Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) Infection: How to Treat and Prevent?

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology & Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 May 2024 | Viewed by 4563

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Unit of Dermatology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Interests: skin and mucosal infections; sexually transmitted infections; infectious exanthems; human papillomaviruses; syphilis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is so prevalent that every sexually active person is at risk without vaccination. HPV fades in most cases (9 out of 10) within two years without health problems. However, when HPV remains, it can cause health problems, such as genital warts and cancer. There is no way of knowing who will develop these more severe outcomes. People with weak immune systems (including those with HIV) may be less able to fight off HPV. They may also be more likely to develop health problems from HPV. The HPV vaccine is safe and effective and can protect against diseases (including cancers) caused by HPV when administered to the recommended age groups. There is no treatment for the virus itself. However, there are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause. This Special Issue aims to publish a broad range of articles covering topics including (but not limited to) immune responses, transmission, epidemiology, pathogenicity, vaccines, and treatments related of HPV. A wide range of manuscripts, including research articles, communications, and reviews, are welcome. We are particularly interested in emerging new concepts in this field.

Dr. Giulia Ciccarese
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • HPV infection of the skin and other tissues
  • HPV-related cancers
  • vaccination against HPV
  • treatments for HPV related diseases
  • human papillomaviruses

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 26810 KiB  
Article
Non-Invasive Imaging for the Diagnosis of Genital Warts and Their Imitators
by Elisa Cinotti, Lorenzo Barbarossa, Giulio Cortonesi, Arianna Lamberti, Francesca La Marca, Linda Tognetti, Pietro Rubegni and Jean Luc Perrot
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051345 - 27 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Genital warts are the most frequent sexually transmitted disease. Their clinical diagnosis is not always easy, and invasive skin biopsies for histological examination should be performed in these cases. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of non-invasive imaging techniques [...] Read more.
Genital warts are the most frequent sexually transmitted disease. Their clinical diagnosis is not always easy, and invasive skin biopsies for histological examination should be performed in these cases. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of non-invasive imaging techniques for the diagnosis of genital warts and their imitators. We retrospectively evaluated dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and line-filed confocal microscopy (LC-OCT) images of nine patients with 19 warts of the mucous membranes and five patients with lesions that clinically mimic genital warts, including 12 molluscum contagiosum, 1 Fordyce’s spot and one case of multiple acquired lymphangiomas. Most genital warts (15; 79%) showed dilated vessels surrounded by a whitish halo at dermoscopy. RCM and the new device LC-OCT could identify near histologic features such as the presence of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis and enlarged vessels in all genital warts. However, the identification of koilocytes, which are the hallmark for the diagnosis of warts, was still difficult using both techniques. Non-invasive imaging techniques could also offer clues for the correct diagnosis of the imitators. This study confirmed the usefulness of dermoscopy in recognizing a precise pattern in warts and showed the potential use of RCM and LC-OCT to add additional findings to the clinical and dermoscopic examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) Infection: How to Treat and Prevent?)
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13 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Complex Nexus of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Extragenital Keratinocyte Skin Tumors: A Comprehensive Analysis of Bowen’s Disease and In Situ Squamous-Cell Carcinoma
by Claudio Conforti, Chiara Retrosi, Marina Agozzino, Caterina Dianzani, Ermanno Nardon, Anselmo Oliveri, Eros Azzalini, Stefania Guida, Giovanni Pellacani, Giovanni Di Lella, Franco Rongioletti, Iris Zalaudek and Serena Bonin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13041091 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
This comprehensive study delves into the intricate landscape surrounding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in extragenital keratinocyte skin tumors, specifically exploring Bowen’s disease (BD) and in situ squamous-cell carcinoma (iSCC). Through a multifaceted examination, this research study elucidates the nuanced interplay of [...] Read more.
This comprehensive study delves into the intricate landscape surrounding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in extragenital keratinocyte skin tumors, specifically exploring Bowen’s disease (BD) and in situ squamous-cell carcinoma (iSCC). Through a multifaceted examination, this research study elucidates the nuanced interplay of HPV, gender dynamics, anatomical site variations, and potential implications for the etiopathogenesis of these malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) Infection: How to Treat and Prevent?)
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13 pages, 521 KiB  
Article
Effect of HPV Vaccination on Virus Disappearance in Cervical Samples of a Cohort of HPV-Positive Polish Patients
by Dominik Pruski, Sonja Millert-Kalińska, Małgorzata Łagiedo, Jan Sikora, Robert Jach and Marcin Przybylski
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7592; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247592 - 09 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
The introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines revolutionized cervical cancer prevention. Our research hypothesis is that HPV vaccination affects the remission of HPV in cervical swabs. We provide a prospective, ongoing, 24-month, non-randomized study in HPV-positive women. We enrolled 60 patients with positive HPV [...] Read more.
The introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines revolutionized cervical cancer prevention. Our research hypothesis is that HPV vaccination affects the remission of HPV in cervical swabs. We provide a prospective, ongoing, 24-month, non-randomized study in HPV-positive women. We enrolled 60 patients with positive HPV swabs from the cervix (fifty-one vaccinated with the nine-valent vaccine against HPV and nine unvaccinated). Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined IgG class antibodies of HPV in the patients’ serums. Persistent HPV infection after vaccination was significantly less frequent in the nine-valent vaccinated group (23.5%) compared to the control group (88.9%; p < 0.001). Antibody level after vaccination was significantly higher in the vaccinated patients compared to the control group. The reactive antibody level was seen in the case of all patients in the vaccinated group and one-third of the unvaccinated group (33.3%, n = 3). The vaccination of HPV-positive patients may increase the chance of HPV remission in cervical swabs and may be a worthwhile element of secondary prevention in HPV-positive patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) Infection: How to Treat and Prevent?)
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Review

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14 pages, 827 KiB  
Review
Treatment of Pediatric Anogenital Warts in the Era of HPV-Vaccine: A Literature Review
by Astrid Herzum, Giulia Ciccarese, Corrado Occella, Lodovica Gariazzo, Carlotta Pastorino, Ilaria Trave and Gianmaria Viglizzo
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4230; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134230 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Anogenital warts (AWs) represent a therapeutic challenge, especially in infants, due to sensitive skin and frequent disease recurrence. Though the initial wait-and-see approach is often adopted in asymptomatic immunocompetent children, with spontaneous clearing in almost 90% of cases within two years, persistent or [...] Read more.
Anogenital warts (AWs) represent a therapeutic challenge, especially in infants, due to sensitive skin and frequent disease recurrence. Though the initial wait-and-see approach is often adopted in asymptomatic immunocompetent children, with spontaneous clearing in almost 90% of cases within two years, persistent or symptomatic lesions can be reasonably treated. However, few studies have been conducted on children. Consequently, most treatments on patients under age 12 are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Herein, we review possible therapies for pediatric use in AW and report an illustrative case of a two-year-old boy with atopic skin and symptomatic, persistent AWs who was successfully treated with topical podophyllotoxin, without adverse effects or recurrence. Among available therapies for AWs, topical therapies, such as immunomodulating-agents (topical imiquimod 5% and 3.75% cream, sinecatechins 15% ointment) and cytotoxic agents (podophyllotoxin and cidofovir) are considered manageable in children because of their low aggressiveness. In particular, podofillotoxin gel 5% and imiquimod 5% cream have been reported to be safe and efficacious in children. Currently, HPV vaccination is not recommended as a treatment for established HPV infection and AWs, yet a possible therapeutic role of HPV vaccination was recently suggested in the literature and deserves mention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) Infection: How to Treat and Prevent?)
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