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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030669

Three-Dimensional Graphene–RGD Peptide Nanoisland Composites That Enhance the Osteogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

1
School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan City, Chungnam 31499, Korea
3
Integrative Research Center for Two-Dimensional Functional Materials, Institute of Interdisciplinary Convergence Research, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine)
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Abstract

Graphene derivatives have immense potential in stem cell research. Here, we report a three-dimensional graphene/arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide nanoisland composite effective in guiding the osteogenesis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). Amine-modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were uniformly coated onto an indium tin oxide electrode (ITO), followed by graphene oxide (GO) encapsulation and electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles. A RGD–MAP–C peptide, with a triple-branched repeating RGD sequence and a terminal cysteine, was self-assembled onto the gold nanoparticles, generating the final three-dimensional graphene–RGD peptide nanoisland composite. We generated substrates with various gold nanoparticle–RGD peptide cluster densities, and found that the platform with the maximal number of clusters was most suitable for ADSC adhesion and spreading. Remarkably, the same platform was also highly efficient at guiding ADSC osteogenesis compared with other substrates, based on gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2), enzyme activity (ALP), and calcium deposition. ADSCs induced to differentiate into osteoblasts showed higher calcium accumulations after 14–21 days than when grown on typical GO-SiNP complexes, suggesting that the platform can accelerate ADSC osteoblastic differentiation. The results demonstrate that a three-dimensional graphene–RGD peptide nanoisland composite can efficiently derive osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; silica nanoparticles; gold nanoparticles; RGD peptide; differentiation; mesenchymal stem cells; adipose-derived stem cells; osteogenesis graphene oxide; silica nanoparticles; gold nanoparticles; RGD peptide; differentiation; mesenchymal stem cells; adipose-derived stem cells; osteogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kang, E.-S.; Kim, D.-S.; Han, Y.; Son, H.; Chung, Y.-H.; Min, J.; Kim, T.-H. Three-Dimensional Graphene–RGD Peptide Nanoisland Composites That Enhance the Osteogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 669.

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