Topical Collection "Vector-Borne Diseases in a Changing World"

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Medical and Livestock Entomology".

Editors

Dr. Andre Barreto Bruno Wilke
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33124, USA
Interests: population genetics; microevolution; vector control; vector ecology
Prof. Dr. Mauro Toledo Marrelli
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department de Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
Interests: malaria; genetically modified mosquitoes; vector control; vector ecology

Topical Collection Information

Dear colleagues,

Global increases in temperatures and urbanization are impacting the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, resulting in severe outbreaks, even in formerly non-endemic areas. In recent years, we have seen a rise in the outbreaks of infectious diseases, including the ones transmitted by mosquito vectors. Lately, we have seen environmental crimes devastating natural areas of the world, leading to an environmental disequilibrium and biodiversity loss of unprecedented proportions. The worsening of the ecological imbalance caused by anthropogenic alterations in the environment will impact the range and abundance of mosquito vectors and, consequently, the incidence of vector-borne diseases. It is essential to understand how vector mosquitoes are adapting and thriving in urban environments to guide and improve future mosquito management and control and strategies.

Dr. Andre Barreto Bruno Wilke
Prof. Dr. Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • mosquito control
  • mosquito ecology
  • vector-borne disease transmission

Published Papers (20 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Article
Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) Ensemble Distribution Modeling: Applications for Malaria Elimination
Insects 2022, 13(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13030221 - 22 Feb 2022
Viewed by 936
Abstract
In the absence of entomological information, tools for predicting Anopheles spp. presence can help evaluate the entomological risk of malaria transmission. Here, we illustrate how species distribution models (SDM) could quantify potential dominant vector species presence in malaria elimination settings. We fitted a [...] Read more.
In the absence of entomological information, tools for predicting Anopheles spp. presence can help evaluate the entomological risk of malaria transmission. Here, we illustrate how species distribution models (SDM) could quantify potential dominant vector species presence in malaria elimination settings. We fitted a 250 m resolution ensemble SDM for Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann. The ensemble SDM included predictions based on seven different algorithms, 110 occurrence records and 70 model projections. SDM covariates included nine environmental variables that were selected based on their importance from an original set of 28 layers that included remotely and spatially interpolated locally measured variables for the land surface of Costa Rica. Goodness of fit for the ensemble SDM was very high, with a minimum AUC of 0.79. We used the resulting ensemble SDM to evaluate differences in habitat suitability (HS) between commercial plantations and surrounding landscapes, finding a higher HS in pineapple and oil palm plantations, suggestive of An. albimanus presence, than in surrounding landscapes. The ensemble SDM suggested a low HS for An. albimanus at the presumed epicenter of malaria transmission during 2018–2019 in Costa Rica, yet this vector was likely present at the two main towns also affected by the epidemic. Our results illustrate how ensemble SDMs in malaria elimination settings can provide information that could help to improve vector surveillance and control. Full article
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Article
Studies on the Volatiles Composition of Stored Sheep Wool, and Attractancy toward Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes
Insects 2022, 13(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020208 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
To discover new natural materials for insect management, commercially available stored sheep wool was investigated for attractancy to female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The volatiles from sheep wool were collected by various techniques of headspace (HS) extractions and hydrodistillation. These extracts were analyzed [...] Read more.
To discover new natural materials for insect management, commercially available stored sheep wool was investigated for attractancy to female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The volatiles from sheep wool were collected by various techniques of headspace (HS) extractions and hydrodistillation. These extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID) coupled with GC-MS. Fifty-two volatile compounds were detected, many of them known for their mosquito attractant activity. Seven compounds were not previously reported in sheep products. The volatile composition of the extracts varied significantly across collections, depending on the extraction techniques or types of fibers applied. Two types of bioassay were conducted to study attractancy of the sheep wool volatiles to mosquitoes: laboratory bioassays using glass tubes, and semi-field bioassays using large, screened outdoor cages. In bioassays with glass tubes, the sheep wool hydrodistillate and its main component, thialdine, did not show any significant attractant activity against female adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Semi-field bioassays in two large screened outdoor cages, each equipped with a U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) trap and the various bait setups with Vortex apparatus, revealed that vibrating wool improved mosquito catches compared to the setups without wool or with wool but not vibrating. Sheep wool, when vibrated, may release intensively volatile compounds, which could serve as olfactory cues, and play significant role in making the bait attractive to mosquitoes. Sheep wool is a readily available, affordable, and environment-friendly material. It should have the potential to be used as a mosquito management and surveillance component in dynamic bait setups. Full article
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Article
Multiplex PCR Assay for the Identification of Four Species of the Anopheles Leucosphyrus Sub-Group in Malaysia
Insects 2022, 13(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020195 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 814 | Correction
Abstract
The Leucosphyrus Group of mosquitoes are the major simian malaria vectors in Malaysia. Accurate species identification is required to help in curbing the spread of simian malaria. The aim of the study is to provide an accurate molecular method for identifying the four [...] Read more.
The Leucosphyrus Group of mosquitoes are the major simian malaria vectors in Malaysia. Accurate species identification is required to help in curbing the spread of simian malaria. The aim of the study is to provide an accurate molecular method for identifying the four important Anopheles vector species found in Malaysia. Mosquito specimens were collected from various localities in Malaysia, where simian malaria cases were reported. DNA from 122 mosquito specimens was tested to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of this assay was tested against other mosquito species. Molecular identification of the species was further confirmed by analysing the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) DNA region of the specimens. Anopheles balabacensis and An. latens showed two distinct clades in the phylogenetic tree. The multiplex PCR assay was developed based on the ITS2 region for the identification of Anopheles introlatus (298–299 bp), Anopheles latens (197–198 bp), Anopheles cracens (421–426 bp), and Anopheles balabacensis (224–228 bp). This method will be useful to accurately identify the major Anopheles Leucosphyrus Group species in Malaysia, which are difficult to identify morphologically, to determine the correct vector as well as its geographical distribution. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020

Communication
The Effects of Boric Acid Sugar Bait on Wolbachia Trans-Infected Male Aedes albopictus (ZAP Males®) in Laboratory Conditions
Insects 2022, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 795
Abstract
The field release of Wolbachia trans-infected male mosquitoes, as well as the use of toxic sugar baits, is a novel and promising candidate technique for integrated mosquito management programs. However, the methods of action of the two techniques may not be complementary, because [...] Read more.
The field release of Wolbachia trans-infected male mosquitoes, as well as the use of toxic sugar baits, is a novel and promising candidate technique for integrated mosquito management programs. However, the methods of action of the two techniques may not be complementary, because the Wolbachia method releases mosquitoes into the environment expecting a wild population reduction in subsequent generations while the toxic baits are intended to reduce the wild population by killing mosquitoes. This laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of boric acid toxic sugar baits on Wolbachia trans-infected male Aedes albopictus, relative to wild-type Ae. albopictus males. Wolbachia trans-infected (ZAP male®) and the wild-type Ae. albopictus males were exposed separately to 1% boric acid in a 10% sucrose solution in BugDorms. In the control test, the two groups were exposed to 10% sucrose solution without boric acid. Percent mortalities were counted for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post exposure periods. The results show that 1% boric acid toxic sugar bait can effectively kill ZAP males under laboratory conditions, and the effectiveness was significantly higher after 24 h and 48 h, compared to wild-type male Ae. albopictus. This finding will help in planning and coordinating integrated mosquito management programs, including both Wolbachia trans-infected mosquito releases and the use of toxic sugar baits against Ae. albopictus. Full article
Communication
Revisiting the Hybridization Processes in the Triatoma brasiliensis Complex (Hemiptera, Triatominae): Reproductive Isolation between Triatoma petrocchiae and T. b. brasiliensis and T. lenti
Insects 2021, 12(11), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111015 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Triatoma petrocchiae is a species morphologically similar to T. b. brasiliensis (which resulted in a synonymization event); despite this similarity, genetic, morphological, and experimental crossbreeding studies confirmed the specific status of T. petrocchiae. Considering that both species have been reported living in [...] Read more.
Triatoma petrocchiae is a species morphologically similar to T. b. brasiliensis (which resulted in a synonymization event); despite this similarity, genetic, morphological, and experimental crossbreeding studies confirmed the specific status of T. petrocchiae. Considering that both species have been reported living in sympatry and that, for a long time, most species of the T. brasiliensis complex were considered only chromatic variants of T. b. brasiliensis, we carried out experimental crosses between T. b. brasiliensis and T. petrocchiae (to confirm whether these species are reproductively isolated) and between T. lenti and T. petrocchiae (to assess whether T. petrocchiae also presents prezygotic isolation with the other species of the T. brasiliensis complex). Reciprocal experimental crosses were conducted, and weekly, the eggs were collected, counted, and separated in new containers to assess the hatch rate. Neither cross resulted in hybrids, demonstrating that there are pre-zygotic reproductive barriers installed between T. petrocchiae and the other species of the T. brasiliensis complex. On the basis of the results above, we demonstrated that T. petrocchiae is reproductively isolated from T. b. brasiliensis and T. lenti. Furthermore, we suggest that T. petrocchiae is the species most derived from the T. brasiliensis complex. Full article
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Article
The Influence of the pH and Salinity of Water in Breeding Sites on the Occurrence and Community Composition of Immature Mosquitoes in the Green Belt of the City of São Paulo, Brazil
Insects 2021, 12(9), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090797 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 875
Abstract
The physicochemical parameters of water, such as pH, salinity, conductivity, and total dissolved solids, can influence mosquito larval development, survival, and abundance. Therefore, it is important to elucidate how these factors influence mosquito occurrence. We hypothesized that the occurrence and community composition of [...] Read more.
The physicochemical parameters of water, such as pH, salinity, conductivity, and total dissolved solids, can influence mosquito larval development, survival, and abundance. Therefore, it is important to elucidate how these factors influence mosquito occurrence. We hypothesized that the occurrence and community composition of immature mosquito species are driven not only by the availability of suitable aquatic habitats, but also by the physicochemical factors of these habitats. The primary objective of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of the physicochemical parameters of water in different types of aquatic habitats on the occurrence of mosquito species in two remnants of Atlantic Forest in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Collections of immature mosquitoes and assessment of the physicochemical characteristics of the water in the collection sites were carried out for twelve months. The variation in species composition and occurrence with the measured physicochemical parameters and the type of breeding site was assessed using constrained ordination methods. The results indicate that there was a statistically significant difference in species composition as a function of the different types of aquatic habitats, and that pH had an influence on species occurrence even when the variance explained by the type of aquatic habitat was removed from the analysis. There was a statistically significant association between mosquito species occurrence and pH and salinity, and the former had a significant influence on the mosquito species collected regardless of the type of aquatic habitat, showing that the pH of the breeding site water is an important factor in driving mosquito population dynamics and species distribution. Full article
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Communication
Belminus santosmalletae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae): New Species from Panama, with an Updated Key for Belminus Stål, 1859 Species
Insects 2021, 12(8), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080686 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Belminus santosmalletae, a new triatomine species, is described based on a specimen from Panama, deposited in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. Attempts failed to identify this specimen using the keys by Lent [...] Read more.
Belminus santosmalletae, a new triatomine species, is described based on a specimen from Panama, deposited in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. Attempts failed to identify this specimen using the keys by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979) and Sandoval et al. (2007). A comparison was made with specimens of Belminus Stål, 1859 specimens deposited at the Triatominae collection at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CTIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and with previous descriptions of Belminus species. These comparisons showed the specimen represents a new species, described in the present paper. It differs from other species of the genus mainly by the grainy tegument, scarce pilosity along the body, and the number of tubercles observed on the pronotum. Full article
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Communication
Formal Assignation of the Kissing Bug Triatoma lecticularia (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) to the Genus Paratriatoma
Insects 2021, 12(6), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060538 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) comprises hematophagous insects that are vectors of Chagas disease; including species assigned to the genera Triatoma and Paratriatoma. Initial examination of Triatoma lecticularia revealed the hirsuteness covering the entire body—a characteristic and striking feature of members of [...] Read more.
The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) comprises hematophagous insects that are vectors of Chagas disease; including species assigned to the genera Triatoma and Paratriatoma. Initial examination of Triatoma lecticularia revealed the hirsuteness covering the entire body—a characteristic and striking feature of members of the genus Paratriatoma—and a systematic study revealed several other morphological characters that are in diagnostic alignment with Paratriatoma. Based on the examination of several specimens (including the lectotype), and with the additional support of molecular and cytogenetic data, we propose the formal transferal of Triatoma lecticularia (Stål, 1859) into the genus Paratriatoma with the resulting new combination: Paratriatoma lecticularia (Stål, 1859) comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Full article
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Communication
Culicoides insignis Lutz, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Northeast of Brazil
Insects 2021, 12(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040366 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
The species of the Culicoides genus are hematophagous, and some of them are vectors of important human and animal diseases. This group of insects is distributed worldwide, varying according to local species. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific species is crucial for [...] Read more.
The species of the Culicoides genus are hematophagous, and some of them are vectors of important human and animal diseases. This group of insects is distributed worldwide, varying according to local species. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific species is crucial for the development and implementation of control strategies. The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of Culicoides in the state of Alagoas in northeast Brazil. Midges were captured with CDC light traps, and their identification and morphological analyses were performed by the Ceratopogonidae Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ/CCER) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Morphological analyses were performed using the key to Culicoides from the guttatus group and comparison with other deposited specimens. DNA sequencing, genetic analysis and comparison with sequences in the Genbank database, confirmed the identification of the flies as Culicoides insignis. This was the first formal report of C. insignis being found in Alagoas. Full article
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Communication
Dengue-2 and Guadeloupe Mosquito Virus RNA Detected in Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. Collected in a Vehicle Impound Yard in Santo André, SP, Brazil
Insects 2021, 12(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030248 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
In 2018–2019, we conducted mosquito collections in a municipal vehicle impound yard, which is 10 km from the Serra do Mar Environmental Protection Area in Santo André, SP, Brazil. Our aim is to study arboviruses in the impound yard, to understand the transmission [...] Read more.
In 2018–2019, we conducted mosquito collections in a municipal vehicle impound yard, which is 10 km from the Serra do Mar Environmental Protection Area in Santo André, SP, Brazil. Our aim is to study arboviruses in the impound yard, to understand the transmission of arboviruses in an urban environment in Brazil. We captured the mosquitoes using human-landing catches and processed them for arbovirus detection by conventional and quantitative RT-PCR assays. We captured two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (73 total specimens; 18 females and 55 males) and Ae. albopictus (34 specimens; 27 females and 7 males). The minimum infection rate for DENV-2 was 11.5 per 1000 (CI95%: 1–33.9). The detection of DENV-2 RNA in an Ae. albopictus female suggests that this virus might occur in high infection rates in the sampled mosquito population and is endemic in the urban areas of Santo André. In addition, Guadeloupe mosquito virus RNA was detected in an Ae. aegypti female. To our knowledge, this was the first detection of the Guadeloupe mosquito virus in Brazil. Full article
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Article
Assessing Diversity, Plasmodium Infection and Blood Meal Sources in Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a Brazilian Zoological Park with Avian Malaria Transmission
Insects 2021, 12(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030215 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Avian malaria parasites are widespread parasites transmitted by Culicidae insects belonging to different genera. Even though several studies have been conducted recently, there is still a lack of information about potential vectors of Plasmodium parasites, especially in Neotropical regions. Former studies with free-living [...] Read more.
Avian malaria parasites are widespread parasites transmitted by Culicidae insects belonging to different genera. Even though several studies have been conducted recently, there is still a lack of information about potential vectors of Plasmodium parasites, especially in Neotropical regions. Former studies with free-living and captive animals in São Paulo Zoo showed the presence of several Plasmodium and Haemoproteus species. In 2015, a pilot study was conducted at the zoo to collect mosquitoes in order to find out (i) which species of Culicidae are present in the study area, (ii) what are their blood meal sources, and (iii) to which Plasmodium species might they be potential vectors. Mosquitoes were morphologically and molecularly identified. Blood meal source and haemosporidian DNA were identified using molecular protocols. A total of 25 Culicidae species were identified, and 6 of them were positive for Plasmodium/Haemoproteus DNA. Ten mosquito species had their source of blood meal identified, which were mainly birds, including some species that were positive for haemosporidian parasites in the former study mentioned. This study allowed us to expand the list of potential vectors of avian malaria parasites and to improve our knowledge of the evolutionary and ecological relationships between the highly diverse communities of birds, parasites, and vectors present at São Paulo Zoo. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2022, 2021

Article
Interspecific Mating Effects on Locomotor Activity Rhythms and Refractoriness of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Females
Insects 2020, 11(12), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120874 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
This study tests the hypotheses that the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus females is not significantly altered by the presence of accessory gland (AG) extracts from conspecific and heterospecific males, and that Ae. albopictus females remain receptive to mating with conspecific males even [...] Read more.
This study tests the hypotheses that the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus females is not significantly altered by the presence of accessory gland (AG) extracts from conspecific and heterospecific males, and that Ae. albopictus females remain receptive to mating with conspecific males even after receiving AG of Ae. aegypti males. Virgin Ae. albopictus females were injected with saline (control group), AG extracts of Ae. aegypti males (aegMAG) or AG extracts of Ae. albopictus males (albMAG). Locomotor activity was evaluated under 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness at 25 °C. All live Ae. albopictus females were subsequently exposed to conspecific males for 48 h, and their spermathecae were dissected for the presence of sperm. Females injected with aegMAG and albMAG showed significant decreases in total, diurnal and diurnal without lights-on Period activities. Females injected with aegMAG showed significant decreases in nocturnal and nocturnal without lights-off period activities. Females injected with albMAG showed significant decreases in lights-off activity. A total of 83% of Ae. albopictus females injected with aegMAG and 10% of females injected with albMAG were inseminated by conspecific males. These results, coupled with our previous paper on MAG and interspecific mating effects on female Ae. aegypti, demonstrate contrasting outcomes on locomotor activities and loss of sexual receptivity, both conspecific and heterospecific MAGs capable of sterilizing virgin Ae. aegypti, but only conspecific MAGs sterilizing Ae. albopictus, whereas locomotor activities were depressed in females of both species after heterospecific and conspecific injections or treatments. Full article
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Article
Microgeographic Wing-Shape Variation in Aedes albopictus and Aedes scapularis (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations
Insects 2020, 11(12), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120862 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
Aedes albopictus and Aedes scapularis are vectors of several arboviruses, including the dengue, chikungunya, and Rocio virus infection. While Ae. albopictus is a highly invasive species native to Asia and has been dispersed by humans to most parts of the world, Ae. scapularis [...] Read more.
Aedes albopictus and Aedes scapularis are vectors of several arboviruses, including the dengue, chikungunya, and Rocio virus infection. While Ae. albopictus is a highly invasive species native to Asia and has been dispersed by humans to most parts of the world, Ae. scapularis is native to Brazil and is widely distributed in the southeast of the country. Both species are highly anthropophilic and are often abundant in places with high human population densities. Because of the great epidemiological importance of these two mosquitoes and the paucity of knowledge on how they have adapted to different urban built environments, we investigated the microgeographic population structure of these vector species in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using wing geometric morphometrics. Females of Ae. albopictus and Ae. scapularis were collected in seven urban parks in the city. The right wings of the specimens were removed and digitized, and eighteen landmarks based on vein intersections in the wing venation patterns were used to assess cross-sectional variation in wing shape and size. The analyses revealed distinct results for Ae. albopictus and Ae. scapularis populations. While the former had less wing shape variation, the latter had more heterogeneity, indicating a higher degree of intraspecific variation. Our results indicate that microgeographic selective pressures exerted by different urban built environments have a distinct effect on wing shape patterns in the populations of these two mosquito species studied here. Full article
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Review
A Literature Review of Host Feeding Patterns of Invasive Aedes Mosquitoes in Europe
Insects 2020, 11(12), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120848 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3178
Abstract
Aedes invasive mosquitoes (AIMs) play a key role as vectors of several pathogens of public health relevance. Four species have been established in Europe, including Aedes aegypti, Aedesalbopictus, Aedes japonicus and Aedes koreicus. In addition, Aedes atropalpus has been [...] Read more.
Aedes invasive mosquitoes (AIMs) play a key role as vectors of several pathogens of public health relevance. Four species have been established in Europe, including Aedes aegypti, Aedesalbopictus, Aedes japonicus and Aedes koreicus. In addition, Aedes atropalpus has been repeatedly recorded although it has not yet been established. In spite of their importance in the transmission of endemic (e.g., heartworms) and imported pathogens (e.g., dengue virus), basic information of parameters affecting their vectorial capacity is poorly investigated. The aim of this study is to review the blood feeding patterns of these invasive mosquito species in Europe, summarizing available information from their native and introduced distribution ranges. The feeding patterns of mosquitoes constitute a key parameter affecting the contact rates between infected and susceptible hosts, thus playing a central role in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne pathogens. Our results highlight that these mosquito species feed on the blood of different vertebrate groups from ectotherms to birds and mammals. However, humans represent the most important source of blood for these species, accounting for 36% and 93% of hosts identified for Ae. japonicus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. In spite of that, limited information has been obtained for some particular species, such as Ae. koreicus, or it is restricted to a few particular areas. Given the high vector competence of the four AIM species for the transmission of different emerging arboviruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, Zika or Yellow fever viruses and their high feeding rates on humans, these AIM species may have an important impact on the vectorial capacity for such pathogens on urban and periurban areas. Finally, we propose directions for future research lines based on identified knowledge gaps. Full article
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Article
Triatoma rosai sp. nov. (Hemiptera, Triatominae): A New Species of Argentinian Chagas Disease Vector Described Based on Integrative Taxonomy
Insects 2020, 11(12), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120830 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Chagas disease is the most prevalent neglected tropical disease in the Americas and makes an important contribution to morbidity and mortality rates in countries where it is endemic since 30 to 40% of patients develop cardiac diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, or both. In this [...] Read more.
Chagas disease is the most prevalent neglected tropical disease in the Americas and makes an important contribution to morbidity and mortality rates in countries where it is endemic since 30 to 40% of patients develop cardiac diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, or both. In this paper, a new species of the genus Triatoma is described based on specimens collected in the Department San Miguel, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Triatoma rosai sp. nov. is closely related to T. sordida (Stål, 1859), and was characterized based on integrative taxonomy using morphological, morphometric, molecular data, and experimental crosses. These analyses, combined with data from the literature (cytogenetics, electrophoresis pattern, molecular analyses, cuticular hydrocarbons pattern, geometric morphometry, cycle, and average time of life as well as geographic distribution) confirm the specific status of T. rosai sp. nov. Natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection, coupled with its presence mostly in peridomestic habitats, indicates that this species can be considered as an important Chagas disease vector from Argentina. Full article
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Article
Diversity and Abundance of Potential Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus in the North Region of Cameroon
Insects 2020, 11(11), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110814 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major viral zoonosis transmitted by mosquitoes. The virus is endemic in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and can affect humans, livestock, and wild ungulates. Knowledge of the biology of vectors of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is [...] Read more.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major viral zoonosis transmitted by mosquitoes. The virus is endemic in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and can affect humans, livestock, and wild ungulates. Knowledge of the biology of vectors of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is essential for the establishment of effective control measures of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the species diversity and relative abundance of potential RVFV vectors in the North Region of Cameroon. Adult mosquitoes were trapped during the wet and dry seasons from December 2017 to January 2019 with “EVS Light” traps with CO2 baits placed at selected sites. The captured mosquitoes were identified using dichotomous keys according to standard procedures. The abundance was calculated with regard to site, zone, and collection season. A total of 27,851 mosquitoes belonging to four genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia, and Culex) and comprising 31 species were caught (including 22 secondary vectors (98.05%) and nine primary vectors (1.94%). The total number of mosquitoes varied significantly depending on the locality (p-value < 0.001). The average number of mosquitoes collected per trap night was significantly higher in irrigated areas (p-value < 0.001), compared to urban and non-irrigated areas. The study revealed the presence of potential primary and secondary vectors of RVFV with varying abundance and diversity according to locality and ecological site in the North Region of Cameroon. The results showed that the genus Mansonia with the species Ma. uniformis and Ma. africana formed the dominant taxon (52.33%), followed by the genera Culex (45.04%) and Anopheles (2.61%). The need for molecular analysis (PCR) tests for RVFV RNA research and viral isolation methods on these vectors to determine their role in the epidemiology and control of RVF cannot be overemphasized. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Models for Forecasting Dengue in Brazil from 2000 to 2017: An Ecological Time-Series Study
Insects 2020, 11(11), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110794 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of deterministic and stochastic statistical models by means of a protocol developed in a free programming environment for monthly time-series analysis of the incidence of confirmed dengue cases in the states and federal district of Brazil from [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of deterministic and stochastic statistical models by means of a protocol developed in a free programming environment for monthly time-series analysis of the incidence of confirmed dengue cases in the states and federal district of Brazil from January 2000 to December 2017. This was an ecological time-series study conducted to evaluate and validate the accuracy of 10 statistical models for predicting the new cases of dengue. Official data on the monthly cases of dengue from January 2000 to December 2016 were used to train the statistical models, while those for the period January–December 2017 were used to test the predictive capacity of the models by considering three forecasting horizons (12, 6, and 3 months). Deterministic models proved to be reliable for predicting dengue in a 12-month forecasting horizon, while stochastic models were reliable for predicting the disease in a 3-month forecasting horizon. We were able to reliably employ models for predicting dengue in the states and federal district of Brazil. Hence, we strongly recommend incorporating these models in state health services for predicting dengue and for decision-making with regard to the advanced planning of interventions before the emergence of epidemics. Full article
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Article
Development of an Insecticide-Free Trapping Bednet to Control Mosquitoes and Manage Resistance in Malaria Vector Control: A New Way of Thinking
Insects 2020, 11(11), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110732 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Mosquito-borne malaria kills 429,000 people each year with the problem being acute in sub-Saharan Africa. The successes gained with long-lasting pyrethroid-treated bednets are now in jeopardy because of wide-spread, pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. Using crowd modeling theory normalized for standard bednet architecture, we [...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne malaria kills 429,000 people each year with the problem being acute in sub-Saharan Africa. The successes gained with long-lasting pyrethroid-treated bednets are now in jeopardy because of wide-spread, pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. Using crowd modeling theory normalized for standard bednet architecture, we were able to design an attract–trap–kill technology for mosquitoes that does not require insecticides. Using three-dimensional polyester knitting and heat fixation, trap funnels were developed with high capture efficacy with no egression under worst-case laboratory conditions. Field testing in Africa in WHO huts with Gen1-3 T (trap)-Nets validated our model, and as predicted, Gen3 had the highest efficacy with a 4.3-fold greater trap–kill rate with no deterrence or repellency compared to Permanet 2.0, the most common bednet in Africa. A T-Net population model was developed based on field data to predict community-level mosquito control compared to a pyrethroid bednet. This model showed the Gen3 non-insecticidal T-Net under field conditions in Africa against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes was 12.7-fold more efficacious than single chemical, pyrethroid-treated nets. Full article
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Article
Wing Geometric Morphometrics as a Tool for the Identification of Culex Subgenus Mosquitoes of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae)
Insects 2020, 11(9), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090567 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Culex is the largest subgenus within the genus Culex that includes important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is critical for effective control strategies. Wing geometric morphometrics (WGM) has been used to identify mosquito species alongside traditional identification methods. Here, WGM [...] Read more.
Culex is the largest subgenus within the genus Culex that includes important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is critical for effective control strategies. Wing geometric morphometrics (WGM) has been used to identify mosquito species alongside traditional identification methods. Here, WGM was used for eleven Culex species from São Paulo, Brazil, and one from Esquel, Argentina. Adult mosquitoes were collected using CDC (Centers for Disease Control) traps, morphologically identified and analyzed by WGM. The canonical variate analysis (CVA) was performed and a Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to illustrate the patterns of species segregation. A cross-validated reclassification test was also carried out. From 110 comparisons in the cross-validated reclassification test, 87 yielded values higher than 70%, with 13 comparisons yielding 100% reclassification scores. Culexquinquefasciatus yielded the highest reclassification scores among the analyzed species, corroborating with the results obtained by the CVA, in which Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most distinct species. The high values obtained at the cross-validated reclassification test and in the NJ analysis as well as the segregation observed at the CVA made it possible to distinguish among Culex species with high degrees of confidence, suggesting that WGM is a reliable tool to identify Culex species of the subgenus Culex. Full article
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Article
Phylogeny of Anopheles (Kerteszia) (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Mitochondrial Genes
Insects 2020, 11(5), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050324 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Identification of mosquito species is necessary for determining the entomological components of malaria transmission, but it can be difficult in morphologically similar species. DNA sequences are largely used as an additional tool for species recognition, including those that belong to species complexes. Kerteszia [...] Read more.
Identification of mosquito species is necessary for determining the entomological components of malaria transmission, but it can be difficult in morphologically similar species. DNA sequences are largely used as an additional tool for species recognition, including those that belong to species complexes. Kerteszia mosquitoes are vectors of human and simian malaria in the Neotropical Region, but there are few DNA sequences of Kerteszia species in public databases. In order to provide relevant information about diversity and improve knowledge in taxonomy of Kerteszia species in Peru, we sequenced part of the mitochondrial genome, including the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region. Phylogenetic analyses structured all species of mosquitoes collected in Peru into a single clade, separate from the Brazilian species. The Peruvian clade was composed of two lineages, encompassing sequences from Anopheles (Kerteszia) boliviensis and Anopheles (Kerteszia) pholidotus. An. pholidotus sequences were recorded for the first time in Peru, whereas An. boliviensis sequences were for the first time published in the GenBank database. Sequences generated from specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii clustered into three separate clades according to the collection localities of Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra da Cantareira, confirming An. cruzii as a species complex, composed of at least three putative species. Full article
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