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Special Issue "Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Soo-Hong Lee
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si 463-400, Korea
Interests: biomaterials; stem cell engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, entitled “Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine”, will focus on recent research developments in regenerative medicine using nanotechnology. We welcome review articles, commentaries, and experimental papers applicable to the Special Issue.

The widespread use of the term regenerative medicine is attributed to William A. Haseltine (founder of Human Genome Sciences). Since then, there have been many research studies related to regenerative medicine. The basic concept of “Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine” is to use engineered nanostructures, alone or in combination with specific cells, such as stem cells, to replace, augment or regenerate human tissues/organs to make them functional. The rise of advanced nanotechnology provided breakthrough in this field, as it opened wide applications in tissue engineering, and imaging areas, addressing various limitations in the field. Thus, concepts and discoveries from the nano/micro- bio research provide exciting opportunities in using cells for regeneration of tissues and organs. The Special Issue will focus on recent advances of stem- and tissue-cell engineering/drug delivery/imaging fields. New nanomaterials, animal models, and clinical trials for various diseases are highly appreciated. In addition, the combination of nano and micro technology for vision restoration, skin and bone regeneration and understanding their clinical outcomes are also welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Soo-Hong Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Regenerative medicine
  • Nano/micro technology
  • Stem cells
  • Tissue engineering
  • Bone regeneration
  • Wound healing
  • Skin regeneration
  • Drug delivery
  • Imaging
  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Ophthalmology
  • Clinical trials

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082187 - 26 Jul 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Regenerative medicine is an emerging discipline aimed at repairing and reestablishing the normal functions of tissues and organs damaged by aging, disease, injury, or congenital disorders.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Homing Technique of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Magnetic Attraction in Olfactory-Injured Mouse Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051376 - 05 May 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2577
Abstract
Intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the olfactory bulb is a promising approach for treating olfactory injury. Additionally, using the homing phenomenon of MSCs may be clinically applicable for developing therapeutic cell carriers. Herein, using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and [...] Read more.
Intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the olfactory bulb is a promising approach for treating olfactory injury. Additionally, using the homing phenomenon of MSCs may be clinically applicable for developing therapeutic cell carriers. Herein, using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and a permanent magnet, we demonstrated an enhanced homing effect in an olfactory model. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with rhodamine B (IRBs) had a diameter of 5.22 ± 0.9 nm and ζ-potential of +15.2 ± 0.3 mV. IRB concentration of 15 µg/mL was injected with SPIONs into MSCs, as cell viability significantly decreased when 20 μg/mL was used (p ≤ 0.005) compared to in controls. The cells exhibited magnetic attraction in vitro. SPIONs also stimulated CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) expression and CXCR4-SDF-1 (Stromal cell-derived factor 1) signaling in MSCs. After injecting magnetized MSCs, these cells were detected in the damaged olfactory bulb one week after injury on one side, and there was a significant increase compared to when non-magnetized MSCs were injected. Our results suggest that SPIONs-labeled MSCs migrated to injured olfactory tissue through guidance with a permanent magnet, resulting in better homing effects of MSCs in vivo, and that iron oxide nanoparticles can be used for internalization, various biological applications, and regenerative studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Copper-Free ‘Click’ Chemistry-Based Synthesis and Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase-IX Anchored Albumin-Paclitaxel Nanoparticles for Targeting Tumor Hypoxia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030838 - 13 Mar 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult to treat disease due to the absence of the three unique receptors estrogen, progesterone and herceptin-2 (HER-2). To improve the current therapy and overcome the resistance of TNBC, there is unmet need to develop an [...] Read more.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult to treat disease due to the absence of the three unique receptors estrogen, progesterone and herceptin-2 (HER-2). To improve the current therapy and overcome the resistance of TNBC, there is unmet need to develop an effective targeted therapy. In this regard, one of the logical and economical approaches is to develop a tumor hypoxia-targeting drug formulation platform for selective delivery of payload to the drug-resistant and invasive cell population of TNBC tumors. Toward this, we developed a Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX) receptor targeting human serum albumin (HSA) carriers to deliver the potent anticancer drug, Paclitaxel (PTX). We used Acetazolamide (ATZ), a small molecule ligand of CA IX to selectively deliver HSA-PTX in TNBC cells. A novel method of synthesis involving copper free ‘click’ chemistry (Dibenzocyclooctyl, DBCO) moiety with an azide-labeled reaction partner, known as Strain-Promoted Alkyne Azide Cycloaddition (SPAAC) along with a desolvation method for PTX loading were used in the present study to arrive at the CA IX selective nano-carriers, HSA-PTX-ATZ. The anticancer effect of HSA-PTX-ATZ is higher compared to HSA, PTX and non-targeted HSA-PTX in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. The cell killing effect is associated with induction of early and late phases of apoptosis. Overall, our proof-of-concept study shows a promising avenue for hypoxia-targeted drug delivery that can be adapted to several types of cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Simvastatin-Loaded Porous Microspheres on Inflamed Tenocytes in a Collagenase-Induced Animal Model of Achilles Tendinitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030820 - 12 Mar 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Tendon rupture induces an inflammatory response characterized by release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and impaired tendon performance. This study sought to investigate the therapeutic effects of simvastatin-loaded porous microspheres (SIM/PMSs) on inflamed tenocytes in vitro and collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis in vivo. The treatment of [...] Read more.
Tendon rupture induces an inflammatory response characterized by release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and impaired tendon performance. This study sought to investigate the therapeutic effects of simvastatin-loaded porous microspheres (SIM/PMSs) on inflamed tenocytes in vitro and collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis in vivo. The treatment of SIM/PMSs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated tenocytes reduced the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)). In addition, the local injection of SIM/PMSs into the tendons of collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis rat models suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (MMP-3, COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-13). This local treatment also upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13). Furthermore, treatment with SIM/PMSs also improved the alignment of collagen fibrils and effectively prevented collagen disruption in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, SIM/PMSs treatment resulted in an incremental increase in the collagen content, stiffness, and tensile strength in tendons. This study suggests that SIM/PMSs have great potential for tendon healing and restoration in Achilles tendinitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Graphene–RGD Peptide Nanoisland Composites That Enhance the Osteogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030669 - 27 Feb 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
Graphene derivatives have immense potential in stem cell research. Here, we report a three-dimensional graphene/arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide nanoisland composite effective in guiding the osteogenesis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). Amine-modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were uniformly coated onto an indium tin [...] Read more.
Graphene derivatives have immense potential in stem cell research. Here, we report a three-dimensional graphene/arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide nanoisland composite effective in guiding the osteogenesis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). Amine-modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were uniformly coated onto an indium tin oxide electrode (ITO), followed by graphene oxide (GO) encapsulation and electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles. A RGD–MAP–C peptide, with a triple-branched repeating RGD sequence and a terminal cysteine, was self-assembled onto the gold nanoparticles, generating the final three-dimensional graphene–RGD peptide nanoisland composite. We generated substrates with various gold nanoparticle–RGD peptide cluster densities, and found that the platform with the maximal number of clusters was most suitable for ADSC adhesion and spreading. Remarkably, the same platform was also highly efficient at guiding ADSC osteogenesis compared with other substrates, based on gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2), enzyme activity (ALP), and calcium deposition. ADSCs induced to differentiate into osteoblasts showed higher calcium accumulations after 14–21 days than when grown on typical GO-SiNP complexes, suggesting that the platform can accelerate ADSC osteoblastic differentiation. The results demonstrate that a three-dimensional graphene–RGD peptide nanoisland composite can efficiently derive osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Identification and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Peptide Liposome Incorporated Citron Extracts in an in Vitro System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020626 - 22 Feb 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Citrons have been widely used for medicinal purposes for a long time, but the application of citron in the food industry is still restricted. The extensive advantages of nanotechnology in the food industry have greatly broadened the application of foods. In this study, [...] Read more.
Citrons have been widely used for medicinal purposes for a long time, but the application of citron in the food industry is still restricted. The extensive advantages of nanotechnology in the food industry have greatly broadened the application of foods. In this study, by employing nanotechnology, we prepared citron-extract nanoparticle with an average size of 174.11 ± 3.89 nm, containing protein peptide and/or liposome. In order to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles and to ensure food safety, biological cytotoxicity at the cell and genomic levels was also identified to examine the toxicity of citron extracts by using an in vitro system. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of citronliposome was dependent on cell type in high concentrations (1 and 5 mg/mL), selectively against primary human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs), and human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) in MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Interestingly, for the NIH-3T3 and H9C2 cell lines, cell cytotoxicity was observed with slight genotoxicity, especially from citronpeptide extract for both cell lines. Taken together, our study provides cytotoxicity data on nanoengineered citron extracts according to different cell type as is crucial for further applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Bioreducible Polymer Micelles Based on Acid-Degradable Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(amino ketal) Enhance the Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1α Gene Transfection Efficacy and Therapeutic Angiogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020529 - 09 Feb 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2069
Abstract
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the potential to treat ischemic diseases. In general, ADSCs facilitate angiogenesis by secreting various pro-angiogenic growth factors. However, transplanted ADSCs have a low therapeutic efficacy in ischemic tissues due to their poor engraftment and low viability. Stromal cell-derived [...] Read more.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the potential to treat ischemic diseases. In general, ADSCs facilitate angiogenesis by secreting various pro-angiogenic growth factors. However, transplanted ADSCs have a low therapeutic efficacy in ischemic tissues due to their poor engraftment and low viability. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) improves the survival rate of stem cells transplanted into ischemic regions. In this study, we developed acid-degradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(amino ketal) (PEG-PAK)-based micelles for efficient intracellular delivery of SDF-1α plasmid DNA. The SDF-1α gene was successfully delivered into human ADSCs (hADSCs) using PEG-PAK micelles. Transfection of SDF-1α increased SDF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor gene expression and decreased apoptotic activity in hADSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions in comparison with conventional gene transfection using polyethylenimine. SDF-1α-transfected hADSCs also showed significantly increased SDF-1α and VEGF expression together with reduced apoptotic activity at 4 weeks after transplantation into mouse ischemic hindlimbs. Consequently, these cells improved angiogenesis in ischemic hindlimb regions. These PEG-PAK micelles may lead to the development of a novel therapeutic modality for ischemic diseases based on an acid-degradable polymer specialized for gene delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Turmeric Extract Incorporated Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010280 - 17 Jan 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3147
Abstract
To overcome the drawbacks of conventional drug delivery system, nanoemulsion have been developed as an advanced form for improving the delivery of active ingredients. However, safety evaluation is crucial during the development stage before the commercialization. Therefore, the aim of this study was [...] Read more.
To overcome the drawbacks of conventional drug delivery system, nanoemulsion have been developed as an advanced form for improving the delivery of active ingredients. However, safety evaluation is crucial during the development stage before the commercialization. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two types of newly developed nanoemulsions. Turmeric extract-loaded nanoemulsion powder-10.6 (TE-NEP-10.6, high content of artificial surfactant Tween 80), which forms the optimal nanoemulsion, and the TE-NEP-8.6 made by increasing the content of natural emulsifier (lecithin) to reduce the potential toxicity of nanoemulsion were cultured with various cells (NIH3T3, H9C2, HepG2, hCPC, and hEPC) and the changes of each cell were observed followed by nanoemulsion treatment. As a result, the two nanoemulsions (TE-NEP-10.6 and TE-NEP-8.6) did not show significant difference in cell viability. In the case of cell line (NIH3T3, H9C2, and HepG2), toxicity was not observed at an experimental concentration of less than 1 mg/mL, however, the cell survival rate decreased in a concentration dependent manner in the case of primary cultured cells. These results from our study can be used as a basic data to confirm the cell type dependent toxicity of nanoemulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of In Vitro Cancer Microtissue Array on Fibroblast-Layered Nanofibrous Membrane by Inkjet Printing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112348 - 07 Nov 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
In general, a drug candidate is evaluated using 2D-cultured cancer cells followed by an animal model. Despite successful preclinical testing, however, most drugs that enter human clinical trials fail. The high failure rates are mainly caused by incompatibility between the responses of the [...] Read more.
In general, a drug candidate is evaluated using 2D-cultured cancer cells followed by an animal model. Despite successful preclinical testing, however, most drugs that enter human clinical trials fail. The high failure rates are mainly caused by incompatibility between the responses of the current models and humans. Here, we fabricated a cancer microtissue array in a multi-well format that exhibits heterogeneous and batch-to-batch structure by continuous deposition of collagen-suspended Hela cells on a fibroblast-layered nanofibrous membrane via inkjet printing. Expression of both Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was higher in cancer microtissues than in fibroblast-free microtissues. The fabricated microtissues were treated with an anticancer drug, and high drug resistance to doxorubicin occurred in cancer microtissues but not in fibroblast-free microtissues. These results introduce an inkjet printing fabrication method for cancer microtissue arrays, which can be used for various applications such as early drug screening and gradual 3D cancer studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Rebalancing β-Amyloid-Induced Decrease of ATP Level by Amorphous Nano/Micro Polyphosphate: Suppression of the Neurotoxic Effect of Amyloid β-Protein Fragment 25-35
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102154 - 16 Oct 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
Morbus Alzheimer neuropathology is characterized by an impaired energy homeostasis of brain tissue. We present an approach towards a potential therapy of Alzheimer disease based on the high-energy polymer inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), which physiologically occurs both in the extracellular and in the intracellular [...] Read more.
Morbus Alzheimer neuropathology is characterized by an impaired energy homeostasis of brain tissue. We present an approach towards a potential therapy of Alzheimer disease based on the high-energy polymer inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), which physiologically occurs both in the extracellular and in the intracellular space. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC) 12 cells, as well as rat primary cortical neurons were exposed to the Alzheimer peptide Aβ25-35. They were incubated in vitro with polyphosphate (polyP); ortho-phosphate was used as a control. The polymer remained as Na+ salt; or complexed in a stoichiometric ratio to Ca2+ (Na-polyP[Ca2+]); or was processed as amorphous Ca-polyP microparticles (Ca-polyP-MP). Ortho-phosphate was fabricated as crystalline Ca-phosphate nanoparticles (Ca-phosphate-NP). We show that the pre-incubation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons with polyP protects the cells against the neurotoxic effect of the Alzheimer peptide Aβ25-35. The strongest effect was observed with amorphous polyP microparticles (Ca-polyP-MP). The effect of the soluble sodium salt; Na-polyP (Na-polyP[Ca2+]) was lower; while crystalline orthophosphate nanoparticles (Ca-phosphate-NP) were ineffective. Ca-polyP-MP microparticles and Na-polyP[Ca2+] were found to markedly enhance the intracellular ATP level. Pre-incubation of Aβ25-35 during aggregate formation, with the polyP preparation before exposure of the cells, had a small effect on neurotoxicity. We conclude that recovery of the compromised energy status in neuronal cells by administration of nontoxic biodegradable Ca-salts of polyP reverse the β-amyloid-induced decrease of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. This study contributes to a new routes for a potential therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Effect of Cilostazol Ophthalmic Nanodispersions on Retinal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091971 - 14 Sep 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
We previously prepared ophthalmic formulations containing cilostazol (CLZ) nanoparticles by bead mill methods (CLZnano), and found that instillation of CLZnano into rat eyes supplies CLZ into the retina. In this study, we investigated changes in the electroretinograms (ERG) of streptozotocin-induced [...] Read more.
We previously prepared ophthalmic formulations containing cilostazol (CLZ) nanoparticles by bead mill methods (CLZnano), and found that instillation of CLZnano into rat eyes supplies CLZ into the retina. In this study, we investigated changes in the electroretinograms (ERG) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats), a model of diabetes mellitus. In addition, we demonstrated that dispersions containing CLZ nanoparticles attenuate changes in the ERG of STZ rats. The instillation of CLZnano had no effect on body weight or plasma glucose and insulin levels. Furthermore, no corneal toxicity was observed in the in vivo study using STZ rats. The a-wave and b-wave levels in addition to oscillatory potentials (OP) amplitude decreased in STZ rats two weeks after the injection of streptozotocin, with the instillation of CLZnano attenuating these decreases. In addition, the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retinas of STZ rats was 9.26-fold higher than in in normal rats, with this increase also prevented by the instillation of CLZnano Thus, we have found that a-wave and b-wave levels in addition to OP amplitude are decreased in rats following the injection of excessive streptozotocin. Furthermore, the retinal disorders associated with diabetes mellitus are attenuated by the instillation of CLZnano. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing anti-diabetic retinopathy drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Coated Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft Material on Osteogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081725 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as bone graft materials on bone regeneration. The rGO-coated BCP bone graft material was fabricatied by mixing rGO and BCP at various concentrations. The [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as bone graft materials on bone regeneration. The rGO-coated BCP bone graft material was fabricatied by mixing rGO and BCP at various concentrations. The surface charge of rGO-coated BCP was measured to be −14.43 mV, which formed a static electrostatic interaction. Cell viabilities were significantly diminished at higher concentrations of ≥100 μg/mL. The calvarial defects of 48 rats were implanted rGO-coated BCPs at a weight ratio of 2:1000 (rGO2), 4:1000 (rGO4), and 10:1000 (rGO10), repectively. BCP was used as a control group. The micro-CT and histological analysis were performed to evaluate new bone formation at 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. The results showed that the new bone volume (mm3) was significantly higher in the experimental groups than in the control group. Histological analysis showed that new bone areas (%) were significantly higher in the rGO2 and rGO10 than in the control, and significantly higher in rGO4 than in the rGO2 and rGO10. Conclusively, the rGO-coated BCP was found to be effective on osteogenesis and the concentration of the composite was an important factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Current Approaches Including Novel Nano/Microtechniques to Reduce Silicone Implant-Induced Contracture with Adverse Immune Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041171 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
Capsular contracture, which is the pathologic development of fibrous capsules around implants, is a major complication of reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgeries. Capsular contracture can cause implant failure with breast hardening, deformity, and severe pain. The exact mechanisms underlying this complication remain unclear. [...] Read more.
Capsular contracture, which is the pathologic development of fibrous capsules around implants, is a major complication of reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgeries. Capsular contracture can cause implant failure with breast hardening, deformity, and severe pain. The exact mechanisms underlying this complication remain unclear. In addition, anaplastic large cell lymphoma is now widely recognized as a very rare disease associated with breast implants. Foreign body reactions are an inevitable common denominator of capsular contracture. A number of studies have focused on the associated immune responses and their regulation. The present article provides an overview of the currently available techniques, including novel nano/microtechniques, to reduce silicone implant-induced contracture and associated foreign body responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Temporomandibular Joint Regenerative Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020446 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3726
Abstract
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ [...] Read more.
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ diseases have led to increased interest in regenerative strategies combining stem cells, implantable scaffolds and well-targeting bioactive molecules. To succeed in functional and structural regeneration of TMJ is very challenging. Innovative strategies and biomaterials are absolutely crucial because TMJ can be considered as one of the most difficult tissues to regenerate due to its limited healing capacity, its unique histological and structural properties and the necessity for long-term prevention of its ossified or fibrous adhesions. The ideal approach for TMJ regeneration is a unique scaffold functionalized with an osteochondral molecular gradient containing a single stem cell population able to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation such as BMSCs, ADSCs or DPSCs. The key for this complex regeneration is the functionalization with active molecules such as IGF-1, TGF-β1 or bFGF. This regeneration can be optimized by nano/micro-assisted functionalization and by spatiotemporal drug delivery systems orchestrating the 3D formation of TMJ tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine) Printed Edition available
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