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The Role of Sugars in Plant Responses to Stress and Their Regulatory Function during Development Volume 2

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 8361

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
Interests: metabolic and ultrastructural responses of plants to sugar starvation; the role of saccharides in plant defense response to fungal pathogens; the involvement of sugars in regulation of the level of endogenous signaling molecules; effect of saccharides and nitric oxide on the mechanism regulating flavonoid biosynthesis; sugars and reactive oxygen species; sweet immunity; sugar metabolism and fruit development; the role of signaling molecules in plant defense response to aphids; the cross-talk between the abiotic and biotic factors on the generation of phytohormones and expression of genes involved in their biosynthesis
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E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to pathogens and pests especially reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants; sugars as signaling molecules; regulation of proteolysis and nitrogen metabolism; additional research topics concern the plant abiotic stress especially metallic trace elements and mechanisms of combined stresses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
Interests: the involvement of sugars in the regulation of the level of endogenous signalling molecules; the effect of saccharides and nitric oxide on the mechanism regulating flavonoid biosynthesis; sweet immunity; the role of signalling molecules in lupine defense response to fungal pathogen
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sugars, owing to their regulatory function, affect all phases of the life cycle of plants interacting with other signal molecules, including phytohormones, and control plant growth and development. The level of sugars in plant cells, their transport, utilization, and storage are precisely regulated and strongly dependent on cell physiological activity, plant organ, environmental conditions, and plant developmental stage during ontogenesis. It is also tightly controlled by sugar transporters and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes. The plant’s ability to monitor and respond to the level of sugars may act as a controlling mechanism, integrating the influence of environmental conditions with internal developmental programs, directly controlled by phytohormones. Environmental stimuli may influence various biochemical pathways, frequently interfering with the balanced distribution of sugars within plant cells and their transport from source organs to sink organs. It has been demonstrated that the level of sugar affects both the profile and the concentration of other primary and secondary metabolites and protein expression profiles. Numerous studies have also shown that sugars play a key role in plant defense responses to various abiotic and biotic stress factors. It is well documented that sugars are not only the main substrates utilized in respiration processes supplying energy for cellular defense responses against pathogens but also provide the carbon skeleton for the synthesis of defense compounds, including secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, stilbenes and lignins. Besides, saccharides, such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalose, represent metabolic signalling molecules in host plant cells that induce expression of many genes, including defense genes. Sugar signals may contribute to plant immune responses against pathogens and probably function as priming molecules leading to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants. It has been demonstrated that the presence of sucrose and monosaccharides enables plants to stimulate efficient defense mechanisms against fungal pathogens. This is consistent with the novel concept of “Sweet Immunity” that postulates specific key roles to saccharides which act as priming agents inducing resistance in higher plants to counteract both biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent progress in sugar research has provided important evidence on the contribution of fructans in the adaptation of plants towards abiotic stress as well as in the plant immune responses against pathogens. We encourage Authors to submit original or review research papers that further demonstrate the sweet immunity concept.

All the papers submitted to this special issue will underline the central role of sugars in plant defense responses to stresses as well as the impact of climatic conditions on the relationship between sugar metabolism, plant development and yielding. Additionally, papers regarding the involvement of sugars as signal molecules and their interaction with other signal molecules in the processes regulating growth and development will be welcome. Moreover, research on sugar-dependent gene expression, as a direct consequence of sugar signalling and understanding of sugar-dependent plant responses will be interesting. Original and review papers dealing with all the above aspects of sugars are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences.


Prof. Dr. Iwona Morkunas
Prof. Dr. Philippe Jeandet
Dr. Magda Formela-Luboińska
Dr. Mateusz Labudda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • sugar signaling
  • sugar-dependent gene expression
  • abiotic stress tolerance
  • biotic stress
  • plant responses
  • development regulation

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 2189 KiB  
Article
Far-Red Light Mediated Carbohydrate Concentration Changes in Leaves of Sweet Basil, a Stachyose Translocating Plant
by Elisa Driesen, Wouter Saeys, Maurice De Proft, Arthur Lauwers and Wim Van den Ende
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(9), 8378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24098378 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1665
Abstract
Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) refers to photons between 400 and 700 nm. These photons drive photosynthesis, providing carbohydrates for plant metabolism and development. Far-red radiation (FR, 701–750 nm) is excluded in this definition because no FR is absorbed by the plant photosynthetic pigments. [...] Read more.
Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) refers to photons between 400 and 700 nm. These photons drive photosynthesis, providing carbohydrates for plant metabolism and development. Far-red radiation (FR, 701–750 nm) is excluded in this definition because no FR is absorbed by the plant photosynthetic pigments. However, including FR in the light spectrum provides substantial benefits for biomass production and resource-use efficiency. We investigated the effects of continuous FR addition and end-of-day additional FR to a broad white light spectrum (BW) on carbohydrate concentrations in the top and bottom leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a species that produces the raffinose family oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose and preferentially uses the latter as transport sugar. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch concentrations increased significantly in top and bottom leaves with the addition of FR light. The increased carbohydrate pools under FR light treatments are associated with more efficient stachyose production and potentially improved phloem loading through increased sucrose homeostasis in intermediary cells. The combination of a high biomass yield, increased resource-use efficiency, and increased carbohydrate concentration in leaves in response to the addition of FR light offers opportunities for commercial plant production in controlled growth environments. Full article
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23 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Alterations in Primary Carbon Metabolism in Cucumber Infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans: Local and Systemic Responses
by Tomasz Kopczewski, Elżbieta Kuźniak, Iwona Ciereszko and Andrzej Kornaś
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(20), 12418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012418 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
The reconfiguration of the primary metabolism is essential in plant–pathogen interactions. We compared the local metabolic responses of cucumber leaves inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans (Psl) with those in non-inoculated systemic leaves, by examining the changes in the nicotinamide adenine [...] Read more.
The reconfiguration of the primary metabolism is essential in plant–pathogen interactions. We compared the local metabolic responses of cucumber leaves inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans (Psl) with those in non-inoculated systemic leaves, by examining the changes in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides pools, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates and activities/gene expression of carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle-linked metabolite contents and enzyme activities. In the infected leaves, Psl induced a metabolic signature with an altered [NAD(P)H]/[NAD(P)+] ratio; decreased glucose and sucrose contents, along with a changed invertase gene expression; and increased glucose turnover and accumulation of raffinose, trehalose, and myo-inositol. The accumulation of oxaloacetic and malic acids, enhanced activities, and gene expression of fumarase and l-malate dehydrogenase, as well as the increased respiration rate in the infected leaves, indicated that Psl induced the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The changes in gene expression of ribulose-l,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unit, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were compatible with a net photosynthesis decline described earlier. Psl triggered metabolic changes common to the infected and non-infected leaves, the dynamics of which differed quantitatively (e.g., malic acid content and metabolism, glucose-6-phosphate accumulation, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity) and those specifically related to the local or systemic response (e.g., changes in the sugar content and turnover). Therefore, metabolic changes in the systemic leaves may be part of the global effects of local infection on the whole-plant metabolism and also represent a specific acclimation response contributing to balancing growth and defense. Full article
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20 pages, 3072 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling Reveals That Sucrose Regulates Leaf Senescence via Dynamic Sugar Signaling Pathways
by Muhammad Asim, Quaid Hussain, Xiaolin Wang, Yanguo Sun, Haiwei Liu, Rayyan Khan, Shasha Du, Yi Shi and Yan Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(12), 6498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126498 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Sucrose (Suc) accumulation is one of the key indicators of leaf senescence onset, but little is known about its regulatory role. Here, we found that application of high (120–150 mM) and low levels (60 mM) of Suc to young leaf (YL) and fully [...] Read more.
Sucrose (Suc) accumulation is one of the key indicators of leaf senescence onset, but little is known about its regulatory role. Here, we found that application of high (120–150 mM) and low levels (60 mM) of Suc to young leaf (YL) and fully expanded leaf (FEL) discs, respectively, decreased chlorophyll content and maximum photosynthetic efficiency. Electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde levels increased at high Suc concentrations (90–120 mM in YL and 60 and 150 mM in FEL discs). In FEL discs, the senescence-associated gene NtSAG12 showed a gradual increase in expression with increased Suc application; in contrast, in YL discs, NtSAG12 was upregulated with low Suc treatment (60 mM) but downregulated at higher levels of Suc. In YL discs, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) accumulated at a low half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of Suc (1.765 mM). However, T6P levels declined as trehalose 6 phosphate synthase (TPS) content decreased, resulting in the maximum velocity of sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase (SnRK) and hexokinase (HXK) occurring at higher level of Suc. We therefore speculated that senescence was induced by hexose accumulation. In FEL discs, the EC50 of T6P occurred at a low concentration of Suc (0.9488 mM); T6P levels progressively increased with higher TPS content, which inhibited SnRK activity with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.001475 U/g. This confirmed that the T6P–SnRK complex induced senescence in detached FEL discs. Full article
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17 pages, 3551 KiB  
Article
Early Sucrose Degradation and the Dominant Sucrose Cleavage Pattern Influence Lycoris sprengeri Bulblet Regeneration In Vitro
by Ziming Ren, Yunchen Xu, Xuesi Lvy, Dong Zhang, Cong Gao, Yefan Lin, Yue Liu, Yun Wu and Yiping Xia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111890 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Bulblet formation and development determine the quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively, of bulb yield for most flowering bulbs. For Lycoris species, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, clonal bulblets of Lycoris sprengeri (Ls) derived from the same probulb were [...] Read more.
Bulblet formation and development determine the quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively, of bulb yield for most flowering bulbs. For Lycoris species, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, clonal bulblets of Lycoris sprengeri (Ls) derived from the same probulb were used as explants to establish efficient and inefficient in vitro regeneration systems by adjusting the 6-benzyladenine (BA) concentrations in media. BA application did not change the biological processes among groups but led to earlier decreases in sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) contents. Correlation analyses showed that the BA treatments changed the interaction between carbohydrate and endogenous hormone contents during bulblet regeneration. We found that two sucrose degradation enzyme-related genes, cell wall invertase (CWIN) and sucrose synthase, exhibited exactly opposite expression patterns during the competence stage. In addition, the regeneration system that obtained more bulblets showed significantly higher expression of LsCWIN2 than those that obtained fewer bulblets. Our data demonstrate the essential role of BA in accelerating sucrose degradation and the selection of a dominant sucrose cleavage pattern at the competence stage of in vitro bulblet regeneration. We propose that a relatively active CWIN-catalyzed pathway at the competence stage might promote bulblet regeneration, thus influencing bulb yield. Full article
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