Advances in Gynecological Diseases

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Obstetrics & Gynecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 3829

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, 34100 Trieste, Italy
Interests: women's Health; mini-invasive surgery; new therapy; urogynecology; female healthcare
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This Special Issue, entitled “Advances in Gynecological disease”, will focus on the latest diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that enable adequate treatment of gynecological pathologies. Technological innovations and new diagnostic techniques allow increasingly precise and faster diagnoses to be performed. Technological and pharmacological innovations, combined with the use of minimally invasive surgery (hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and robotic surgery), have also enabled increasingly precise and tailored therapy to be introduced.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in IJERPH.

Dr. Guglielmo Stabile
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gynecology
  • women's health
  • mini-invasive surgery
  • laparoscopy
  • hysteroscopy
  • diagnostic imaging
  • gynecological oncology
  • endometriosis
  • new therapy
  • urogynecology
  • female healthcare

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Developing a Nomogram for Prioritizing Hysteroscopy in Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis: A Case-Control Study
by Bruna Bottura, Raphael Federicci Haddad, Vanessa Alvarenga-Bezerra, Vinicius Campos, Luiza Perez, Carolina Resende, Fernanda de Almeida Asencio, Adolfo Wenjaw Liao, Mariano Tamura Vieira Gomes, Eduardo Zlotnik and Renato Moretti-Marques
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13041145 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 539
Abstract
(1) Background: The pandemic led to significant healthcare disruptions, resulting in postponed surgeries and extended waiting times for non-urgent treatments, including hysteroscopies essential for diagnosing endometrial cancer. This study aims to formulate a risk stratification model to enhance the prioritization of hysteroscopy procedures [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The pandemic led to significant healthcare disruptions, resulting in postponed surgeries and extended waiting times for non-urgent treatments, including hysteroscopies essential for diagnosing endometrial cancer. This study aims to formulate a risk stratification model to enhance the prioritization of hysteroscopy procedures in Brazil; (2) Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Vila Santa Catarina Hospital in São Paulo, analyzing the medical records of 2103 women who underwent hysteroscopy between March 2019 and March 2022. We used bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression to identify risk factors associated with endometrial cancer and formulate a nomogram; (3) Results: The findings revealed a 5.5% incidence of pre-invasive and invasive endometrial disease in the study population, with an average waiting time of 120 days for hysteroscopy procedures. The main risk factors identified were hypertension, diabetes, postmenopausal bleeding, and obesity; (4) Conclusions: This research highlights the urgent need for efficient prioritization of hysteroscopy procedures in the wake of the pandemic. The developed nomogram is an innovative tool for identifying patients at higher risk of endometrial cancer, thus facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment and improving overall patient outcomes in a strained healthcare system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gynecological Diseases)
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14 pages, 1465 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Secondary Prevention Following Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis in the Improvement of Reproductive Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Tianyu Wu, Tao Fang, Yuanhang Dong, Jingxia Mao, Jia Wang, Ming Zhao and Ruijin Wu
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010073 - 22 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is primarily caused by endometrial injury, and hysteroscopic adhesiolysis is presently the main treatment. However, postoperative recurrence and poor pregnancy outcomes remain intractable. In this study, we aim to assess the effects of different treatments on clinical symptoms and reproductive [...] Read more.
Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is primarily caused by endometrial injury, and hysteroscopic adhesiolysis is presently the main treatment. However, postoperative recurrence and poor pregnancy outcomes remain intractable. In this study, we aim to assess the effects of different treatments on clinical symptoms and reproductive outcomes in IUA. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary university-affiliated women’s hospital. The study included 1449 consecutive women who desired to have a baby and were diagnosed with IUA through hysteroscopy from January 2016 to December 2021. Patients with IUA underwent hysteroscopic electric resection (E) or cold scissors separation (C), as well as hormone therapy and one or both of the following secondary prevention measures: intrauterine devices (IUD) and hyaluronic acid gel (HA). The pregnancy rate (PR) was significantly higher in the E + IUD + HA (90.23% CI: 85.82, 94.64%) than in other groups (p = 0.000) groups. The rates of full-term birth (p = 0.000) and live birth (p = 0.000) were significantly higher in the E + IUD + HA (67.82% and 68.97%, respectively) and E + HA (62.41% and 63.91%, respectively) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly higher PR in women who received second-look hysteroscopy (OR 1.571, 95% CI: 1.009–2.224, p = 0.013) and E + IUD + HA (OR 4.772, 95% CI: 2.534–8.987, p = 0.000). Combining hysteroscopic electric resection with IUDs and HA gel could prevent adhesion recurrence and improve postoperative pregnancy and live birth outcomes in IUA. Furthermore, postoperative second-look hysteroscopy may increase the PR and shorten the waiting period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gynecological Diseases)
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Review

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14 pages, 234 KiB  
Review
Endometriosis Predictive Models Based on Self-Assessment Questionnaire, Evidence from Clinical Examination or Imaging Findings: A Narrative Review
by Fani Gkrozou, Orestis Tsonis, Felice Sorrentino, Luigi Nappi, Anastasia Vatopoulou, Chara Skentou, Suruchi Pandey, Minas Paschopoulos and Angelos Daniilidis
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020356 - 08 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Objective: The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate existing questionnaires on predictive models for endometriosis. These symptom-based models have the potential to serve as screening tools for adult women to detect endometriosis. Data sources: A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate existing questionnaires on predictive models for endometriosis. These symptom-based models have the potential to serve as screening tools for adult women to detect endometriosis. Data sources: A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted to identify studies on endometriosis screening. Selection of studies: The search targeted predictive models for endometriosis localisation, bowel involvement, need for bowel surgery and fertility. Due to the heterogeneity identified, a systematic review was not possible. A total of 23 studies were identified. Data extraction and synthesis: Among these studies, twelve included measures for general endometriosis, two targeted specific sites, four focused on deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), and three addressed the need for endometriosis-related bowel surgery. Many measures combined clinical, imaging and laboratory tests with patient questionnaires. Validation of these models as screening tools was lacking in all studies, as the focus was on diagnosis rather than screening. Conclusion: This review did not identify any fully validated, symptom-based questionnaires for endometriosis screening in adult women. Substantial validation work remains to establish the efficacy of such tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gynecological Diseases)

Other

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33 pages, 18737 KiB  
Case Report
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome with Bilateral Gonadal Sertoli Cell Lesions, Sertoli–Leydig Cell Tumor, and Paratesticular Leiomyoma: A Case Report and First Systematic Literature Review
by Apollon I. Karseladze, Aleksandra V. Asaturova, Irina A. Kiseleva, Alina S. Badlaeva, Anna V. Tregubova, Andrew R. Zaretsky, Elena V. Uvarova, Magda Zanelli and Andrea Palicelli
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13040929 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare Mendelian disorder caused by mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. As a result of the mutation, the receptor becomes resistant to androgens, and hence, karyotypically [...] Read more.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare Mendelian disorder caused by mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. As a result of the mutation, the receptor becomes resistant to androgens, and hence, karyotypically male patients (46,XY) carry a female phenotype. Their cryptorchid gonads are prone to the development of several types of tumors (germ cell, sex cord stromal, and others). Here, we report a 15-year-old female-looking patient with primary amenorrhea who underwent laparoscopic gonadectomy. Histologically, the patient’s gonads showed Sertoli cell hamartomas (SCHs) and adenomas (SCAs) with areas of Sertoli–Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and a left-sided paratesticular leiomyoma. Rudimentary Fallopian tubes were also present. The patient’s karyotype was 46,XY without any evidence of aberrations. Molecular genetic analysis of the left gonad revealed two likely germline mutations—a pathogenic frameshift deletion in the AR gene (c.77delT) and a likely pathogenic missense variant in the RAC1 gene (p.A94V). Strikingly, no somatic mutations, fusions, or copy number variations were found. We also performed the first systematic literature review (PRISMA guidelines; screened databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science; ended on 7 December 2023) of the reported cases of patients with AIS showing benign or malignant Sertoli cell lesions/tumors in their gonads (n = 225; age: 4–84, mean 32 years), including Sertoli cell hyperplasia (1%), Sertoli cell nodules (6%), SCHs (31%), SCAs (36%), Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs) (16%), and SLCTs (4%). The few cases (n = 14, 6%; six SCAs, four SCTs, two SLCTs, and two SCHs) with available follow-up (2–49, mean 17 months) showed no evidence of disease (13/14, 93%) or died of other causes (1/14, 7%) despite the histological diagnosis. Smooth muscle lesions/proliferations were identified in 19 (8%) cases (including clearly reported rudimentary uterine remnants, 3 cases; leiomyomas, 4 cases). Rudimentary Fallopian tube(s) were described in nine (4%) cases. Conclusion: AIS may be associated with sex cord/stromal tumors and, rarely, mesenchymal tumors such as leiomyomas. True malignant sex cord tumors can arise in these patients. Larger series with longer follow-ups are needed to estimate the exact prognostic relevance of tumor histology in AIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gynecological Diseases)
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11 pages, 5668 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Use of Methotrexate and Mifepristone for Treatment of Interstitial Pregnancies: An Overview of Effectiveness and Complications
by Davide Dealberti, Simona Franzò, David Bosoni, Carla Pisani, Victor Morales, Ivan Gallesio, Matteo Bruno, Giuseppe Ricci, Stefania Carlucci and Guglielmo Stabile
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(23), 7396; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12237396 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Interstitial pregnancy is an unusual and potentially life-threatening form of ectopic pregnancy, accounting for approximately 1–6% of all ectopic pregnancies, with a maternal mortality rate of 2–2.5%. Implantation happens in the proximal portion of the fallopian tube as it passes through the myometrium. [...] Read more.
Interstitial pregnancy is an unusual and potentially life-threatening form of ectopic pregnancy, accounting for approximately 1–6% of all ectopic pregnancies, with a maternal mortality rate of 2–2.5%. Implantation happens in the proximal portion of the fallopian tube as it passes through the myometrium. The resolution of interstitial pregnancy after medical treatment should be assessed by a decline in serum β-hCG, which occurs in about 85–90% of cases. Nonetheless, its effectiveness and consequences have been presented through case reports and case series. However, few cases of interstitial pregnancies treated totally medically with the use of methotrexate and mifepristone have been presented in the literature. Complications of this medical treatments have also never been reviewed before. In the present manuscript, we present a case of interstitial pregnancy treated with methotrexate and mifepristone. The patient after treatment developed a uterine arteriovenous malformation, treated with uterine artery embolization. Furthermore, we performed a systematic review of the literature using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 186 papers were found, and 7 papers which included 10 cases were assessed for eligibility. The systemic medical treatment with the use of methotrexate and mifepristone was effective in 7 of the 10 cases. Two cases of hemoperitoneum following combined methotrexate and mifepristone treatment were reported. The applicability of this medical conservative treatment should be tailored to the patient, taking into account their obstetric history, gestational age at diagnosis and desire for future pregnancies. Complete resolution after this treatment was achieved in most of the cases reported without major complications. The appearance of uterine arteriovenous malformation can be managed conservatively, and we propose uterine artery embolization as an effective treatment of this rare complication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gynecological Diseases)
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