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Special Issue "Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Chikahiro Miyake

Kobe University, Department of Biology and Environment Science, Kobe, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: oxygen; O2; reactive oxygen species (ROS); the water–water cycle; photosystem I; P700; P700 oxidation; Mehler reaction; superoxide; hydrogen peroxide; singlet oxygen; reduction-induced suppression of electron flow (RISE)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

About 65 years ago, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to be produced in photosynthesis (Mehler 1951), which has been called the Mehler reaction. Thereafter, Asada et al. (1973) showed the primary product of ROS superoxide radical (O2-). Many researchers have given the evidence that the Mehler reaction is enhanced under low photosynthetic efficiency conditions (e.g., induction phase of photosynthesis, low CO2 or high light). Research reports on ROS include (1) the scavenging system of ROS, (2) molecular mechanisms of ROS damages, (3) physiological functions and molecular mechanisms of ROS signals, (4) molecular breeding of plants having higher tolerance to ROS, and (5) recently, regulation mechanisms of ROS production in the Mehler reaction were elucidated. Photosynthesis organisms can not escape from the presence of O2. This is also true at night, when photosynthesis does not proceed. Because the activation of O2 to ROS favors conditions where electron is rich. That is, the electron transport system in mitochondria functions with ROS produced. O2 has two faces: The causal for oxidative stress as ROS and the causal for signal transduction as ROS. That is, (6) a full understanding of O2 chemistry contributes to the elucidation of how photosynthesis organisms have survived in the presence of O2 from the appearance of cyanobacteria on Earth. The Special Issue collects regular papers, reviews, opinions, etc., on topics (1)–(6). These recent stories open the readers to ROS world in photosynthesis organisms.

Prof. Chikahiro Miyake
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Photoinhibition
  • Photosystem I
  • Photosystem II
  • Oxidative stress
  • ROS (reactive oxygen species)
  • Chlroplasts
  • Mehler reaction
  • Mitochondria
  • RCS (reactive carbonyl species)
  • Evolution of photosynthesis organisms
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
  • Catalase (CAT)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase (APX)
  • The water-water cycle

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
The AtHSP17.4C1 Gene Expression Is Mediated by Diverse Signals that Link Biotic and Abiotic Stress Factors with ROS and Can Be a Useful Molecular Marker for Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133201
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly controlled signaling species that are involved in regulating gene expression in response to different environmental cues. The production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is a key strategy that plants use to defend themselves against diverse stresses, including [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly controlled signaling species that are involved in regulating gene expression in response to different environmental cues. The production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is a key strategy that plants use to defend themselves against diverse stresses, including oxidative stress. In this study, expression patterns of the Arabidopsis HSP17.4CI gene, a cytosolic class I small HSP, were systematically profiled under different abiotic, biotic and oxidative stresses. Our data show that HSP17.4CI was early and highly induced by heat, cold, salt, drought and high-light. HSP17.4CI also showed high expression levels in Arabidopsis plants infected with the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, but not in response to the necrotrophic pathogens Alternaria brassicicola and Fusarium oxysporum. Oxidative stress treatments including H2O2 and the herbicide methyl viologen led to induction of HSP17.4CI. The plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) induced the expression of HSP17.4CI, whereas methyl jasmonate (MJ) did not affect the expression level of this gene. Furthermore, we found enhanced expression of HSP17.4CI in catalase mutant plants, which are deficient in catalase 2 activity and accumulate intracellular H2O2. Taken together, data presented here suggest that HSP17.4CI expression is regulated by various signals that connect biotic and abiotic stresses with ROS and can be used as a molecular marker for oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Analysis of ROS Antioxidant Genes in Resurrection Species Suggest an Involvement of Distinct ROS Detoxification Systems during Desiccation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123101
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
PDF Full-text (3485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Abiotic stress is one of the major threats to plant crop yield and productivity. When plants are exposed to stress, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases, which could lead to extensive cellular damage and hence crop loss. During evolution, plants have acquired [...] Read more.
Abiotic stress is one of the major threats to plant crop yield and productivity. When plants are exposed to stress, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases, which could lead to extensive cellular damage and hence crop loss. During evolution, plants have acquired antioxidant defense systems which can not only detoxify ROS but also adjust ROS levels required for proper cell signaling. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are crucial enzymes involved in ROS detoxification. In this study, 40 putative APX, 28 GPX, 16 CAT, and 41 SOD genes were identified from genomes of the resurrection species Boea hygrometrica, Selaginella lepidophylla, Xerophyta viscosa, and Oropetium thomaeum, and the mesophile Selaginella moellendorffii. Phylogenetic analyses classified the APX, GPX, and SOD proteins into five clades each, and CAT proteins into three clades. Using co-expression network analysis, various regulatory modules were discovered, mainly involving glutathione, that likely work together to maintain ROS homeostasis upon desiccation stress in resurrection species. These regulatory modules also support the existence of species-specific ROS detoxification systems. The results suggest molecular pathways that regulate ROS in resurrection species and the role of APX, GPX, CAT and SOD genes in resurrection species during stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial AOX Supports Redox Balance of Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Primary Metabolite Balance, and Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana under High Light
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123067
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
When leaves receive excess light energy, excess reductants accumulate in chloroplasts. It is suggested that some of the reductants are oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Alternative oxidase (AOX), a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase, was upregulated in the photosynthetic mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana [...] Read more.
When leaves receive excess light energy, excess reductants accumulate in chloroplasts. It is suggested that some of the reductants are oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Alternative oxidase (AOX), a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase, was upregulated in the photosynthetic mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, pgr5, which accumulated reductants in chloroplast stroma. AOX is suggested to have an important role in dissipating reductants under high light (HL) conditions, but its physiological importance and underlying mechanisms are not yet known. Here, we compared wild-type (WT), pgr5, and a double mutant of AOX1a-knockout plant (aox1a) and pgr5 (aox1a/pgr5) grown under high- and low-light conditions, and conducted physiological analyses. The net assimilation rate (NAR) was lower in aox1a/pgr5 than that in the other genotypes at the early growth stage, while the leaf area ratio was higher in aox1a/pgr5. We assessed detailed mechanisms in relation to NAR. In aox1a/pgr5, photosystem II parameters decreased under HL, whereas respiratory O2 uptake rates increased. Some intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and Calvin cycle decreased in aox1a/pgr5, whereas γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-rich amino acids increased in aox1a/pgr5. Under HL, AOX may have an important role in dissipating excess reductants to prevent the reduction of photosynthetic electron transport and imbalance in primary metabolite levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Responses of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Reactions Stimulate the Oxidation of the Reaction Center Chlorophyll of Photosystem I, P700, under Drought and High Temperatures in Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092068
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is of interest how photosynthetic electron transport (PET) reactions respond to excess light energy caused by the combination of drought stress and high temperatures. Since such information is scarcely available for photosystem I (PSI), this question was explored in rice (Oryza [...] Read more.
It is of interest how photosynthetic electron transport (PET) reactions respond to excess light energy caused by the combination of drought stress and high temperatures. Since such information is scarcely available for photosystem I (PSI), this question was explored in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants subjected to drought stress, using culture solutions that contain poly(ethylene glycol) at different concentrations under two day/night temperature regimes. At 27/22 °C (day/night), drought stress led to the oxidation of the reaction center of the chlorophyll of PSI (P700), and also led to decreases in the quantum efficiencies of photosystem II (PSII) and PSI, and a reduction of the primary quinone electron acceptor of PSI. Such drought stress responses were wholly stimulated at 35/30 °C. These parameters were strongly correlated with each other and were minimally affected by temperature. These results indicate that the drought stress responses of the respective PET reactions are closely associated with each other in the oxidization of P700 and that such responses are stimulated at high temperatures. The underlying mechanisms of these phenomena were discussed. While P700 oxidation is thought to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, PSI photoinhibition was observed under severe stress conditions, implying that P700 oxidation is not sufficient for the protection of PSI under drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Exogenous Melatonin Counteracts NaCl-Induced Damage by Regulating the Antioxidant System, Proline and Carbohydrates Metabolism in Tomato Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020353
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melatonin, a natural agent, has multiple functions in animals as well as in plants. However, its possible roles in plants under abiotic stress are not clear. Nowadays, soil salinity is a major threat to global agriculture because a high soil salt content causes [...] Read more.
Melatonin, a natural agent, has multiple functions in animals as well as in plants. However, its possible roles in plants under abiotic stress are not clear. Nowadays, soil salinity is a major threat to global agriculture because a high soil salt content causes multiple stresses (hyperosmotic, ionic, and oxidative). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore: (1) the involvement of melatonin in biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and in regulation of photosynthetic enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco); (2) the role of melatonin in osmoregulation by proline and carbohydrate metabolism; and (3) the function of melatonin in the antioxidant defense system under salinity. Outcomes of the study reveal that under non-saline conditions, application of melatonin (20 and 50 µM) improved plant growth, viz. shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight (FW), root FW, shoot dry weight (DW), root DW and leaf area and physio-biochemical parameters [chlorophyll (Chl) a and b, proline (Pro) and total soluble carbohydrates (TSC) content, and increased the activity of CA and Rubisco]. However, tomato seedlings treated with NaCl exhibited enhanced Chl degradation, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide and hydrogen peroxide). ROS were detected in leaf and root. Interestingly, application of melatonin improved plant growth and reduced EL, MDA and ROS levels through upregulation of photosynthesis enzymes (CA, Rubisco), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants [ascorbate (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH)], as well as by affecting the ASC—GSH cycle. Additionally, exogenous melatonin also improved osmoregulation by increasing the content of TSC, Pro and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity. These results suggest that melatonin has beneficial effects on tomato seedlings growth under both stress and non-stress conditions. Melatonin’s role in tolerance to salt stress may be associated with the regulation of enzymes involved in photosynthesis, the antioxidant system, metabolism of proline and carbohydrate, and the ASC—GSH cycle. Also, melatonin could be responsible for maintaining the high ratios of GSH/GSSG and ASC/DHA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
The Role of Serine-Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP2A in Plant Oxidative Stress Signaling—Facts and Hypotheses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123028
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Abiotic and biotic factors induce oxidative stress involving the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review is a survey of well-known and possible roles of serine-threonine protein phosphatases in plant oxidative stress signaling, with special emphasis on PP2A. ROS mediated [...] Read more.
Abiotic and biotic factors induce oxidative stress involving the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review is a survey of well-known and possible roles of serine-threonine protein phosphatases in plant oxidative stress signaling, with special emphasis on PP2A. ROS mediated signaling involves three interrelated pathways: (i) perception of extracellular ROS triggers signal transduction pathways, leading to DNA damage and/or the production of antioxidants; (ii) external signals induce intracellular ROS generation that triggers the relevant signaling pathways and (iii) external signals mediate protein phosphorylation dependent signaling pathway(s), leading to the expression of ROS producing enzymes like NADPH oxidases. All pathways involve inactivation of serine-threonine protein phosphatases. The metal dependent phosphatase PP2C has a negative regulatory function during ABA mediated ROS signaling. PP2A is the most abundant protein phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. Inhibitors of PP2A exert a ROS inducing activity as well and we suggest that there is a direct relationship between these two effects of drugs. We present current findings and hypotheses regarding PP2A-ROS signaling connections related to all three ROS signaling pathways and anticipate future research directions for this field. These mechanisms have implications in the understanding of stress tolerance of vascular plants, having applications regarding crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Open AccessReview
Production, Signaling, and Scavenging Mechanisms of Reactive Oxygen Species in Fruit–Pathogen Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122994
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a dual role in fruit–pathogen interaction, which largely depends on their different levels in cells. Fruit recognition of a pathogen immediately triggers an oxidative burst that is considered an integral part of the fruit defense response. ROS are [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a dual role in fruit–pathogen interaction, which largely depends on their different levels in cells. Fruit recognition of a pathogen immediately triggers an oxidative burst that is considered an integral part of the fruit defense response. ROS are also necessary for the virulence of pathogenic fungi. However, the accumulation of ROS in cells causes molecular damage and finally leads to cell death. In this review, on the basis of data regarding ROS production and the scavenging systems determining ROS homeostasis, we focus on the role of ROS in fruit defense reactions against pathogens and in fungi pathogenicity during fruit–pathogen interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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Open AccessReview
Every Coin Has Two Sides: Reactive Oxygen Species during Rice–Magnaporthe oryzae Interaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051191
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
PDF Full-text (2024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many important processes, including the growth, development, and responses to the environments, in rice (Oryza sativa) and Magnaporthe oryzae. Although ROS are known to be critical components in rice–M. oryzae interactions, their [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many important processes, including the growth, development, and responses to the environments, in rice (Oryza sativa) and Magnaporthe oryzae. Although ROS are known to be critical components in rice–M. oryzae interactions, their regulations and pathways have not yet been completely revealed. Recent studies have provided fascinating insights into the intricate physiological redox balance in rice–M. oryzae interactions. In M. oryzae, ROS accumulation is required for the appressorium formation and penetration. However, once inside the rice cells, M. oryzae must scavenge the host-derived ROS to spread invasive hyphae. On the other side, ROS play key roles in rice against M. oryzae. It has been known that, upon perception of M. oryzae, rice plants modulate their activities of ROS generating and scavenging enzymes, mainly on NADPH oxidase OsRbohB, by different signaling pathways to accumulate ROS against rice blast. By contrast, the M. oryzae virulent strains are capable of suppressing ROS accumulation and attenuating rice blast resistance by the secretion of effectors, such as AvrPii and AvrPiz-t. These results suggest that ROS generation and scavenging of ROS are tightly controlled by different pathways in both M. oryzae and rice during rice blast. In this review, the most recent advances in the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of ROS accumulation and signaling during rice–M. oryzae interaction are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Redox Regulation in Plants)
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