Special Issue "Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future"

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vahid Vahidinasab
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Science and Technology, Department of Engineering, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
Interests: energy systems integration; whole energy systems; operation of smart grids/microgrids/building; energy markets; transactive energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Reza Razzaghi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Since, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia
Interests: power system protection and control; microgrids; distributed energy resources
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Fazel Mohammadi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada
Interests: power systems control and operation; power systems planning and reliability; power systems protection and stability; high-voltage engineering; microgrids; smart grid
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy systems are transiting from conventional energy systems to modernized and smart energy systems. This Special Issue covers new advances in the emerging technologies for modern energy systems from both technical and management perspectives. In modern energy systems, an integrated and systematic view of different energy systems, from local energy systems and islands to national and multi-national energy hubs, is important. From the customer perspective, a modern energy system is required to have more intelligent appliances and smart customer services. In addition, customers require the provision of more useful information and control options. Another challenge for energy systems of the future is the increased penetration of renewable energy sources. Hence, new operation and planning tools are required for hosting renewable energy sources as much as possible. We invite all interested researchers to submit their original research and review papers for this Special Issue; topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Energy systems integration;
  • Micro- and nano-energy systems and technologies;
  • Operation and control of energy systems;
  • Integrated community-based energy systems;
  • Local energy systems;
  • Energy islands;
  • Multi-stakeholder energy systems;
  • Energy conversion, conservation, and management;
  • Multi-carrier and integrated energy systems;
  • Energy storage systems;
  • Demand-side management;
  • IoT for smart grid;
  • Flexibility services in integrated energy systems;
  • Renewable energy hosting capacity;
  • The market for flexibility services;
  • Role of cloud/edge computing technology on energy systems modernization;
  • Effect of ICT and cybersecurity trends on energy systems of the future;
  • Vector coupling energy storage systems;
  • Low-carbon technologies in energy systems;
  • eMobility;
  • Big data in energy systems

Prof. Dr. Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam
Dr. Vahid Vahidinasab
Prof. Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo
Dr. Reza Razzaghi
Dr. Fazel Mohammadi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inventions is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020023 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 809
Abstract
The way the world gets its energy is undergoing a rapid transition, driven by both the increased urgency of decarbonizing energy systems and the plummeting costs of renewable energy technologies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)

Research

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Article
Deep Learning-Assisted Short-Term Load Forecasting for Sustainable Management of Energy in Microgrid
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010015 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Nowadays, supplying demand load and maintaining sustainable energy are important issues that have created many challenges in power systems. In these types of problems, short-term load forecasting has been proposed as one of the management and energy supply modes in power systems. In [...] Read more.
Nowadays, supplying demand load and maintaining sustainable energy are important issues that have created many challenges in power systems. In these types of problems, short-term load forecasting has been proposed as one of the management and energy supply modes in power systems. In this paper, after reviewing various load forecasting techniques, a deep learning method called bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) is presented for short-term load forecasting in a microgrid. By collecting relevant features available in the input data at the training stage, it is shown that the proposed procedure enjoys important properties, such as its great ability to process time series data. A microgrid in rural Sub-Saharan Africa, including household and commercial loads, was selected as the case study. The parameters affecting the formation of household and commercial load profiles are considered as input variables, and the total household and commercial load profiles of the microgrid are considered as the target. The Bi-LSTM network is trained by input variables to forecast the microgrid load on an hourly basis by recognizing the consumption pattern. Various performance evaluation indicators such as the correlation coefficient (R), mean squared error (MSE), and root mean squared error (RMSE) are utilized to analyze the forecast results. In addition, in a comparative approach, the performance of the proposed method is compared and evaluated with other methods used in similar studies. The results presented for the training phase show an accuracy of R = 99.81% for the Bi-LSTM network. The test and load forecasting stage are performed by the Bi-STLM network, with an accuracy of R = 99.34% and forecasting errors of MSE = 0.1042 and RMSE = 0.3243. The results confirm the high performance of the proposed Bi-LSTM technique, with a high correlation coefficient when compared to other methods used for short-term load forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Energy Efficiency for Social Buildings in Morocco, Comparative (2E) Study: Active VS. Passive Solutions Via TRNsys
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010004 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
This paper aims to highlight the potential of solar water heater installations in Morocco. The project involves the comparison of active and passive solutions for energy efficiency in buildings. To this end, a numerical simulation model of solar water heater installations is created [...] Read more.
This paper aims to highlight the potential of solar water heater installations in Morocco. The project involves the comparison of active and passive solutions for energy efficiency in buildings. To this end, a numerical simulation model of solar water heater installations is created under TRNsys. Three hot water demand scenarios (Low, Standard, and High) were taken into account for the six climatic zones defined in the Moroccan thermal regulation of constructions. The same software (TRNsys) is used to model a pilot building consisting of 16 flats. Energy efficiency actions have been applied to the building envelope (insulation and glazing) and simulations are made for the six areas. The simulation results comparing energy and financial savings show the influence of subsidized gas prices on solar water heaters’ relevance despite significant energy savings. This work proves that solar water heaters will be a primary obligation for Morocco, taking into account changes in butane gas prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
A New Project for a Much More Diverse Moroccan Strategic Version: The Generalization of Solar Water Heater
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010002 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
This paper presents a strategical project for the new version of the Moroccan energy policy. It highlights the technology of solar water heaters (SWH), studying energy, economic and environmental gains of SWH generalization to satisfy the total resident need proposing a new strategic [...] Read more.
This paper presents a strategical project for the new version of the Moroccan energy policy. It highlights the technology of solar water heaters (SWH), studying energy, economic and environmental gains of SWH generalization to satisfy the total resident need proposing a new strategic version diversified in terms of adopted technologies (more than green electricity). A detailed analysis of thermal performances and economic profitability of direct thermosyphon solar water heaters (TSWH) for residential requirements in Morocco. The optimum design parameters were defined and investigated using the dynamic TRNSYS simulation program. The optimum system was simulated under the six climatic conditions of Morocco in order to assess the related performances in terms of the collector efficiency and solar fraction. The major finding of this work is that large-scale integration of TSWH into Moroccan residences could provide up to 70% of thermal energy loads. An economic study was also developed to predict the life-cycle savings generated by the generalization of this technology in Morocco for all residential building’s categories. Approximately 1250 million USD as national saving on the total energy bill can be achieved. The environmental effects were also assessed to achieve the aims of this work and to evaluate the CO2 emissions avoided due to this environmentally friendly solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Tidal Supplementary Control Schemes-Based Load Frequency Regulation of a Fully Sustainable Marine Microgrid
Inventions 2020, 5(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040053 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
The world is targeting fully renewable power generation by the middle of the century. Distributed generation is the way to increase the penetration level of renewable energies. This paper presents load frequency control of a hybrid tidal, wind, and wave microgrid to feed [...] Read more.
The world is targeting fully renewable power generation by the middle of the century. Distributed generation is the way to increase the penetration level of renewable energies. This paper presents load frequency control of a hybrid tidal, wind, and wave microgrid to feed an isolated island. This research is a step towards 100% renewable energy communities in remote seas/oceans islands. The wave and tidal generation systems model are presented. The study presents load frequency control through three supplementary control strategies: conventional integrators, fractional order integrator, and non-linear fractional order integrator. All the controllers of the microgrid are designed by using a novel black widow optimization technique. The applied technique is compared to other existing state-of-the-art algorithms. The results show that the black widow non-linear fractional integrator has a better performance over other strategies. Coordination between the unloaded tidal system and blade pitch control of both wind and tidal systems are adopted in the microgrid to utilize the available reserve power for the frequency support. Simulation and optimization studies are performed using the MATLAB/SIMULINK 2017a software application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Full-Scale Implementation of RES and Storage in an Island Energy System
Inventions 2020, 5(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040052 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
The field of energy, specifically renewable energy sources (RES), is considered vital for a sustainable society, a fact that is clearly defined by the European Green Deal. It will convert the old, conventional economy into a new, sustainable economy that is environmentally sound, [...] Read more.
The field of energy, specifically renewable energy sources (RES), is considered vital for a sustainable society, a fact that is clearly defined by the European Green Deal. It will convert the old, conventional economy into a new, sustainable economy that is environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Therefore, there is a need for quick actions by everyone who wants to move toward energy-efficient development and new environmentally friendly behavior. This can be achieved by setting specific guidelines of how to proceed, where to start, and what knowledge is needed to implement such plans and initiatives. This paper seeks to contribute to this very important issue by appraising the ability of full-scale implementation of RES combined with energy storage in an island power system. The Greek island power system of Astypalaia is used as a case study where a battery energy storage system (BESS), along with wind turbines (WTs), is examined to be installed as part of a hybrid power plant (HPP). The simulation’s results showed that the utilization of HPP can significantly increase RES penetration in parallel with remarkable fuel cost savings. Finally, the fast response of BESS can enhance the stability of the system in the case of disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Secondary Voltage Control Application in a Smart Grid with 100% Renewables
Inventions 2020, 5(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5030037 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3451
Abstract
This paper presents secondary voltage control by extracting reactive power from renewable power technologies to control load buses voltage in a power system at different operating conditions. The study is performed on a 100% renewable 14-bus system. Active and reactive powers controls are [...] Read more.
This paper presents secondary voltage control by extracting reactive power from renewable power technologies to control load buses voltage in a power system at different operating conditions. The study is performed on a 100% renewable 14-bus system. Active and reactive powers controls are considered based on grid codes of countries with high penetration levels of renewable energy technologies. A pilot bus is selected in order to implement the secondary voltage control. The selection is based on short-circuit calculation and sensitivity analysis. An optimal Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) voltage controller is designed using genetic algorithm. A comparison between system with and without secondary voltage control is presented in terms of voltage profile and total power losses. The optimal voltage magnitudes at busbars are calculated to achieve minimum power losses using optimal power flow. The optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) is performed in order to measure the voltage magnitude of buses with minimum cost. Optimization and simulation processes are performed using DIgSILENT and MATLAB software applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Wind Energy Generation Forecasts in Poland and Portugal and Their Influence on the Electricity Exchange Prices
Inventions 2020, 5(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5030035 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Currently, the privileged position of wind energy producers is being weakened by their enforced participation in the market on equal terms. This requires accurate production forecasting. The main aim of this study is to comparatively examine the wind generation forecasts in Poland and [...] Read more.
Currently, the privileged position of wind energy producers is being weakened by their enforced participation in the market on equal terms. This requires accurate production forecasting. The main aim of this study is to comparatively examine the wind generation forecasts in Poland and Portugal, as well as to verify their influence on the day-ahead market prices. The statistical analysis revealed significant deviations of the forecasted and actual wind production in both countries, which referred to the corresponding spot and balancing prices caused considerable financial losses by the wind energy suppliers. In this paper, the influence of the wind generation forecasts on the spot prices has been examined through developed the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA), ARMA with exogenous inputs (ARMAX) and non-linear auto-regressive neural network (NAR), NAR with exogenous inputs (NARX)artificial neural network (ANN) models. The results have shown that the usability of the information of forecasted wind generation is not unequivocal in models developed for spot prices in Poland, mainly because of the randomness and volatility of recorded wind generation forecasts. However, in the case of Portugal, the forecasted wind generation occurred to be a valuable input in spot prices models, which results in an improvement in the models’ accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Techno-Economic Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Systems: Case Study in Zimbabwe
Inventions 2020, 5(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5030027 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Fluctuations in fossil fuel prices significantly affect the economies of countries, especially oil-importing countries, hence these countries are thoroughly investigating the increase in the utilization of renewable energy resources as it is abundant and locally available in all the countries despite challenges. Renewable [...] Read more.
Fluctuations in fossil fuel prices significantly affect the economies of countries, especially oil-importing countries, hence these countries are thoroughly investigating the increase in the utilization of renewable energy resources as it is abundant and locally available in all the countries despite challenges. Renewable energy systems (RES) such as solar and wind systems offer suitable alternatives for fossil fuels and could ensure the energy security of countries in a feasible way. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries that import a significant portion of its energy needs which endanger the energy security of the country. Several studies in the literature discussed the feasibility of different standalone and hybrid RES either with or without energy storage systems to either maximize the technical feasibility or the economic feasibility; however, none of the studies considered maximizing both feasibilities at the same time. Therefore, we present a techno-economic comparison of standalone wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) in addition to hybrid PV/wind systems based on maximizing the RES fraction with levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) being less than or equal to the local grid tariff where Gwanda, Zimbabwe, is the case study. The methodology suggested in this study could increase the utilization of renewable energy resources feasibly and at the same time increase the energy security of the country by decreasing dependency on imported energy. The results indicate that the PV/wind hybrid system does not only have the best economic benefits represented by the net present value (NPV) and the payback period (PBP), but also the best technical performance; where the maximum feasible size of the hybrid system-2 MW wind and 1 MW PV-has RES fraction of 65.07%, LCOE of 0.1 USD/kWh, PBP of 3.94 years, internal rate of return of 14.04% and NPV of 3.06 × 106 USD. Having similar systems for different cities in Zimbabwe will decrease the energy bill significantly and contribute toward the energy security of the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Review

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Review
A Review of Energy Storage Participation for Ancillary Services in a Microgrid Environment
Inventions 2020, 5(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040063 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
This paper reviews the energy storage participation for ancillary services in a microgrid (MG) system. The MG is used as a basic empowering solution to combine renewable generators and storage systems distributed to assist several demands proficiently. However, because of unforeseen and sporadic [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the energy storage participation for ancillary services in a microgrid (MG) system. The MG is used as a basic empowering solution to combine renewable generators and storage systems distributed to assist several demands proficiently. However, because of unforeseen and sporadic features of renewable energy, innovative tasks rise for the consistent process of MGs. Power management in MGs that contain renewable energy sources (RES) can be improved by energy storage. The energy storage systems (ESSs) have several merits, such as supply and demand balancing, smoothing of RES power generation, enhancing power quality and reliability, and facilitating the ancillary services like voltage and frequency regulation in MG operation. The integration of ESS technology has become a solution to the challenges the power distribution networks face in achieving improved performance. By simplifying a smooth and robust energy balance within the MG, storage devices match energy generation to consumption. MG, and its multidisciplinary portrait of current MG drivers, tasks, real-world applications, and upcoming views are elucidated in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Review
Food, Energy and Water Nexus: A Brief Review of Definitions, Research, and Challenges
Inventions 2020, 5(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040056 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
Vast expansion in consumption is leading to natural resource scarcity and global warming. The integrated management of natural resources, such as food, energy, food (FEW) as one of the most important aspects has been proposed as a solution to meet these challenges. The [...] Read more.
Vast expansion in consumption is leading to natural resource scarcity and global warming. The integrated management of natural resources, such as food, energy, food (FEW) as one of the most important aspects has been proposed as a solution to meet these challenges. The FEW nexus is a world-wide solution for simultaneously assessing the development and implementation of various approaches focusing on energy, water and food security, sufficiency. This approach is intended to foster sustainable development and improve the quality of life of communities while preserving the natural, human and social capital, address the long-term sustainability challenges and protecting all-natural resources. This paper tries to review some recent research on this topic. For this purpose, first, we describe some facts about demand growth and exponential consumption in these three areas, with emphasis on presented statistics. Then, the most critical research published in this field is reviewed, considering that it took a decade or so before that the original idea was introduced. The most important policymakers of this emerging concept, including committees and conferences, and finally significant challenges and opportunities to the implementation along with future insights, are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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