Special Issue "Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Han Soo Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC), Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 738-8529, Hiroshima, Japan
Tel. +81-82-424-4405
Interests: coastal hazards; storm surge; tsunami; wind waves; coastal hazards prediction and mitigation; numerical modelling; air–sea interaction; time series analysis; renewable energy resources assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Young-Jin Choi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
GeoSystem Research Corporation, 172 LS-ro, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, 15807, Korea
Tel. +82-70-7019-0615
Interests: numerical modelling; data assimilation; coupled simulation; time series analysis; environmental tracer modelling; artificial intelligence
Dr. Woo Seung-Buhm
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Ocean Science, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751, South Korea
Interests: tide; estuary; sediment; morphological change; finite element model; tsunami modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the UN Atlas of the Oceans, about 44% of the world’s population lives in coastal areas within 150 km of the sea. On the other hand, coastal regions are constantly exposed to natural hazards and disasters such as storm surge and waves, floods, and inundations due to tropical cyclones and storms, as well as tsunamis due to underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides.

Numerical models of coastal hazards and environment are important tools for the prediction and estimation of those coastal hazards, and for the evaluation of their impacts on coastal morphodynamics, coastal lagoons and wetlands, and the coastal built-in environment.

This Special Issue seeks to compile the current state-of-the-art research related to numerical models from model developments to their applications in coastal hazards forecast and hindcast, mitigation, and in environmental impacts assessment in the above-mentioned coastal zones. Contributions are encouraged in topics including, but not limited to:

  1. Numerical models in storm surge and waves, tsunami, and coastal flooding;
  2. Numerical models in nearshore waves and currents, tide, and circulations;
  3. Numerical models of coastal pollutions;
  4. Storm surge and waves modelling due to tropical cyclones;
  5. Tsunami modelling due to underwater earthquakes, volcano eruptions, and landslides;
  6. Coastal hydrodynamic modelling in the above-mentioned coastal zones.

Prof. Dr. Han Soo Lee
Dr. Young-Jin Choi
Dr. Woo Seung-Buhm

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • numerical models in coastal hazards and environment
  • storm surge and waves
  • tsunami
  • coastal flooding
  • nearshore waves and currents
  • tides
  • coastal hydrodynamics
  • coastal pollutions

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Wind-Induced Currents in the Gulf of California from Extreme Events and Their Impact on Tidal Energy Devices
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020080 - 25 Jan 2020
Abstract
Tidal renewable energy is a promising alternative energy resource, and marginal seas are known as excellent sites for tidal energy exploitation. In-stream and tidal energy devices are less exposed to extreme weather events than wind energy. Nevertheless, during tropical storms, the currents may [...] Read more.
Tidal renewable energy is a promising alternative energy resource, and marginal seas are known as excellent sites for tidal energy exploitation. In-stream and tidal energy devices are less exposed to extreme weather events than wind energy. Nevertheless, during tropical storms, the currents may intensify to levels that threaten the integrity of the devices. This paper presents Hurricane Odile and its impact on the currents in the Gulf of California (GC) as a worst case scenario. A methodology to analyze the impact and its potential effects on tidal energy converters installed within the region are presented. The analysis is based on predictions obtained with a 3D shallow water model forced by tides and the meteorological conditions generated by Odile. A tidal model with no wind forcing was used for validation of the tidal model predictions. After validation, the two models were used to analyze the maximum anomaly in surface currents and sea surface height caused by the passage of Odile, and to analyze at which depth the devices could be deemed safe from any impact of the hurricane. Some anomalies extended throughout the water column, even in the deep regions of the GC. This paper highlights the importance of including the meteorological forcing in evaluations of tidal range or in-stream renewable energy resources and introduces new measures of device exposure to the current anomalies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Tidal Current, Wind, and Wave in Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Modeling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020069 - 22 Jan 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of three external forces (tidal current, wind, and waves) on the movement of oil spilled during the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident. The diffusion of the spilled oil was simulated by using a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of three external forces (tidal current, wind, and waves) on the movement of oil spilled during the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident. The diffusion of the spilled oil was simulated by using a random walk (RW) model that tracks the movement caused by advection-diffusion assuming oil as particles. For oil simulation, the wind drift current generated by wind and tidal current fields were computed by using the environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) model. Next, the wave fields were simulated by using the simulating waves nearshore (SWAN) model, and the Stokes drift current fields were calculated by applying the equation proposed by Stokes. The computed tidal currents, wind drift currents, and Stokes drift currents were applied as input data to the RW model. Then, oil diffusion distribution for each external force component was investigated and compared with that obtained from satellite images. When the wind drift currents and Stokes drift currents caused by waves were considered, the diffusion distribution of the spilled oil showed good agreement with that obtained from the observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment)
Open AccessArticle
Modeling Storm Surge Attenuation by an Integrated Nature-Based and Engineered Flood Defense System in the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010027 - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
There is increasing interest in the use of nature-based approaches for mitigation of storm surges along coasts, deltas, and estuaries. However, very few studies have quantified the effectiveness of storm surge height reduction by a real-existing, estuarine-scale, nature-based, and engineered flood defense system, [...] Read more.
There is increasing interest in the use of nature-based approaches for mitigation of storm surges along coasts, deltas, and estuaries. However, very few studies have quantified the effectiveness of storm surge height reduction by a real-existing, estuarine-scale, nature-based, and engineered flood defense system, under specific storm surge conditions. Here, we present data and modelling results from a specific storm surge in the Scheldt estuary (Belgium), where a hybrid flood defense system is implemented, consisting of flood control areas, of which some are restored into tidal marsh ecosystems, by use of culvert constructions that allow daily reduced tidal in- and outflow. We present a hindcast simulation of the storm surge of 6 December 2013, using a TELEMAC-3D model of the Scheldt estuary, and model scenarios showing that the hybrid flood defense system resulted in a storm surge height reduction of up to half a meter in the estuary. An important aspect of the work was the implementation of model formulations for calculating flow through culverts of restored marshes. The latter was validated comparing simulated and measured discharges through a physical scale model of a culvert, and through a real-scale culvert of an existing restored marsh during the storm surge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Self-Burial Mechanism of Pipeline with Spoiler under Steady Flow Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(12), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120456 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Herein, hydraulic model experiments and numerical simulations were performed to understand the self-burial mechanism of subsea pipelines with spoilers under steady flow conditions. First, scour characteristics and self-burial functions according to the spoiler length-to-pipe diameter ratio (S/D) were investigated through hydraulic [...] Read more.
Herein, hydraulic model experiments and numerical simulations were performed to understand the self-burial mechanism of subsea pipelines with spoilers under steady flow conditions. First, scour characteristics and self-burial functions according to the spoiler length-to-pipe diameter ratio (S/D) were investigated through hydraulic experiments. Further, the Navier–Stokes solver was verified. The experimental values of the velocity at the bottom of the pipeline with a spoiler and the pressure on the sand foundation where the pipeline rested were represented with the degree of conformity. Scour characteristics of a sand foundation were investigated from the numerical analysis results of the velocity and vorticity surrounding the pipelines with spoilers. The compilation of results from the hydraulic experiment and numerical analysis showed that the projected area increased when a spoiler was attached to the subsea pipes. This consequently increased the velocity of fluid leaving the top and bottom of the pipe, and high vorticity was formed within and above the sand foundation. This aggravated scouring at the pipe base and increased the top and bottom asymmetry of the dynamic pressure field, which developed a downward force on the pipeline. These two primary effects acting simultaneously under steady flow conditions explained the self-burial of pipelines with a spoiler attachment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Reproduction Ability of a Numerical Model for Simulating the Outflow Rate of Backfilling Materials from a Coastal Structure
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(12), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120447 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
In very shallow areas, the frequency by which coastal structures (like dikes and seawalls) are directly broken by large wave forces is low because large waves are broken in deeper areas. The main cause for such destruction is ground scour in front of [...] Read more.
In very shallow areas, the frequency by which coastal structures (like dikes and seawalls) are directly broken by large wave forces is low because large waves are broken in deeper areas. The main cause for such destruction is ground scour in front of the structures and outflow of backfilling materials by middle-scale waves; therefore, the scour and the outflow should be considered when designing a coastal structure in a very shallow area. In this paper, a numerical model consisting of CADMAS-SURF, which can calculate fluid motion in porous media, and empirical equations for simulating the outflow phenomena are introduced; thereafter, practical calculations on field cases in Thailand and Japan are demonstrated. Additionally, since the effects of wave periods and water depth to the outflow rate have never been clarified, hydraulic model experiments, empirical calculations using an existing formula, and numerical simulations are performed in order to examine these effects on the outflow rate. The simulated results using the numerical model align well with the experimental results. Moreover, both results show that the outflow rate is proportional to the wave period and inversely proportional to water depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Sea Level Rise at West Coast of Portugal Mainland and Its Projection for the 21st Century
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030061 - 07 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Based on the updated relative sea level rise rates, 21st-century projections are made for the west coast of Portugal Mainland. The mean sea level from Cascais tide gauge and North Atlantic satellite altimetry data have been analyzed. Through bootstrapping linear regression and polynomial [...] Read more.
Based on the updated relative sea level rise rates, 21st-century projections are made for the west coast of Portugal Mainland. The mean sea level from Cascais tide gauge and North Atlantic satellite altimetry data have been analyzed. Through bootstrapping linear regression and polynomial adjustments, mean sea level time series were used to calculate different empirical projections for sea level rise, by estimating the initial velocity and its corresponding acceleration. The results are consistent with an accelerated sea level rise, showing evidence of a faster rise than previous century estimates. Based on different numerical methods of second order polynomial fitting, it is possible to build a set of projection models of relative sea level rise. Applying the same methods to regional sea level anomaly from satellite altimetry, additional projections are also built with good consistency. Both data sets, tide gauge and satellite altimetry data, enabled the development of an ensemble of projection models. The relative sea level rise projections are crucial for national coastal planning and management since extreme sea level scenarios can potentially cause erosion and flooding. Based on absolute vertical velocities obtained by integrating global sea level models, neo-tectonic studies, and permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) station time series, it is possible to transform relative into absolute sea level rise scenarios, and vice-versa, allowing the generation of absolute sea level rise projection curves and its comparison with already established global projections. The sea level rise observed at the Cascais tide gauge has always shown a significant correlation with global sea level rise observations, evidencing relatively low rates of vertical land velocity and residual synoptic regional dynamic effects. An ensemble of sea level projection models for the 21st century is proposed with its corresponding probability density function, both for relative and absolute sea level rise for the west coast of Portugal Mainland. A mean sea level rise of 1.14 m was obtained for the epoch of 2100, with a likely range of 95% of probability between 0.39 m and 1.89 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Models in Coastal Hazards and Coastal Environment)
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