The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence

A special issue of Journal of Intelligence (ISSN 2079-3200).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 19886

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Intelligence has been defined in a variety of ways, mainly focusing on our cognitive capacities—how easily we understand, how quickly we can find ways to solve something, and how successfully we can find the best solution to a problem. How intelligent a student is has largely been evaluated by test performance in the classroom, and it is difficult for the lay person to disagree with the notion that individuals with higher academic grades are more intelligent than those with lower academic grades. In this Special Issue, we are interested in the less researched, more complex factors that affect one’s perception of intelligence, including metacognitive biases, the impostor phenomenon, illusions of learning, and feelings of entitlement.

Metacognition has been defined as the process of two components, monitoring and control. When we monitor our learning, we might judge that we do not understand the question. Given this, we could then control our behavior accordingly. For instance, we might spend more time studying or seek more information. If both the monitoring and control processes were in place, then learning is more likely to occur, leading to a heightened test performance and the perception of high intelligence. What, though, impacts the control process? There are some data that suggest that even when one’s monitoring process is intact, the control process might be obstructed for other reasons. For instance, people who fall high on the impostorism scale might be less likely to ask for feedback, first-generation students might feel anxiety about being “found out” that they do not understand as easily as others, East Asian students are less likely to say their opinions out loud, and one’s socioeconomic background seems to affect the amount of entitlement one feels. Such data suggest that when one is aware that they do not fully understand the problem, they are not likely to seek the help that would be needed to fill their knowledge gap. In any educational setting, such factors would be devastating to the learning process.

To take one real-world example, consider the diverse college class. When explaining a complicated problem, there is sure to be some uncertainty in the minds of many students. Many are likely to monitor their ongoing learning, and will, correctly, judge that they are confused, or that they need more time to process the information. While an intelligent control strategy might then be to raise one’s hand and ask for clarification, very few students might actually do so. It is easy to imagine that students might feel nervous about being the only one who is confused, about being different than their classmates, or even evaluated by their teacher as someone “not so intelligent”. Ironically, is a lack of intelligence based on the idea that one knows when one does not know and how to seek the information needed?

Intelligence has been mostly thought of as something observed or unobserved, including the correctness of an answer, the quickness of a solution, and even one’s visible behaviors that represent curiosity—time allocation, grit, and persistence. This special issue aims to be a collection of papers examining the more subtle factors that might change the ways in which one's intelligence is perceived, either by oneself or by others. Thus, we are interested in papers that:

  1. Present factors that would have an effect on one’s metacognitive control decisions;
  2. Provide reasons for why such factors differ across individuals or groups (gender, race, and ethnicity);
  3. Suggest ways in which to address any advantages or disadvantages that might occur;
  4. Offer a real-world perspective of intelligence in a social setting, such as in the classroom.

A few example papers that fall nicely within these categories are the following:

  • Canning, E. A., LaCosse, J., Kroeper, K. M., and Murphy, M. C. (2020). Feeling like an imposter: The effect of perceived classroom competition on the daily psychological experiences of first-generation college students. Social Psychological and Personality Science11(5), 647-657.
  • Aviv Orner and Hadar Netz (2021): Taking, begging, or waiting for the floor: students’ social backgrounds, entitlement and agency in classroom discourse, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, DOI: 10.1080/01596306.2021.1989573.
  • Ji, E., Son, L. K., and Kim, M. S. (2022). Emotion perception rules abide by cultural display rules: Koreans and Americans weigh outward emotion expressions (emoticons) differently. Experimental Psychology69(2), 83-103.

Please note that the “Planned Papers” Section on the webpage does not imply that these papers will eventually be accepted; all manuscripts will be subject to the journal’s normal and rigorous peer review process.

Prof. Dr. Lisa K. Son
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Intelligence is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 545 KiB  
Article
Thinking about Believing: Can Metacognitive Reflection Encourage Belief Updating?
by Allison P. O’Leary and Wesley Fletcher
J. Intell. 2024, 12(5), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12050047 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 592
Abstract
People often cling to their beliefs even in the face of counterevidence. The current study explored metacognitive reflection as a potential driver for belief updating. In a randomized controlled experiment (n = 155), participants rated their degree of agreement with a statement [...] Read more.
People often cling to their beliefs even in the face of counterevidence. The current study explored metacognitive reflection as a potential driver for belief updating. In a randomized controlled experiment (n = 155), participants rated their degree of agreement with a statement regarding genetic modification in humans. Following this, participants were presented with a passage containing an argument counter to their indicated belief. Participants in the metacognition condition were asked to deeply reflect on the ways in which the passage was similar to or different from their current beliefs. Participants in the control condition were asked to engage in more shallow reflection on the composition of the passage. After reflecting on the counterevidence, participants were asked to again rate their agreement with the statement regarding human gene modification. Both groups updated their initial beliefs to be more consistent with the presented counterevidence. Although greater belief updating was observed in those who metacognitively reflected on the passage, this effect did not reach significance (p = .055). These findings suggest that reflecting on counterevidence has the potential to encourage belief updating, regardless of whether that reflection is metacognitive in nature, and provide promise for future work investigating the role of metacognition in belief updating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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29 pages, 4214 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive Management of Attention in Online Learning
by Matthew Jensen Hays, Scott Richard Kustes and Elizabeth Ligon Bjork
J. Intell. 2024, 12(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12040046 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Performance during training is a poor predictor of long-term retention. Worse yet, conditions of training that produce rapidly improving performance typically do not produce long-lasting, generalizable learning. As a result, learners and instructors alike can be misled into adopting training or educational experiences [...] Read more.
Performance during training is a poor predictor of long-term retention. Worse yet, conditions of training that produce rapidly improving performance typically do not produce long-lasting, generalizable learning. As a result, learners and instructors alike can be misled into adopting training or educational experiences that are suboptimal for producing actual learning. Computer-based educational training platforms can counter this unfortunate tendency by providing only productive conditions of instruction—even if they are unintuitive (e.g., spacing instead of massing). The use of such platforms, however, introduces a different liability: being easy to interrupt. An assessment of this possible liability is needed given the enormous disruption to modern education brought about by COVID-19 and the subsequent widespread emergency adoption of computer-based remote instruction. The present study was therefore designed to (a) explore approaches for detecting interruptions that can be reasonably implemented by an instructor, (b) determine the frequency at which students are interrupted during a cognitive-science-based digital learning experience, and (c) establish the extent to which the pandemic and ensuing lockdowns affected students’ metacognitive ability to maintain engagement with their digital learning experiences. Outliers in time data were analyzed with increasing complexity and decreasing subjectivity to identify when learners were interrupted. Results indicated that only between 1.565% and 3.206% of online interactions show evidence of learner interruption. And although classroom learning was inarguably disrupted by the pandemic, learning in the present, evidence-based platform appeared to be immune. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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24 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Personalized Nudges on Cognitively Disengaged Student Behavior in Low-Stakes Assessments
by Burcu Arslan and Bridgid Finn
J. Intell. 2023, 11(11), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11110204 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
In educational settings, students rely on metacognitive processes to determine whether or not to exert effort. We investigated ways to minimize cognitively disengaged responses (i.e., not-fully-effortful responses) during a low-stakes mathematics assessment. Initially, we established theory-driven time thresholds for each item to detect [...] Read more.
In educational settings, students rely on metacognitive processes to determine whether or not to exert effort. We investigated ways to minimize cognitively disengaged responses (i.e., not-fully-effortful responses) during a low-stakes mathematics assessment. Initially, we established theory-driven time thresholds for each item to detect such responses. We then administered the test to 800 eighth-graders across three conditions: (a) control (n = 271); (b) instruction (n = 267); and (c) nudge (n = 262). In the instruction condition, students were told to exert their best effort before starting the assessment. In the nudge condition, students were prompted to give their best effort following each first-attempt response that was both incorrect and not-fully-effortful. Therefore, students had multiple opportunities to adjust their level of effort. Nudges, but not effort instruction, significantly reduced students’ not-fully-effortful responses. Neither the nudges nor the effort instruction significantly impacted performance. In a post-test survey, most students reported that they received nudges whenever they did not know the answer (55%). Overall, these findings suggest that while nudges reduce cognitively disengaged responses, most students appear to strategically modulate their level of effort based on self-monitoring their knowledge and response effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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14 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Low-Performing Students Confidently Overpredict Their Grade Performance throughout the Semester
by Meltem Karaca, Lisa Geraci, Nayantara Kurpad, Marcus P. G. Lithander and Steve Balsis
J. Intell. 2023, 11(10), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11100188 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1935
Abstract
When asked to predict how they will perform on an upcoming exam, students are often poorly calibrated, typically in the direction of overpredicting their performance. Research shows that low-performing students’ calibration tends to remain poor across multiple tests over the course of a [...] Read more.
When asked to predict how they will perform on an upcoming exam, students are often poorly calibrated, typically in the direction of overpredicting their performance. Research shows that low-performing students’ calibration tends to remain poor across multiple tests over the course of a semester. We tested whether these students remain confident in these erroneously high grade predictions across the semester or whether their confidence wanes, suggesting some degree of metacognitive awareness. In two studies, students made grade predictions prior to taking four in-class exams and then rated their level of confidence in their predictions. Results from both studies showed that miscalibration and confidence remained stable across tests, suggesting that low-performing students continued to believe that they would perform well on upcoming exams despite prior evidence to the contrary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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20 pages, 1320 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive Effort Regulation across Cultures
by Rakefet Ackerman, Avital Binah-Pollak and Tirza Lauterman
J. Intell. 2023, 11(9), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11090171 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Success in cognitive tasks is associated with effort regulation and motivation. We employed the meta-reasoning approach to investigate metacognitive monitoring accuracy and effort regulation in problem solving across cultures. Adults from China, from Israel, and from Europe and North America (for simplicity: “Western [...] Read more.
Success in cognitive tasks is associated with effort regulation and motivation. We employed the meta-reasoning approach to investigate metacognitive monitoring accuracy and effort regulation in problem solving across cultures. Adults from China, from Israel, and from Europe and North America (for simplicity: “Western countries”) solved nonverbal problems and rated their confidence in their answers. The task involved identifying geometric shapes within silhouettes and, thus, required overcoming interference from holistic processing. The Western group displayed the worst monitoring accuracy, with both the highest overconfidence and poorest resolution (discrimination in confidence between the correct and wrong solutions). The Israeli group resembled the Western group in many respects but exhibited better monitoring accuracy. The Chinese group invested the most time and achieved the best success rates, demonstrating exceptional motivation and determination to succeed. However, their efficiency suffered as they correctly solved the fewest problems per minute of work. Effort regulation analysis based on the Diminishing Criterion Model revealed distinct patterns: the Western participants invested the least amount of time regardless of item difficulty and the Israelis invested more time only when addressing the hardest items. The Chinese group allocated more time throughout but particularly in moderate to difficult items, hinting at their strategic determination to overcome the challenge. Understanding cultural differences in metacognitive processes carries implications for theory (e.g., motivational factors) and practice (e.g., international teams, education). The present findings can serve as a foundation for future research in these and other domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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18 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Does Using None-of-the-Above (NOTA) Hurt Students’ Confidence?
by Jeri L. Little
J. Intell. 2023, 11(8), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11080157 - 7 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Students claim that multiple-choice questions can be tricky, particularly those with competitive incorrect choices or choices like none-of-the-above (NOTA). Additionally, assessment researchers suggest that using NOTA is problematic for assessment. In experiments conducted online (with trivia questions) and in the classroom (with course-related [...] Read more.
Students claim that multiple-choice questions can be tricky, particularly those with competitive incorrect choices or choices like none-of-the-above (NOTA). Additionally, assessment researchers suggest that using NOTA is problematic for assessment. In experiments conducted online (with trivia questions) and in the classroom (with course-related questions), I investigated the effects of including NOTA as a multiple-choice choice alternative on students’ confidence and performance. In four experiments, participants answered two types of questions: basic multiple-choice questions (basic condition) and equivalent questions in which one incorrect choice was replaced with NOTA (NOTA condition). Immediately after answering each question, participants rated their confidence in their answer to that question (item-by-item confidence). At the end of the experiments, participants made aggregate confidence judgments for the two types of questions and provided additional comments about the use of NOTA as an alternative. Surprisingly, I found no significant differences in item-by-item confidence or performance between the two conditions in any of the experiments. However, across all four experiments, when making aggregate judgments, participants provided lower confidence estimates in the NOTA condition than in the basic condition. Although people often report that NOTA questions hurt their confidence, the present results suggest that they might not—at least not on a question-by-question basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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31 pages, 17511 KiB  
Article
The Underappreciated Benefits of Interleaving for Category Learning
by Lan Anh Do and Ayanna K. Thomas
J. Intell. 2023, 11(8), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11080153 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
The present study examined the effects of study schedule (interleaving vs. blocking) and feature descriptions on category learning and metacognitive predictions of learning. Across three experiments, participants studied exemplars from different rock categories and later had to classify novel exemplars. Rule-based and information-based [...] Read more.
The present study examined the effects of study schedule (interleaving vs. blocking) and feature descriptions on category learning and metacognitive predictions of learning. Across three experiments, participants studied exemplars from different rock categories and later had to classify novel exemplars. Rule-based and information-based categorization was also manipulated by selecting rock sub-categories for which the optimal strategy was the one that aligned with the extraction of a simple rule, or the one that required integration of information that may be difficult to describe verbally. We observed consistent benefits of interleaving over blocking on rock classification, which generalized to both rule-based (Experiment 1) and information-integration learning (Experiments 1–3). However, providing feature descriptions enhanced classification accuracy only when the stated features were diagnostic of category membership, indicating that their benefits were limited to rule-based learning (Experiment 1) and did not generalize to information-integration learning (Experiments 1–3). Furthermore, our examination of participants’ metacognitive predictions demonstrated that participants were not aware of the benefits of interleaving on category learning. Additionally, providing feature descriptions led to higher predictions of categorization even when no significant benefits on actual performance were exhibited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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15 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive Awareness and the Hot Hand: When Winning, No Amount of Awareness Will Have Strong Believers Avoid the Heuristic
by Yeonho Choi and Lisa K. Son
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070149 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
In some instances, such as in sports, individuals will cheer on the player with the “hot hand”. But is the hot hand phenomenon a fallacy? The current research investigated (1) whether the hot hand fallacy (HHF) was related to risky decisions during a [...] Read more.
In some instances, such as in sports, individuals will cheer on the player with the “hot hand”. But is the hot hand phenomenon a fallacy? The current research investigated (1) whether the hot hand fallacy (HHF) was related to risky decisions during a gambling scenario, and (2) whether metacognitive awareness might be related to optimal decisions. After measuring for baseline tendencies of using the hot hand heuristic, participants were presented with a series of prior card gambling results that included either winning streaks or losing streaks and asked to choose one of two cards: a good card or a bad card. In addition, we examined whether high metacognitive awareness—as measured by the ability to discriminate between correct and incorrect responses—would be negatively related to the risky decisions induced by the hot hand heuristic. The results showed that our predictions were partially supported. For winning streaks, individuals who had a weak tendency for using the heuristic exhibited fewer risky decisions with higher metacognitive awareness. However, those with a strong baseline tendency for using the hot hand showed no sign of decrease with metacognitive awareness. On the whole, the complex data suggest that further research on the HHF would be helpful for implementing novel ways of avoiding the fallacy, if needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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23 pages, 1603 KiB  
Article
Blocked Presentation Leads Participants to Overutilize Domain Familiarity as a Cue for Judgments of Learning (JOLs)
by Michael J. Serra and Lindzi L. Shanks
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070142 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
The accuracy of judgments of learning (JOLs) is vital for efficient self-regulated learning. We examined a situation in which participants overutilize their prior knowledge of a topic (“domain familiarity”) as a basis for JOLs, resulting in substantial overconfidence in topics they know the [...] Read more.
The accuracy of judgments of learning (JOLs) is vital for efficient self-regulated learning. We examined a situation in which participants overutilize their prior knowledge of a topic (“domain familiarity”) as a basis for JOLs, resulting in substantial overconfidence in topics they know the most about. College students rank ordered their knowledge across ten different domains and studied, judged, and then completed a test on facts from those domains. Recall and JOLs were linearly related to self-rated knowledge, as was overconfidence: participants were most overconfident for topics they knew more about, indicating the overutilization of domain familiarity as a cue for JOLs. We examined aspects of the task that might contribute to this pattern, including the order of the task phases and whether participants studied the facts blocked by topic. Although participants used domain familiarity as a cue for JOLs regardless of task design, we found that studying facts from multiple topics blocked by topic led them to overutilize this cue. In contrast, whether participants completed the rank ordering before studying the facts or received a warning about this tendency did not alter the pattern. The relative accuracy of participants’ JOLs, however, was not related to domain familiarity under any conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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15 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Image Clarity Affects Tip-of-the-Tongue Rates for Faces
by Hyeonjeong Lee, Ali Pournaghdali and Bennett L. Schwartz
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070135 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Tip-of-the-tongue states are subjective experiences that unrecalled target words will be remembered. This study investigates if the visual fluency of familiar faces affects the likelihood of tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs) as well as name recall and name recognition. To manipulate visual fluency, three levels [...] Read more.
Tip-of-the-tongue states are subjective experiences that unrecalled target words will be remembered. This study investigates if the visual fluency of familiar faces affects the likelihood of tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs) as well as name recall and name recognition. To manipulate visual fluency, three levels of clarity for 396 celebrity faces were set: high, medium, and low clarity. Four hundred and twenty-nine participants were asked to recall the last names of the celebrities for all clarity levels, and, if they did not recall, to indicate if they experienced a TOT. Following the TOT question, they performed a name recognition test. Results showed that higher-clarity faces resulted in higher TOT rates than lower-clarity faces for unrecalled faces. Name recall was also higher for clearer faces. However, clarity level did not affect the correct answer rate on the name recognition test. These results support the view that perceptual cue-based factors influence TOT experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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41 pages, 3511 KiB  
Article
Piquing Curiosity: Déjà vu-Like States Are Associated with Feelings of Curiosity and Information-Seeking Behaviors
by Katherine L. McNeely-White and Anne M. Cleary
J. Intell. 2023, 11(6), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11060112 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Curiosity during learning increases information-seeking behaviors and subsequent memory retrieval success, yet the mechanisms that drive curiosity and its accompanying information-seeking behaviors remain elusive. Hints throughout the literature suggest that curiosity may result from a metacognitive signal—possibly of closeness to a not yet [...] Read more.
Curiosity during learning increases information-seeking behaviors and subsequent memory retrieval success, yet the mechanisms that drive curiosity and its accompanying information-seeking behaviors remain elusive. Hints throughout the literature suggest that curiosity may result from a metacognitive signal—possibly of closeness to a not yet accessible piece of information—that in turn leads the experiencer to seek out additional information that will resolve a perceptibly small knowledge gap. We examined whether metacognition sensations thought to signal the likely presence of an as yet unretrieved relevant memory (such as familiarity or déjà vu) might be involved. Across two experiments, when cued recall failed, participants gave higher curiosity ratings during reported déjà vu (Experiment 1) or déjà entendu (Experiment 2), and these states were associated with increased expenditure of limited experimental resources to discover the answer. Participants also spent more time attempting to retrieve information and generated more incorrect information when experiencing these déjà vu-like states than when not. We propose that metacognition signaling of the possible presence of an as yet unretrieved but relevant memory may drive curiosity and prompt information-seeking that includes further search efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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21 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Lay Definitions of Intelligence, Knowledge, and Memory: Inter- and Independence of Constructs
by Jennifer H. Coane, John Cipollini, Talia E. Barrett, Joshua Kavaler and Sharda Umanath
J. Intell. 2023, 11(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11050084 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
The present study examined how lay participants define the following concepts used widely in psychology: being intelligent, knowing, and remembering. In the scientific community, knowledge overlaps with the contents of semantic memory, crystallized intelligence reflects the accumulation of knowledge, knowledge and event memory [...] Read more.
The present study examined how lay participants define the following concepts used widely in psychology: being intelligent, knowing, and remembering. In the scientific community, knowledge overlaps with the contents of semantic memory, crystallized intelligence reflects the accumulation of knowledge, knowledge and event memory interact, and fluid intelligence and working memory correlate. Naturally, the lay public has implicit theories of these constructs. These theories mainly distinguish between intelligent and unintelligent behaviors and tend to include characteristics outside psychometric studies of intelligence, such as emotional intelligence. Here, we asked lay participants from the online platform Prolific to explain “what does being intelligent mean to you?” as well as “knowing” and “remembering” to understand their degree of alignment with theoretical conceptualizations in the research community. Qualitative coding of participant definitions showed that intelligence and knowledge are closely related, but asymmetrically—when defining what it means to be intelligent, participants reference knowledge, but intelligence is not considered in explaining knowing. Although participants note that intelligence is multi-faceted and related to problem-solving, there is an emphasis (in terms of frequency of mentions) on the crystallized side of intelligence (i.e., knowledge). A deeper understanding of lay participants’ mental models of these constructs (i.e., their metacognitions) is essential for bridging gaps between experts and the general public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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