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Special Issue "Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Kenji Gomi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Japan
Interests: plants; rice; phytohormones; plant pathology; plant volatile; abiotic response; hormonal crosstalk; signal transduction; gene expression; gene regulatory network
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our Special Issue “Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/plant_JA).

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivative, an amino acid conjugate of JA (jasmonoyl isoleucine: JA-Ile), are signaling compounds involved in the regulation of defense and development in plants. The number of articles studying JA has been dramatically increasing since the 1990s. JA was recognized as a stress hormone that regulates plant response to biotic stresses such as herbivore and pathogen attacks, as well as abiotic stresses such as wounding and ultraviolet radiation. Recent studies have progressed remarkably in the understanding of the importance of JA in the life cycle of plants. It has been revealed that JA is directly involved in many physiological processes, including stamen growth, senescence, and root growth. Furthermore, JA regulates the production of various metabolites, such as phytoalexins and terpenoids. Many regulatory proteins involved in JA signaling have been identified by screening for Arabidopsis mutants. The discovery of JA receptor (COI1) and central repressors (JAZs) facilitates further efforts to understand the JA signaling pathway in many plant species. However, there is a great deal more to be learned about JA signaling in plants. This Special Issue calls for original research and reviews and perspectives that address the progress and current knowledge in the research on JA in various plant species.

Assoc. Prof. Kenji Gomi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • JA biosynthesis
  • signal transduction
  • transcriptional regulators
  • gene expression
  • hormonal crosstalk
  • abiotic responses
  • biotic responses
  • JA-responsive factors
  • plant physiology
  • plant development

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073506 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivative, an amino acid conjugate of JA (jasmonoyl isoleucine: JA-Ile), are signaling compounds involved in the regulation of cellular defense and development in plants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)

Research

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Article
Identification, Phylogeny, and Comparative Expression of the Lipoxygenase Gene Family of the Aquatic Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, during Growth and in Response to Methyl Jasmonate and Salt
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249527 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) (EC 1.13.11.12) catalyze the oxygenation of fatty acids and produce oxylipins, including the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Little information is available about the LOX gene family in aquatic plants. We identified a novel [...] Read more.
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) (EC 1.13.11.12) catalyze the oxygenation of fatty acids and produce oxylipins, including the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Little information is available about the LOX gene family in aquatic plants. We identified a novel LOX gene family comprising nine LOX genes in the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed). The reduced anatomy of S. polyrhiza did not lead to a reduction in LOX family genes. The 13-LOX subfamily, with seven genes, predominates, while the 9-LOX subfamily is reduced to two genes, an opposite trend from known LOX families of other plant species. As the 13-LOX subfamily is associated with the synthesis of JA/MeJA, its predominance in the Spirodela genome raises the possibility of a higher requirement for the hormone in the aquatic plant. JA-/MeJA-based feedback regulation during culture aging as well as the induction of LOX gene family members within 6 h of salt exposure are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Article
The Cotton BEL1-Like Transcription Factor GhBLH7-D06 Negatively Regulates the Defense Response against Verticillium dahliae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197126 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 661
Abstract
Verticillium wilt will seriously affect cotton yield and fiber quality. BEL1-Like transcription factors are involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall (SCW) formation, especially the biosynthesis of lignin that also plays a key role in cotton disease resistance. However, there is no [...] Read more.
Verticillium wilt will seriously affect cotton yield and fiber quality. BEL1-Like transcription factors are involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall (SCW) formation, especially the biosynthesis of lignin that also plays a key role in cotton disease resistance. However, there is no report on the role of BEL1-Like transcription factor in the regulation of plant biological stress. In this study, tissue expression pattern analysis showed that a BEL1-Like transcription factor GhBLH7-D06 was predominantly expressed in vascular tissues and the SCW thickening stage of fiber development, while its expression could also respond to Verticillium dahliae infection and the phytohormone MeJA treatment, which indicated that GhBLH7-D06 might be involved in the defense response of Verticillium wilt. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology, we found silencing the expression of GhBLH7-D06 could enhance the resistance of cotton plants to Verticillium wilt, and the acquisition of resistance might be mainly due to the significant overexpression of genes related to lignin biosynthesis and JA signaling pathway, which also proves that GhBLH7-D06 negatively regulates the resistance of cotton to Verticillium wilt. Based on the results of yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library screening and confirmation by bimolecular fluorescence complementary (BiFC) experiment, we found an Ovate Family Protein (OFP) transcription factor GhOFP3-D13 which was also a negative regulator of cotton Verticillium wilt resistance could that interacts with GhBLH7-D06. Furthermore, the dual-luciferase reporter assay and yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) experiment indicated that GhBLH7-D06 could target binding to the promoter region of GhPAL-A06 to suppress its expression and eventually lead to the inhibition of lignin biosynthesis. In general, the GhBLH7-D06/GhOFP3-D13 complex can negatively regulate resistance to Verticillium wilt of cotton by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis and JA signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Article
Methyl Jasmonate Affects Photosynthesis Efficiency, Expression of HvTIP Genes and Nitrogen Homeostasis in Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124335 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Jasmonates modulate many growth and developmental processes and act as stress hormones that play an important role in plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, there is a need to identify the genes that are regulated through the jasmonate signalling pathway. Aquaporins, [...] Read more.
Jasmonates modulate many growth and developmental processes and act as stress hormones that play an important role in plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, there is a need to identify the genes that are regulated through the jasmonate signalling pathway. Aquaporins, and among them the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs), form the channels in cell membranes that are responsible for the precise regulation of the movement of water and other substrates between cell compartments. We identified the cis-regulatory motifs for the methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced genes in the promoter regions of all the HvTIP genes, which are active in barley seedlings, and thus we hypothesised that the HvTIP expression could be a response to jasmonate signalling. In the presented study, we determined the effect of methyl jasmonate on the growth parameters and photosynthesis efficiency of barley seedlings that had been exposed to different doses of MeJA (15–1000 µM × 120 h) in a hydroponic solution. All of the applied MeJA concentrations caused a significant reduction of barley seedling growth, which was most evident in the length of the first leaf sheath and dry leaf weight. The observed decrease of the PSII parameters after the exposure to high doses of MeJA (500 µM or higher) was associated with the downregulation of HvPsbR gene encoding one of the extrinsic proteins of the Oxygen Evolving Complex. The reduced expression of HvPsbR might lead to the impairment of the OEC action, manifested by the occurrence of the K-band in an analysis of fluorescence kinetics after MeJA treatment as well as reduced photosynthesis efficiency. Furthermore, methyl jasmonate treatment caused a decrease in the nitrogen content in barley leaves, which was associated with an increased expression the four tonoplast aquaporin genes (HvTIP1;2, HvTIP2;2, HvTIP4;1 and HvTIP4;2) predicted to transport the nitrogen compounds from the vacuole to the cytosol. The upregulation of the nitrogen-transporting HvTIPs might suggest their involvement in the vacuolar unloading of ammonia and urea, which both could be remobilised when the nitrogen content in the leaves decreases. Our research provides tips on physiological role of the individual TIP subfamily members of aquaporins under methyl jasmonate action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Article
Formation of the Secondary Abscission Zone Induced by the Interaction of Methyl Jasmonate and Auxin in Bryophyllum calycinum: Relevance to Auxin Status and Histology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082784 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The interaction of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to induce the formation of the secondary abscission zone in the middle of internode segments of Bryophyllum calycinum was investigated in relation to auxin status and histology. When IAA at 0.1% (w [...] Read more.
The interaction of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to induce the formation of the secondary abscission zone in the middle of internode segments of Bryophyllum calycinum was investigated in relation to auxin status and histology. When IAA at 0.1% (w/w, in lanolin) was applied to the segments, the formation of the secondary abscission zone at a few mm above the treatment in the apical direction was observed. On the contrary, IAA at 0.5% (w/w, in lanolin) did not induce the formation of the secondary abscission zone. JA-Me at 0.5% (w/w, in lanolin) applied to the middle of internode segments kept in the normal (natural) or inverted positions also induced the formation of the secondary abscission zone below and above parts of the treatment. IAA at 0.5% applied to the cut surface of the upper part of the segments completely prevented the formation of the secondary abscission zone induced by JA-Me. Simultaneous application of IAA 0.5% with JA-Me 0.5% in the middle part of the internode segments induced the formation of the secondary abscission zone at 10 mm to 12 mm above the treatment. Histological analyses indicated that the formation of the secondary abscission zone was characterized by the presence of newly synthesized cell plates that resulted from periclinal cell division within one layer of mother cells in stems. The effects of IAA (0.1%) and JA-Me (0.5%) on the formation of the secondary abscission zone were histologically similar. Comprehensive analyses of plant hormones revealed that the balance of the endogenous levels of IAA in both sides adjacent to the abscission zone was significantly disturbed when the secondary abscission formation was induced by the application of IAA. These results strongly suggest that an auxin gradient is important in the formation of the secondary abscission zone in the internode segments of B. calycinum, and IAA gradient results from polar IAA transport from the application site. IAA is important in the regulation of formation of the secondary abscission zone induced by JA-Me. Further possible mechanisms of the formation of the secondary abscission zone in the internode segments of B. calycinum are also discussed in the interaction of JA-Me and IAA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Article
JA-Ile-Macrolactone 5b Induces Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Resistance to Both Herbivore Ectropis obliqua and Pathogen Colletotrichum camelliae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051828 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Jasmonates (JAs), the group of lipid-derived hormones, were found to control the defense responses in a myriad of plants. Meaningfully, the macrolactones of 12-hydroxy jasmonate isoleucine (12OH-JA-Ile) were reported to induce the defensive response of wild tobacco. However, little to nothing has been [...] Read more.
Jasmonates (JAs), the group of lipid-derived hormones, were found to control the defense responses in a myriad of plants. Meaningfully, the macrolactones of 12-hydroxy jasmonate isoleucine (12OH-JA-Ile) were reported to induce the defensive response of wild tobacco. However, little to nothing has been known about the elicitation effect of JA-Ile-macrolactones on woody plants to harmful organisms, let alone its underlying mechanisms. Here, we first optimized the synthetic routine using mild toxic reagent isobutyl chloroformate instead of ethyl chloroformate for conjugation, and we used acetonitrile (MeCN) instead of ethyl alcohol for the better dissolution of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH) to gain JA-Ile-macrolactones. JA-Ile-macrolactone 5b-treated tea plants significantly inhibited the larvae weight gain of Ectropis obliqua larvae and the lesions caused by Colletotrichum camelliae. Furthermore, the expression level of CsOPR3 was significantly upregulated in 5b-treated leaves. Meanwhile, 5b reduced the accumulation of eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide (EDG) in tea plants, which was confirmed to promote the growth rate of E. obliqua larvae by artificial diet assay. In conclusion, our study proved that the exogenous application of 5b could induce the tea plant resistance both to herbivore E. obliqua and pathogen C. camelliae, and EDG was identified as one of the secondary metabolites that could influence the growth rate of E. obliqua, but it did not directly influence the infection of C. camelliae in vitro. Further research should be carried out to clarify the mechanism through which 5b induces tea plant resistance to C. camelliae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Article
Role of Stomatal Conductance in Modifying the Dose Response of Stress-Volatile Emissions in Methyl Jasmonate Treated Leaves of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativa)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031018 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Treatment by volatile plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) leads to release of methanol and volatiles of lipoxygenase pathway (LOX volatiles) in a dose-dependent manner, but how the dose dependence is affected by stomatal openness is poorly known. We studied the rapid (0–60 min [...] Read more.
Treatment by volatile plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) leads to release of methanol and volatiles of lipoxygenase pathway (LOX volatiles) in a dose-dependent manner, but how the dose dependence is affected by stomatal openness is poorly known. We studied the rapid (0–60 min after treatment) response of stomatal conductance (Gs), net assimilation rate (A), and LOX and methanol emissions to varying MeJA concentrations (0.2–50 mM) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves with partly open stomata and in leaves with reduced Gs due to drought and darkness. Exposure to MeJA led to initial opening of stomata due to an osmotic shock, followed by MeJA concentration-dependent reduction in Gs, whereas A initially decreased, followed by recovery for lower MeJA concentrations and time-dependent decline for higher MeJA concentrations. Methanol and LOX emissions were elicited in a MeJA concentration-dependent manner, whereas the peak methanol emissions (15–20 min after MeJA application) preceded LOX emissions (20–60 min after application). Furthermore, peak methanol emissions occurred earlier in treatments with higher MeJA concentration, while the opposite was observed for LOX emissions. This difference reflected the circumstance where the rise of methanol release partly coincided with MeJA-dependent stomatal opening, while stronger stomatal closure at higher MeJA concentrations progressively delayed peak LOX emissions. We further observed that drought-dependent reduction in Gs ameliorated MeJA effects on foliage physiological characteristics, underscoring that MeJA primarily penetrates through the stomata. However, despite reduced Gs, dark pretreatment amplified stress-volatile release upon MeJA treatment, suggesting that increased leaf oxidative status due to sudden illumination can potentiate the MeJA response. Taken together, these results collectively demonstrate that the MeJA dose response of volatile emission is controlled by stomata that alter MeJA uptake and volatile release kinetics and by leaf oxidative status in a complex manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Review

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Review
Functions of Jasmonic Acid in Plant Regulation and Response to Abiotic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041446 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
Jasmonic acid (JA) is an endogenous growth-regulating substance, initially identified as a stress-related hormone in higher plants. Similarly, the exogenous application of JA also has a regulatory effect on plants. Abiotic stress often causes large-scale plant damage. In this review, we focus on [...] Read more.
Jasmonic acid (JA) is an endogenous growth-regulating substance, initially identified as a stress-related hormone in higher plants. Similarly, the exogenous application of JA also has a regulatory effect on plants. Abiotic stress often causes large-scale plant damage. In this review, we focus on the JA signaling pathways in response to abiotic stresses, including cold, drought, salinity, heavy metals, and light. On the other hand, JA does not play an independent regulatory role, but works in a complex signal network with other phytohormone signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss transcription factors and genes involved in the regulation of the JA signaling pathway in response to abiotic stress. In this process, the JAZ-MYC module plays a central role in the JA signaling pathway through integration of regulatory transcription factors and related genes. Simultaneously, JA has synergistic and antagonistic effects with abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and other plant hormones in the process of resisting environmental stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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Review
Recent Advances in Plant Chemical Biology of Jasmonates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031124 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Lipid-derived plant hormone jasmonates are implicated in plant growth, reproductive performance, senescence, secondary metabolite productions, and defense against both necrotrophic pathogens and feeding insects. A major jasmonate is (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is perceived by the unique COI1-JAZ coreceptor system. Recent advances [...] Read more.
Lipid-derived plant hormone jasmonates are implicated in plant growth, reproductive performance, senescence, secondary metabolite productions, and defense against both necrotrophic pathogens and feeding insects. A major jasmonate is (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is perceived by the unique COI1-JAZ coreceptor system. Recent advances in plant chemical biology have greatly informed the bioscience of jasmonate, including the development of chemical tools such as the antagonist COR-MO; the agonist NOPh; and newly developed jasmonates, including JA-Ile-macrolactone and 12-OH-JA-Ile. This review article summarizes the current status of plant chemical biology as it pertains to jasmonates, and offers some perspectives for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants 2.0)
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