Special Issue "Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kazuo Azuma
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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Neurology and Oncology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8533, Japan
Tel. +81-857-31-5433; Fax: +81 857 31 5433
Interests: chitin; chitosan; functional food; wound healing; chitin nanofiber
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. R. Jayakumar
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Amrita Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi-682041, Kerala, India
Tel. 91-9995295407
Interests: functional biomaterials; nanoparticle; nanogels; nanofibers; hydrogels; scaffolds; drug delivery; tissue engineering; wound healing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitin is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is the major structural component in the exoskeleton of crab and shrimp shells and the cell wall of fungi and yeast. Chitin and Chitosan are linear polysaccharides, comprised of two monomeric units namely N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (N-acetylated groups) and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose residues (N-deacetylated groups, amino groups). The advantage of Chitin and Chitosan includes easy processability into scaffolds, membranes, bandages, sponges, films, hydrogels, microgels, nanogels, beads, micro-/nanoparticles and nanofibers forms. These processed Chitin and Chitosan materials are utilized for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, cosmetics, stem cell technology, anti-cancer treatments and drug delivery and functional foods.

The aim of this special issue is to discuss biomedical applications of chitin, chitosan and its derivatives. The research, review and future articles focusing on the above-mentioned fields are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Kazuo Azuma
Prof. Dr. R. Jayakumar
Guest Editors

 

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • chitin and chitosan
  • chitin and chitosan derivatives
  • beads, membranes, scaffolds
  • hydrogels
  • microparticles, nanoparticles, nanofibers
  • wound dressing
  • tissue engineering (bone, cartilage, ligament, liver, nerve, tendon & skin)
  • functional foods
  • drug delivery, imaging, therapy
  • stem cell technology
  • cancer treatment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
How Sensitive Is the Elasticity of Hydroxyapatite-Nanoparticle-Reinforced Chitosan Composite to Changes in Particle Concentration and Crystallization Temperature?
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(4), 986-998; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb6040986 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticle-reinforced chitosan composites are biocompatible and biodegradable structural materials that are used as biomaterials in tissue engineering. However, in order for these materials to function effectively as intended, e.g., to provide adequate structural support for repairing damaged tissues, it is necessary [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticle-reinforced chitosan composites are biocompatible and biodegradable structural materials that are used as biomaterials in tissue engineering. However, in order for these materials to function effectively as intended, e.g., to provide adequate structural support for repairing damaged tissues, it is necessary to analyse and optimise the material processing parameters that affect the relevant mechanical properties. Here we are concerned with the strength, stiffness and toughness of wet-spun HA-reinforced chitosan fibres. Unlike previous studies which have addressed each of these parameters as singly applied treatments, we have carried out an experiment designed using a two-factor analysis of variance to study the main effects of two key material processing parameters, namely HA concentration and crystallization temperature, and their interactions on the respective mechanical properties of the composite fibres. The analysis reveals that significant interaction occurs between the crystallization temperature and HA concentration. Starting at a low HA concentration level, the magnitude of the respective mechanical properties decreases significantly with increasing HA concentration until a critical HA concentration is reached, at around 0.20–0.30 (HA mass fraction), beyond which the magnitude of the mechanical properties increases significantly with HA concentration. The sensitivity of the mechanical properties to crystallization temperature is masked by the interaction between the two parameters—further analysis reveals that the dependence on crystallization temperature is significant in at least some levels of HA concentration. The magnitude of the mechanical properties of the chitosan composite fibre corresponding to 40 °C is higher than that at 100 °C at low HA concentration; the reverse applies at high HA concentration. In conclusion, the elasticity of the HA nanoparticle-reinforced chitosan composite fibre is sensitive to HA concentration and crystallization temperature, and there exists a critical concentration level whereby the magnitude of the mechanical property is a minimum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
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Open AccessArticle
Injectable Amorphous Chitin-Agarose Composite Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(3), 849-862; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb6030849 - 25 Aug 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
Injectable hydrogels are gaining popularity as tissue engineering constructs because of their ease of handling and minimal invasive delivery. Making hydrogels from natural polymers helps to overcome biocompatibility issues. Here, we have developed an Amorphous Chitin (ACh)-Agarose (Agr) composite hydrogel using a simpletechnique. [...] Read more.
Injectable hydrogels are gaining popularity as tissue engineering constructs because of their ease of handling and minimal invasive delivery. Making hydrogels from natural polymers helps to overcome biocompatibility issues. Here, we have developed an Amorphous Chitin (ACh)-Agarose (Agr) composite hydrogel using a simpletechnique. Rheological studies, such as viscoelastic behavior (elastic modulus, viscous modulus, yield stress, and consistency), inversion test, and injectability test, were carried out for different ACh-Agr concentrations. The composite gel, having a concentration of 1.5% ACh and 0.25% Agr, showed good elastic modulus (17.3 kPa), yield stress (3.8 kPa), no flow under gravity, injectability, and temperature stability within the physiological range. Based on these studies, the optimum concentration for injectability was found to be 1.5% ACh and 0.25% Agr. This optimized concentration was used for further studies and characterized using FT-IR and SEM. FT-IR studies confirmed the presence of ACh and Agr in the composite gel. SEM results showed that the lyophilized composite gel had good porosity and mesh like networks. The cytocompatibility of the composite gel was studied using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The composite gels showed good cell viability.These results indicated that this injectable composite gel can be used for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Thermosensitive Hydrogels of Chitosan, Sodium and Magnesium Glycerophosphate for Bone Regeneration Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(2), 192-203; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb6020192 - 09 Apr 2015
Cited by 10
Abstract
Thermosensitive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan neutralized with sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) have been studied as biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Magnesium (Mg) has been reported to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of bone forming cells. With the aim of improving the suitability [...] Read more.
Thermosensitive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan neutralized with sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) have been studied as biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Magnesium (Mg) has been reported to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of bone forming cells. With the aim of improving the suitability of the aforementioned chitosan hydrogels as materials for bone regeneration, Mg was incorporated by partial substitution of Na-β-GP with magnesium glycerophosphate (Mg-GP). Chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were also loaded with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which induces hydrogel mineralization. Hydrogels were characterized physicochemically with respect to mineralizability and gelation kinetics, and biologically with respect to cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. Substitution of Na-β-GP with Mg-GP did not negatively influence mineralizability. Cell biological testing showed that both chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were cytocompatible towards MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Hence, chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels can be used as an alternative to chitosan/Na-β-GP hydrogels for bone regeneration applications. However the incorporation of Mg in the hydrogels during hydrogel formation did not bring any appreciable physicochemical or biological benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Chitin, Chitosan, and Its Derivatives for Wound Healing: Old and New Materials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(1), 104-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb6010104 - 13 Mar 2015
Cited by 123Retraction
Abstract
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on [...] Read more.
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
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Open AccessReview
Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Chitin and Chitosan Oligosaccharides
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(1), 33-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb6010033 - 14 Jan 2015
Cited by 72
Abstract
Previous reports indicate that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomers (chitin oligosaccharide; NACOS) and d-glucosamine oligomers (chitosan oligosaccharide; COS) have various biological activities, especially against cancer and inflammation. In this review, we have summarized the findings of previous investigations that have focused on anticancer or anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Previous reports indicate that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomers (chitin oligosaccharide; NACOS) and d-glucosamine oligomers (chitosan oligosaccharide; COS) have various biological activities, especially against cancer and inflammation. In this review, we have summarized the findings of previous investigations that have focused on anticancer or anti-inflammatory properties of NACOS and COS. Moreover, we have introduced recent evaluation of NACOS and COS as functional foods against cancer and inflammatory disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
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Other

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Open AccessShort Communication
Development of Chitosan Scaffolds with Enhanced Mechanical Properties for Intestinal Tissue Engineering Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(4), 999-1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb6040999 - 13 Oct 2015
Cited by 13
Abstract
Massive resections of segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lead to intestinal discontinuity. Functional tubular replacements are needed. Different scaffolds were designed for intestinal tissue engineering application. However, none of the studies have evaluated the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. We have previously [...] Read more.
Massive resections of segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lead to intestinal discontinuity. Functional tubular replacements are needed. Different scaffolds were designed for intestinal tissue engineering application. However, none of the studies have evaluated the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. We have previously shown the biocompatibility of chitosan as a natural material in intestinal tissue engineering. Our scaffolds demonstrated weak mechanical properties. In this study, we enhanced the mechanical strength of the scaffolds with the use of chitosan fibers. Chitosan fibers were circumferentially-aligned around the tubular chitosan scaffolds either from the luminal side or from the outer side or both. Tensile strength, tensile strain, and Young’s modulus were significantly increased in the scaffolds with fibers when compared with scaffolds without fibers. Burst pressure was also increased. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was maintained as demonstrated by the adhesion of smooth muscle cells around the different kinds of scaffolds. The chitosan scaffolds with fibers provided a better candidate for intestinal tissue engineering. The novelty of this study was in the design of the fibers in a specific alignment and their incorporation within the scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
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