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Identification and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Peptide Liposome Incorporated Citron Extracts in an in Vitro System

Department of Bioindustrial Technologies, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Regeneration, Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Sanghuh College of Life Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, KU Convergence Science and Technology Institute, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 626;
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine)
PDF [3022 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]


Citrons have been widely used for medicinal purposes for a long time, but the application of citron in the food industry is still restricted. The extensive advantages of nanotechnology in the food industry have greatly broadened the application of foods. In this study, by employing nanotechnology, we prepared citron-extract nanoparticle with an average size of 174.11 ± 3.89 nm, containing protein peptide and/or liposome. In order to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles and to ensure food safety, biological cytotoxicity at the cell and genomic levels was also identified to examine the toxicity of citron extracts by using an in vitro system. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of citronliposome was dependent on cell type in high concentrations (1 and 5 mg/mL), selectively against primary human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs), and human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) in MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Interestingly, for the NIH-3T3 and H9C2 cell lines, cell cytotoxicity was observed with slight genotoxicity, especially from citronpeptide extract for both cell lines. Taken together, our study provides cytotoxicity data on nanoengineered citron extracts according to different cell type as is crucial for further applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus fruits; citron; nanotechnology; liposome; peptide; cell viability; cytotoxicity citrus fruits; citron; nanotechnology; liposome; peptide; cell viability; cytotoxicity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, X.; Yoon, H.J.; Kang, M.G.; Kim, G.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Baek, S.H.; Lee, J.G.; Bai, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Choi, M.J.; Hong, K.; Bae, H. Identification and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Peptide Liposome Incorporated Citron Extracts in an in Vitro System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 626.

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