Special Issue "Selected Papers from TERMIS European Chapter Meeting 2017 on “Biomechanics, Morphology and Imaging”"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mauro Alini

Musculoskeletal Regeneration Program, AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, 7270 Davos, Switzerland
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Interests: cartilage; intervertebral disc; angiogenesis; bone; bioreactor; stem cell; tissue regeneration
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Martin J Stoddart

Musculoskeletal Regeneration Program, AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, 7270 Davos, Switzerland
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Interests: mesenchymal stem cells; chondrogenesis; ostoegenesis; mechanobiology; gene therapy; bone; cartilage
Guest Editor
Dr. Victoria Workman

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
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Interests: regenerative medicine; 3D cell culture; bio-electrospraying; biological models; cell encapsulation; cellular kinetics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Katja Schenke-Layland

Eberhard Karls University, Dept. of Women’s Health, Research Institute for Women’s Health, Tuebingen, Germany; Fraunhofer IGB Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The TERMIS European Chapter Meeting 2017 (TERMIS-EU 2017) will be held in Davos, Switzerland, 26–30 June, 2017. More information about the conference can be found at https://www.termis.org/eu2017/.

Participants of the conference are cordially invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of JFMK. This Special Issue welcomes submission of previously unpublished manuscripts from original work on all aspects of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine focused the main attention on biomechanics, morphology and imaging.

Prof. Dr. Mauro Alini
Prof. Dr. Martin J Stoddart
Dr. Victoria Workman
Prof. Dr. Katja Schenke-Layland
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomechanics

  • morphology

  • imaging

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Osteoclast Formation within a Human Co-Culture System on Bone Material as an In Vitro Model for Bone Remodeling Processes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010017
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone remodeling can be mimicked in vitro by co-culture models. Based on bone cells, such co-cultures help to study synergistic morphological changes and the impact of materials and applied substances. Hence, we examined the formation of osteoclasts on bovine bone materials to prove [...] Read more.
Bone remodeling can be mimicked in vitro by co-culture models. Based on bone cells, such co-cultures help to study synergistic morphological changes and the impact of materials and applied substances. Hence, we examined the formation of osteoclasts on bovine bone materials to prove the bone resorption functionality of the osteoclasts in three different co-culture set-ups using human monocytes (hMCs) and (I) human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), (II) osteogenic differentiated hMSCs (hOBs), and (III) hOBs in addition of soluble monocyte-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cytokine receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL). We detected osteoclast-specific actin morphology, as well as the expression of cathepsin K and CD51/61 in single cells in set-up II and in numerous cells in set-up III. Resorption pits on bone material as characteristic proof of functional osteoclasts were not found in set-up I and II, but we detected such resorption pits in set–up III. We conclude in co-culture models without M-CSF and RANKL that monocytes can differentiate into osteoclasts that show the characteristic actin structures and protein expression. However, to receive functional bone resorbing osteoclasts in vitro, the addition of M-CSF and RANKL is needed. Moreover, we suggest the use of bone or bone-like materials for future studies evaluating osteoclastogenesis. Full article
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Applied Blood Flow Restriction Cuffs on Kinematics of Submaximal Sprinting
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2040045
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
It is unknown how sports activity combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the limbs can impact the exercising limb’s motion. We aimed to compare the lower limb kinematics between submaximal sprinting with and without BFR cuffs (i.e., BFR and normal conditions) when [...] Read more.
It is unknown how sports activity combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the limbs can impact the exercising limb’s motion. We aimed to compare the lower limb kinematics between submaximal sprinting with and without BFR cuffs (i.e., BFR and normal conditions) when they were applied on the upper thigh. Ten collegiate sprinters performed five 45-m submaximal sprint trials under normal and BFR conditions. The BFR was applied to both legs at the proximal portion of the thigh utilizing elastic cuffs. The cuff pressure was set at approximately 60% of estimated arterial occlusion pressure. Spatiotemporal and hip and knee joint kinematic variables for both legs during submaximal sprinting were obtained using a motion capture system. The results showed, for spatiotemporal variables, no significant difference (p > 0.653), a trivial or small effect size (0.050–0.205), and high correlation coefficients (r > 0.923) between conditions. Moreover, for the joint angles and angular velocities, no significant difference (p > 0.244) and a trivial or small effect size (0.003–0.538), as well as significant correlations (r >0.684) were found between conditions. These results indicate that, in general, there is probably no influence of BFR cuffs on the upper thigh on running kinematics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Image-Based Histological Evaluation of Scaffold-Free 3D Osteoblast Cultures
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2040042
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
PDF Full-text (6986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The analysis of tissue network characteristics and cell distribution using histological methods is widely used. However, image analysis still relies on manual evaluation methods, known as semi-quantitative analysis, which are time-consuming and to a certain degree user-specific. For this reason, automated imaging processing [...] Read more.
The analysis of tissue network characteristics and cell distribution using histological methods is widely used. However, image analysis still relies on manual evaluation methods, known as semi-quantitative analysis, which are time-consuming and to a certain degree user-specific. For this reason, automated imaging processing methods have an enormous potential to increase sample processing and reduce the variation that is caused by a user-specific evaluation. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a semi-automated image analysis process based on the open source software framework ImageJ and the plug-in Angiogenesis Analyzer to evaluate the quantitative degree of tissue damage within 3D cell constructs after mechanical loading. Within a proof-of-concept study, the semi-automated approach was applied to calculate the Node-to-Free Ratio (N/F-Ratio) and perform a strut analysis for histological evaluation of mechanically compressed samples of human osteoblast-derived 3D constructs. The N/F-Ratio revealed a median value of 1.29 for the control, whereas the values for the mechanically compressed samples decreased to 0.97 for 20% compression, 0.85 for 40%, and 0.86 for 60%. The strut analysis indicated a decrease of the connected branches with increasing compression rate. The newly developed and time-saving processing workflow was successfully established and can be carried out using available, open source software solutions. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
TGF-β1-Dependent Downregulation of HDAC9 Inhibits Maturation of Human Osteoblasts
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2040041
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key regulator of bone density. Recently, we have shown that TGF-β1 effectively blocks bone morphogenetic protein-induced maturation of human osteoblasts (hOBs) in a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent manner. To better understand the underlying mechanisms and to [...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key regulator of bone density. Recently, we have shown that TGF-β1 effectively blocks bone morphogenetic protein-induced maturation of human osteoblasts (hOBs) in a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent manner. To better understand the underlying mechanisms and to identify possible therapeutic targets, the current study aimed at characterizing the expression changes of different HDACs in hOBs following recombinant human TGF-β1 treatment and investigating the effect of the altered HDACs on both the proliferation and maturation of hOBs and osteogenic cell lines. As expected from our previous work, exposure to rhTGF-β1 induced the expression of HDACs (HDAC1, -2, -3, -6). However, to our surprise, rhTGF-β1 treatment strongly suppressed the expression of HDAC9 during osteogenic differentiation. HDAC9 is reported to suppress osteoclastogenesis; however, little is known about the role of HDAC9 in osteogenesis. Chemical inhibition of HDAC9 with TMP269 increased cell numbers of hOBs, but significantly decreased their osteogenic function (alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization). In osteogenic cell lines (MG-63, CAL-72 and SAOS-2), the expression of HDAC9 negatively correlates with their proliferation capacity and positively correlates with their osteogenic differentiation potential. Being able to boost osteoclasts while inhibiting osteoblasts makes HDAC9 an interesting therapeutic target to support fracture healing and bone metabolisms. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Shaping the Cell and the Future: Recent Advancements in Biophysical Aspects Relevant to Regenerative Medicine
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010002
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
In a worldwide effort to generate clinically useful therapeutic or preventive interventions, harnessing biophysical stimuli for directing cell fate is a powerful strategy. With the vision to control cell function through engineering cell shape, better understanding, measuring, and controlling cell shape for ultimately [...] Read more.
In a worldwide effort to generate clinically useful therapeutic or preventive interventions, harnessing biophysical stimuli for directing cell fate is a powerful strategy. With the vision to control cell function through engineering cell shape, better understanding, measuring, and controlling cell shape for ultimately utilizing cell shape-instructive materials is an emerging “hot” topic in regenerative medicine. This review highlights how quantitation of cellular morphology is useful not only for understanding the effects of different microenvironmental or biophysical stimuli on cells, but also how it could be used as a predictive marker of biological responses, e.g., by predicting future mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation. We introduce how high throughput image analysis, combined with computational tools, are increasingly being used to efficiently and accurately recognize cells. Moreover, we discuss how a panel of quantitative shape descriptors may be useful for measuring specific aspects of cellular and nuclear morphology in cell culture and tissues. This review focuses on the mechano-biological principle(s) through which biophysical cues can affect cellular shape, and recent insights on how specific cellular “baseline shapes” can intentionally be engineered, using biophysical cues. Hence, this review hopes to reveal how measuring and controlling cellular shape may aid in future regenerative medicine applications. Full article
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Graphical abstract

J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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