Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 December 2024 | Viewed by 12851

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Reader in Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UG, UK
Interests: maritime safety and human factors applied to shipboard and pilotage operations; life cycle assessment applied to marine operations and machinery; sustainable development, energy efficiency, and renewable energy; marine environmental protection and regulation
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Co-Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
Interests: safety and security modelling; risk analysis of ocean engineering systems

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Co-Guest Editor
Senior Lecturer in Marine and Offshore Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
Interests: fluid-structure interaction using experimental and numerical (CFD) simulations; CO2 emission reduction; drag reduction technologies for merchant vessels and renewable energy technologies

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Co-Guest Editor
Senior Lecturer in Maritime Management, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
Interests: design, operation, and safety of maritime engineering systems such as: ships, oil and gas installations, and offshore renewable energy structures; marine asset integrity monitoring; management of said energy structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our reliance on safe maritime transportation of goods was highlighted during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic when significant goods and services were disrupted due to shortages within their supply chains. Aside from this challenge, society, in general, is striving to cope with serious climate change events, which additionally emphasizes novel procedures and technologies found in the maritime domain, with the aim of allowing the industry to become more environmentally efficient.

Some of these procedures include changes in navigational operations, such as weather routing, for example. Other advances include alternative propulsive methods such as wind-assisted ship propulsion, or relevant add-ons such as air lubrication solutions. Ship electrification technologies also underline significant options for some vessel types, which can benefit from fuel cells and batteries. Not less importantly, there is a relevant line of work with regard to Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS). All of the above and other novel trends, despite highlighting benefits in terms of reliance, resilience, and operational and environmental efficiency, impose new safety risks. These new risks also require thorough investigation and assessment, which can lead to the design of novel models and frameworks for risk avoidance and mitigation.

This Special Issue aims to address innovative and creative topics and attempts to improve reliance, resilience, environmental efficiency, but also safety within the maritime domain, with a view to cover new techniques and technologies being currently trialed or applied in the maritime industry.

Research topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Literature review related to novel maritime techniques and technologies;
  • Technical advances on Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS), and their safety;
  • Research on technologies or retrofitting options for attempting climate neutrality within maritime transport;
  • Alternative fuels and e-fuels, and their current infrastructure status within ports and shipyards;
  • Best practice and guidance on the application of greening technologies for the maritime domain.

Dr. Eduardo Blanco-Davis
Prof. Dr. Zaili Yang
Dr. Milad Armin
Dr. Sean Loughney
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • maritime
  • marine engineering
  • safety
  • risk assessment
  • sustainability
  • autonomous maritime vessels
  • alternative fuels

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 5951 KiB  
Article
Development of a Simplified Performance Monitoring System for Small and Medium Sized Ships
by Seongwan Kim, Heemoon Kim and Hyeonmin Jeon
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(9), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11091734 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Regulations on emissions from ships are being strengthened, and emission reduction systems and alternative technologies are being developed. In addition, the amount of emissions is closely related to the performance of the propulsion systems of the ship; however, performance measurement systems have mainly [...] Read more.
Regulations on emissions from ships are being strengthened, and emission reduction systems and alternative technologies are being developed. In addition, the amount of emissions is closely related to the performance of the propulsion systems of the ship; however, performance measurement systems have mainly been developed for large commercial ships. For small and medium-sized ships, although the output of the propulsion system is rather low, the number of vessels sailing in the coast is very high. Therefore, a performance-monitoring system is required for small and medium-sized ships. However, for small and medium-sized ships, there are no suitable performance and emissions calculation systems. Conventional performance-measuring and analysis systems for large ships have difficulties in terms of their cost and installation when applied to small and medium-sized ships. In this study, a new system was developed that is able to calculate the speed, power, fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emission assumptions, and efficiency of a ship by receiving simple key data such as GPS, fuel flow, and rpm data rather than checking the ship’s condition using massive forms of data. The system transmits data to the shore’s remote-monitoring center in real-time through a communication network. Using these data, it is possible to estimate a ship’s aging factor, engine performance, amount of exhaust gas, etc., and the accumulated data of all coastal ships in a country can be used as basic data for governments to use to support eco-friendly ship policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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25 pages, 6471 KiB  
Article
Life-Cycle and Applicational Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Powered Inland Marine Vessels
by Matthew Knight, Eduardo Blanco-Davis, Oliver Platt and Milad Armin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081611 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Green energy is at the forefront of current policy, research, and engineering, but some of the potential fuels require either a lot of deeper research, or a lot of infrastructure before they can be implemented. In the case of hydrogen both are true. [...] Read more.
Green energy is at the forefront of current policy, research, and engineering, but some of the potential fuels require either a lot of deeper research, or a lot of infrastructure before they can be implemented. In the case of hydrogen both are true. This report aims to analyse the potential of hydrogen as a future fuel source by performing a life-cycle assessment. Through this the well-to-tank phase of fuel production, and the usage phase of the system have been analysed. Models have also been created for traditional fuel systems to best compare results. The results show that hydrogen has great potential to convert marine transport to operating off green fuels when powered through low-carbon energy sources, which could reduce a huge percentage of the international community’s greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen produced through wind powered alkaline electrolysis produced emission data 5.25 g of CO2 equivalent per MJ, compared to the 210 g per MJ produced by a medium efficiency diesel equivalent system, a result 40 times larger. However, with current infrastructure in most countries not utilising a great amount of green energy production, the effects of hydrogen usage could be more dangerous than current fuel sources, owing to the incredible energy requirements of hydrogen production, with even grid (UK) powered electrolysis producing an emission level of 284 g per MJ, which is an increase against standard diesel systems. From this the research concludes that without global infrastructure change, hydrogen will remain as a potential fuel rather than a common one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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24 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Connectivity Reliability of a Maritime Transport Network: A Case of Imported Crude Oil in China
by Jiashi Wang, Xinjian Wang, Yinwei Feng, Yuhao Cao, Zicheng Guo and Zhengjiang Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081597 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Crude oil transportation is a vital component of the global energy supply, and the global Crude Oil Maritime Transportation Network (COMTN) plays a crucial role as a carrier for crude oil transportation. Once the network faces attacks that result in the failure of [...] Read more.
Crude oil transportation is a vital component of the global energy supply, and the global Crude Oil Maritime Transportation Network (COMTN) plays a crucial role as a carrier for crude oil transportation. Once the network faces attacks that result in the failure of certain routes, a severe threat is posed to the crude oil supply security of importing countries. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the reliability of the COMTN. This study proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of the imported COMTN by analyzing the impact of node failures. Firstly, the network is constructed using complex networks (CNs) theory, with ports, canals, and straits as nodes, and shipping routes as directed edges. Secondly, based on the Weighted Leader Rank algorithm, a comprehensive evaluation metric for CNs is established, and a node importance assessment model is developed to rank the nodes accordingly. Thirdly, a case study is conducted using China’s imported COMTN as an example, evaluating the connectivity reliability (CR) under random and deliberate attack scenarios. Finally, measures and recommendations are provided to enhance the CR of China’s imported COMTN. The findings indicate that deliberate attacks pose a greater threat, and reliability varies across maritime routes, with the Americas route exhibiting higher reliability compared to the Middle East and Southeast Asia routes. The results of this study can provide relevant recommendations for policy makers. The model proposed in this study can also be applied to other countries and regions to assess the connectivity reliability of their local COMTNs and develop appropriate measures for the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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23 pages, 1921 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Viability of Fuel Cells as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel Generators on Ships
by Hossein Seyfi, David Hitchmough, Milad Armin and Eddie Blanco-Davis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081489 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
This study investigates methods for reducing air pollution in the shipping sector, particularly in port areas. The study examines the use of fuel cells as an alternative to diesel generators. Environmental pollution at ports remains a critical issue, so using fuel cells as [...] Read more.
This study investigates methods for reducing air pollution in the shipping sector, particularly in port areas. The study examines the use of fuel cells as an alternative to diesel generators. Environmental pollution at ports remains a critical issue, so using fuel cells as an alternative to conventional energy systems warrants further research. This study compares commercial fuel cell types that can be used on a case study very large crude carrier (VLCC) vessel specifically, although the technology is applicable to other vessels and requirements. Seven different fuel cell types were ranked based on five criteria to accomplish this. The proton-exchange membrane cell type was found to be the most suitable fuel cell type for the case study vessel. Based on the input fuel, ammonia-based hydrogen storage has been identified as the most promising option, along with using an ammonia reforming unit to produce pure hydrogen. Furthermore, this study provides an integrated fuel cell module and highlights the economic, environmental, and maintenance aspects of implementing the proton-exchange membrane fuel cell module for this case study. It also calculates the required space as a crucial constraint of implementing fuel cell technology at sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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Review

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28 pages, 768 KiB  
Review
Short Sea Shipping in the Age of Sustainability, Autonomous Navigation and Digitalization
by Pedro M. Batista Santos and Tiago A. Santos
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020252 - 31 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
This paper presents the comprehensive state-of-the-art on the challenges that short sea shipping currently faces across the world. The concept and its relationship with coastal shipping are introduced, followed by a review of the EU policies for short sea shipping and its practical [...] Read more.
This paper presents the comprehensive state-of-the-art on the challenges that short sea shipping currently faces across the world. The concept and its relationship with coastal shipping are introduced, followed by a review of the EU policies for short sea shipping and its practical impacts in modal split. A survey of the literature on the strong and weak points of this form of transportation is carried out, aimed at explaining the difficulties in achieving relevant modal shifts from road to sea. The experience with short sea shipping across the world is described and discussed, providing a global perspective. The paper then discusses the main challenges and opportunities in this field, namely decarbonisation, autonomous navigation, and digitalization. Conclusions are drawn on the possible impact of these game changing developments in this segment of the shipping industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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24 pages, 4648 KiB  
Review
Simultaneous Utilization of Multiple Radio Access Networks in Ubiquitous 6G Connectivity for Autonomous Ships: Opportunities and Challenges
by Hyounhee Koo, Changho Ryoo and Wooseong Kim
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112106 - 3 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
The growing significance of ubiquitous 6G connectivity within the maritime sector is a consequence of its evolution into an era characterized by the adoption of autonomous ships. This evolution necessitates the development of adaptable communication capabilities, even in the face of increasing heterogeneity [...] Read more.
The growing significance of ubiquitous 6G connectivity within the maritime sector is a consequence of its evolution into an era characterized by the adoption of autonomous ships. This evolution necessitates the development of adaptable communication capabilities, even in the face of increasing heterogeneity in Radio Access Networks (RANs). This heterogeneity is a consequence of the extended lifespans of maritime communication technologies used by both legacy and emerging ships at sea, in contrast to the generational shift seen in terrestrial communication technologies. This paper undertakes a comprehensive examination and provides an insightful overview of communication technologies within the framework of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards with the aim of preparing for the forthcoming 6G standardization to enable ubiquitous 6G connectivity in the maritime domain. The primary focus of this paper is the mobile RAN entities (e.g., satellites and uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs)) positioned for integration into the 5G and beyond systems. These entities are distinguished by their differences from conventional terrestrial RAN entities, which are typically stationary on land. This integration enables User Equipment (UE) to connect to various RAN entities, including mobile RANs, interconnected with core networks, thereby granting UE secure access to external internets through 5G and beyond systems, enabling them to enjoy a diverse range of application services, even in areas beyond terrestrial coverage, such as at sea. This paper further conducts an in-depth analysis of a transport layer-level solution known as the Access Traffic Steering, Switching, and Splitting (ATSSS) feature enabling a concurrent connection to multiple RANs for data-traffic delivery. Furthermore, this paper explores opportunities and challenges for future research in the realm of forthcoming 6G standardization within 3GPP, especially when combined with the ATSSS features for the success of autonomous ships within the maritime sector. These considerations encompass the concept of autonomous ships as mobile RAN entities, the integration of legacy maritime communications into the 6G framework, and the variability in maritime channel measurements, generally employed as one of the criteria for selecting an appropriate RAN among multiple options, influenced by uncontrollable factors such as climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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35 pages, 2307 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Material Compatibility and Safety Standards for Liquid Hydrogen Cargo and Fuel Containment Systems in Marine Applications
by Myung-Sung Kim and Kang Woo Chun
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(10), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11101927 - 6 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
As the maritime industry’s emphasis on sustainable fuels has increased, liquid hydrogen (LH2) has emerged as a promising alternative due to its high energy density and zero-emission characteristics. While the experience of using natural gas in ships can serve as a [...] Read more.
As the maritime industry’s emphasis on sustainable fuels has increased, liquid hydrogen (LH2) has emerged as a promising alternative due to its high energy density and zero-emission characteristics. While the experience of using natural gas in ships can serve as a basis for the introduction of hydrogen, the different risks associated with the two fuels must also be considered. This review article provides a methodology for selecting suitable metal materials for shipboard LH2 storage and piping systems based on operational requirements. The effects of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen environments on metal materials are first comprehensively reviewed. The minimum requirements for metal materials in liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage systems, as stipulated in the IGC and IGF codes, were used as a baseline to establish minimum requirements for liquid hydrogen. The applicability of austenitic stainless steel, a representative metal material for cryogenic use, to a liquid hydrogen environment according to nickel content was examined. In order to apply liquid hydrogen to the marine environment, the minimum requirements for liquid hydrogen were organized based on the minimum requirements for metal materials in the LNG storage system covered by the IGC and IGF codes. Finally, to expand the material selection criteria for low-temperature cargo and fuel storage facilities at sea, slow strain tensile testing, fatigue life, and fracture toughness considering the hydrogen environment and cryogenic temperature were derived as evaluation items. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Maritime Techniques and Technologies, and Their Safety)
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