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Open AccessArticle

Development of Thermosensitive Hydrogels of Chitosan, Sodium and Magnesium Glycerophosphate for Bone Regeneration Applications

Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, Prague, Czech Republic
Faculty of Civil Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, ul. Poznanska 2, Rzeszow 35-084, Poland
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials (PBM) Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4, Gent 9000, Belgium
Department Material Science & Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde 9052, Belgium
Laboratory for Environmental and Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit (GhEnToxLab), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Gent 9000, Belgium
Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Łódź, ul. Wólczańska 213, Łódź 90-924, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Nano and Biophotonics group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Gent 9000, Belgium.
Academic Editor: Kazuo Azuma
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(2), 192-203;
Received: 24 December 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan)
Thermosensitive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan neutralized with sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) have been studied as biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Magnesium (Mg) has been reported to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of bone forming cells. With the aim of improving the suitability of the aforementioned chitosan hydrogels as materials for bone regeneration, Mg was incorporated by partial substitution of Na-β-GP with magnesium glycerophosphate (Mg-GP). Chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were also loaded with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which induces hydrogel mineralization. Hydrogels were characterized physicochemically with respect to mineralizability and gelation kinetics, and biologically with respect to cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. Substitution of Na-β-GP with Mg-GP did not negatively influence mineralizability. Cell biological testing showed that both chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were cytocompatible towards MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Hence, chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels can be used as an alternative to chitosan/Na-β-GP hydrogels for bone regeneration applications. However the incorporation of Mg in the hydrogels during hydrogel formation did not bring any appreciable physicochemical or biological benefit. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; hydrogel; cytocompatibility; magnesium; mineralization chitosan; hydrogel; cytocompatibility; magnesium; mineralization
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Lisková, J.; Bačaková, L.; Skwarczyńska, A.L.; Musial, O.; Bliznuk, V.; De Schamphelaere, K.; Modrzejewska, Z.; Douglas, T.E. Development of Thermosensitive Hydrogels of Chitosan, Sodium and Magnesium Glycerophosphate for Bone Regeneration Applications. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 192-203.

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