Biomaterials and Advanced Therapies against Virus: How Could They Help Us for Corona Virus Infection?

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2022) | Viewed by 28774

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: precision medicine; regenerative medicine; biosensors; exosomes; stem cell; biomaterials; 3D printing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of those global challenges that transcends territorial, political, ideological, religious, cultural, and certainly academic boundaries. It is highly contagious and may lead to acute respiratory distress or multiple organ failure in severe cases. On January 30, 2020, the outbreak was declared a “public health emergency of international concern” (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Public health and healthcare workers are at the frontline, working to contain and to mitigate the spread of this disease. In this context, what will be the global impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and what are the strategies that we could use to combat it? Although intervening biological and immunological responses against viral infection may seem far from the physical, mathematical sciences and engineering that typically work with inanimate objects, there actually is much that can—and should—be done to help in this global crisis. Moreover, because the virus that causes COVID-19 is new, modelers need estimates for key model parameters. The World Health Organization organizes regular calls for COVID-19 modelers to compare strategies and outcomes, since that's a huge help in reducing discrepancies between the models that policymakers find difficult to handle. Also, artificial intelligence (AI) can help, since it has demonstrated great success in the medical imaging domain due to its high capability of feature extraction. In the case of pandemic crisis situations, a crucial lack of protective material such as protective face masks for healthcare professionals can occur. Proof of concepts (PoC) and prototypes need to be developed, as do novel biomaterials against virus or novel system of sterilization.

With this perspective, the aim of this Special Issue is to collect contributions from different research fields related to the development or application of novel strategies to combat COVID-19.

Dr. Barbara Zavan
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Biomaterials 
  • artificial intelligence 
  • 3D printing 
  • digital twins 
  • modelling 
  • advanced therapies 
  • exosomes 
  • lab on chip 
  • stem cells

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2096 KiB  
Communication
Recommendations for Dental Care during COVID-19 Pandemic
by Katarzyna Gurzawska-Comis, Kathrin Becker, Giulia Brunello, Agata Gurzawska and Frank Schwarz
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061833 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 11024
Abstract
Dental clinics were suspected to be a hotspot for nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), yet there has been no clear recommendation about emergency dental care and appropriate personal protective equipment during pandemics. In this paper, we aim to summarize recommendations for [...] Read more.
Dental clinics were suspected to be a hotspot for nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), yet there has been no clear recommendation about emergency dental care and appropriate personal protective equipment during pandemics. In this paper, we aim to summarize recommendations for (i) patient risk assessment, (ii) patient triage, and (iii) measures to prevent infection of health professionals and nosocomial transmission in dental clinics. The available evidence was collected by performing searches on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. We reviewed papers on COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), influenza, and related respiratory viral diseases. Legal and ethical frameworks, as well as international (e.g., World Health Organization (WHO)) and national (e.g., public health institutes, dental associations) guidelines were screened to summarize recommendations related to dental emergency care. To assess the patient risk, a questionnaire was developed to classify patients at unknown, high, and very high risk. Patient triage recommendations were summarized in a flow chart that graded the emergency level of treatments (i.e., urgent, as soon as possible, and postpone). Measures to prevent disease transmission based on current evidence were grouped for dental health professionals, dental clinics, and patients. The present recommendations may support health professionals implement preventative measures during the pandemic. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 1064 KiB  
Review
Enhanced Medical and Community Face Masks with Antimicrobial Properties: A Systematic Review
by Katy Stokes, Roberto Peltrini, Umberto Bracale, Marcella Trombetta, Leandro Pecchia and Francesco Basoli
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4066; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184066 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3500
Abstract
Face masks help to limit transmission of infectious diseases entering through the nose and mouth. Beyond reprocessing and decontamination, antimicrobial treatments could extend the lifetime of face masks whilst also further reducing the chance of disease transmission. Here, we review the efficacy of [...] Read more.
Face masks help to limit transmission of infectious diseases entering through the nose and mouth. Beyond reprocessing and decontamination, antimicrobial treatments could extend the lifetime of face masks whilst also further reducing the chance of disease transmission. Here, we review the efficacy of treatments pertaining antimicrobial properties to medical face masks, filtering facepiece respirators and non-medical face masks. Searching databases identified 2113 studies after de-duplication. A total of 17 relevant studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Risk of bias was found to be moderate or low in all cases. Sixteen articles demonstrated success in avoiding proliferation (if not elimination) of viruses and/or bacteria. In terms of methodology, no two articles employed identical approaches to efficacy testing. Our findings highlight that antimicrobial treatment is a promising route to extending the life and improving the safety of face masks. In order to reach significant achievements, shared and precise methodology and reporting is needed. Full article
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29 pages, 1758 KiB  
Review
Could Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Be a Therapeutic Option for Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients?
by Chiara Gardin, Letizia Ferroni, Juan Carlos Chachques and Barbara Zavan
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092762 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5187
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The severe form of the disease is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and most [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The severe form of the disease is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and most critically ill patients require mechanical ventilation and support in intensive care units. A significant portion of COVID-19 patients also develop complications of the cardiovascular system, primarily acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, or heart failure. To date, no specific antiviral therapy is available for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being explored for the management of a number of diseases that currently have limited or no therapeutic options, thanks to their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and pro-angiogenic properties. Here, we briefly introduce the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications in the heart and lungs. Next, we describe some of the most significant clinical evidence of the successful use of MSC-derived exosomes in animal models of lung and heart injuries, which might strengthen our hypothesis in terms of their utility for also treating critically ill COVID-19 patients. Full article
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41 pages, 5618 KiB  
Review
SARS-CoV-2: Repurposed Drugs and Novel Therapeutic Approaches—Insights into Chemical Structure—Biological Activity and Toxicological Screening
by Cristina Adriana Dehelean, Voichita Lazureanu, Dorina Coricovac, Marius Mioc, Roxana Oancea, Iasmina Marcovici, Iulia Pinzaru, Codruta Soica, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis and Octavian Cretu
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072084 - 2 Jul 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 7837
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic represents the primary public health concern nowadays, and great efforts are made worldwide for efficient management of this crisis. Considerable scientific progress was recorded regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in terms of genomic structure, diagnostic tools, viral [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic represents the primary public health concern nowadays, and great efforts are made worldwide for efficient management of this crisis. Considerable scientific progress was recorded regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in terms of genomic structure, diagnostic tools, viral transmission, mechanism of viral infection, symptomatology, clinical impact, and complications, but these data evolve constantly. Up to date, neither an effective vaccine nor SARS-CoV-2 specific antiviral agents have been approved, but significant advances were enlisted in this direction by investigating repurposed approved drugs (ongoing clinical trials) or developing innovative antiviral drugs (preclinical and clinical studies). This review presents a thorough analysis of repurposed drug admitted for compassionate use from a chemical structure—biological activity perspective highlighting the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties and the toxicophore groups linked to potential adverse effects. A detailed pharmacological description of the novel potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics was also included. In addition, a comprehensible overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in terms of general description and structure, mechanism of viral infection, and clinical impact was portrayed. Full article
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