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Open AccessArticle

Antifungal Activities of Volatile Secondary Metabolites of Four Diaporthe Strains Isolated from Catharanthus roseus

1
Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100091, China
2
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510520, China
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020065
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
Four endophytic fungi were isolated from the medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus, and were identified as Diaporthe spp. with partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone H3 (HIS), calmodulin (CAL) genes, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (TEF1-TUB-HIS--CAL-ITS) multigene phylogeny suggested for species delimitation in the Diaporthe genus. Each fungus produces a unique mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with an abundant mixture of terpenoids analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber-GC/MS. These tentatively-detected terpenes included α-muurolene, β-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, and α-thujene, as well as other minor terpenoids, including caryophyllene, patchoulene, cedrene, 2-carene, and thujone. The volatile metabolites of each isolate showed antifungal properties against a wide range of plant pathogenic test fungi and oomycetes, including Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, and Phytophthora cinnamomi. The growth inhibition of the pathogens varied between 10% and 60% within 72 h of exposure. To our knowledge, the endophytic Diaporthe-like strains are first reported from Catharanthus roseus. VOCs produced by each strain of the endophytic Diaporthe fungi were unique components with dominant monoterpenes comparing to known Diaporthe fungal VOCs. A discussion is presented on the inhibitive bioactivities of secondary metabolites among endophytic Diaporthe fungi and this medicinal plant. View Full-Text
Keywords: endophytic fungi; Diaporthe spp.; Catharanthus roseus; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); antifungal bioactivity; inhibition; terpene; pathogens endophytic fungi; Diaporthe spp.; Catharanthus roseus; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); antifungal bioactivity; inhibition; terpene; pathogens
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, D.-H.; Song, X.; Li, H.; Luo, T.; Dou, G.; Strobel, G. Antifungal Activities of Volatile Secondary Metabolites of Four Diaporthe Strains Isolated from Catharanthus roseus. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 65.

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