of Potential Antifungal Compounds
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030077
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
The emerging and reemerging forms of fungal infections encountered in the course of allogeneic bone marrow transplantations, cancer therapy, and organ transplants have necessitated the discovery of antifungal compounds with enhanced efficacy and better compatibility. A very limited number of antifungal compounds are
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The emerging and reemerging forms of fungal infections encountered in the course of allogeneic bone marrow transplantations, cancer therapy, and organ transplants have necessitated the discovery of antifungal compounds with enhanced efficacy and better compatibility. A very limited number of antifungal compounds are in practice against the various forms of topical and systemic fungal infections. The trends of new antifungals being introduced into the market have remained insignificant while resistance towards the introduced drug has apparently increased, specifically in patients undergoing long-term treatment. Considering the immense potential of natural microbial products for the isolation and screening of novel antibiotics for different pharmaceutical applications as an alternative source has remained largely unexplored. Endophytes are one such microbial community that resides inside all plants without showing any symptoms with the promise of producing diverse bioactive molecules and novel metabolites which have application in medicine, agriculture, and industrial set ups. This review substantially covers the antifungal compounds, including volatile organic compounds, isolated from fungal endophytes of medicinal plants during 2013–2018. Some of the methods for the activation of silent biosynthetic genes are also covered. As such, the compounds described here possess diverse configurations which can be a step towards the development of new antifungal agents directly or precursor molecules after the required modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Endophytic Fungi in Species of Artemisia
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020053
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
The genus Artemisia, a collection of ~400 hardy herbaceous plant and shrub species, is an important resource contributing to chemistry, medicine, agriculture, industry, and ecology. Its communities of endophytic fungi have only recently begun to be explored. Summarized from studies conducted on
[...] Read more.
The genus Artemisia, a collection of ~400 hardy herbaceous plant and shrub species, is an important resource contributing to chemistry, medicine, agriculture, industry, and ecology. Its communities of endophytic fungi have only recently begun to be explored. Summarized from studies conducted on the fungal endophytes in Artemisia species, both fungal phylogenetic diversity and the associated bioactivity was examined. Isolations from 14 species of Artemisia have led to 51 genera of fungal endophytes, 28 families, and 18 orders. Endophytes belonged mainly to Ascomycota, except for two taxa of Cantharellales and Sporidiobolales, one taxon of Mucoromycota, and one species of Oomycota. The mostly common families were Pleosporaceae, Trichocomaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, and Botryosphaeriaceae (relative abundance = 14.89, 8.51, 7.14 and 6.38, respectively). In the search for bioactive metabolites, 27 novel compounds were characterized and 22 metabolites were isolated between 2006 and 2017. The first study on endophytic fungi isolated from species of Artemisia was published but 18 years ago. This summary of recently acquired data illustrates the considerable diversity of biological purposes addressed by fungal endophytes of Artemisia spp. Full article
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Open AccessReview Endophytic Mycoflora and Their Bioactive Compounds from Azadirachta Indica: A Comprehensive Review
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020042
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Plants are all inhabited by endophytic fungi in the interior of their tissues. The neem tree Azadirachta is an Indian lilac used for various therapeutic purposes in different forms of preparations. This plant hosts different types of endophytic fungi. In some cases, different
[...] Read more.
Plants are all inhabited by endophytic fungi in the interior of their tissues. The neem tree Azadirachta is an Indian lilac used for various therapeutic purposes in different forms of preparations. This plant hosts different types of endophytic fungi. In some cases, different tissues of a given plant are inhabited by different endophytic fungi which are discussed in this paper. Recently, there have been new reports on endophytic fungi and their bioactive compounds from Azadirachta indica. The biological function of bioactive compounds was discussed in view of their future industrial prospects. There are a number of different research investigations that examine the endophytes isolated and screened for their potential bioactive secondary metabolites from neem, but there is no comprehensive review on neem endophytes and their secondary metabolites to bring all trends from different researchers together. Therefore, in this review, we have discussed the endophytic fungi from the different tissues of neem, in view of the latest understandings of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and pathogenicity target compounds. Importantly, tracing the previous findings would pave the way to forecast the missing link for future work by researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview From Concept to Commerce: Developing a Successful Fungal Endophyte Inoculant for Agricultural Crops
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010024
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research
[...] Read more.
The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley). A careful screening and selection procedure and extensive controlled environment testing of fungal endophyte strains, followed by multi-year field trials has resulted in the validation of an endophyte consortium suitable for barley crops grown on relatively dry sites. Our approach can be adapted for any crop or environment, provided that the set of first principles we have developed is followed. Here, we report how we developed the successful pipeline for the production of an economically viable fungal endophyte inoculant for barley cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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Other

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Open AccessOpinion The Emergence of Endophytic Microbes and Their Biological Promise
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020057
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of
[...] Read more.
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined. However, this has not stopped investigators in exploring the direct utility of endophytes in boosting plant production, and discovering that endophytes can directly influence the plant to resist temperature extremes, drought, as well as the presence of disease causing organisms. Also, because of the relationships that endophytes seem to have with their host plants, they make a myriad of biologically active compounds some of which are classified as antibiotics, antioxidants, anticancer agents, volatile antimicrobial agents, immunosuppressive compounds, plant growth promoting agents, and insecticides. These endophytic compounds represent a wide range of organic molecules including terpenoids, peptides, carbohydrates, aromatics, hydrocarbons and others and it seems that these compounds may have a role in the host microbe relationship. Most recently and quite surprisingly, some endophytes have been discovered that make hydrocarbons of the types found in diesel and gasoline fuels. In addition, recently discovered are epigenetic factors relating to the biology and biochemistry of endophytes. Interestingly, only about 1–2% of the entire spectrum of 300,000 known plants have been studied for their endophyte composition. Additionally, only a few plants have ever been completely studied including all tissues for the microbes within them. Likewise, the vast majority of plants, including those in oceans and lower plant forms, have never been examined for their endophytes. Furthermore, endophytes representing the “microbiome” of world’s major food plants as they exist in their native “centers of origin” are largely unknown. This non-classical review is intended to provide background information on aspects of developments in endophyte biology and more importantly the identification of new questions in this field that need to be addressed. The review is primarily based on the author’s long held experience in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants) Printed Edition available
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