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Special Issue "Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 11120

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kunihiro Tsuchida
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Comprehensice Medical Sciences, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan
Interests: neuromuscular disorders; sarcopenia; aging; myogenesis; cytokine signaling; nanomedicine; exosome; non-coding RNA; drug discovery
Dr. So-ichiro Fukada
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Interests: mdx; dystrophy; hypertrophy; quiescence; CalcR; notch; muscle stem cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Myogenesis is a highly sophisticated system and gives rise to multiple types of skeletal muscles from satellite cells throughout the body. Skeletal muscles communicate with tendon, bone, and also crosstalk with other organs such as adipose tissues, liver and brain.

Muscular dystrophies have been recognized as representative intractable diseases for years; however, recent investigations revealed potential effective therapies against several types of muscular dystrophies. Sarcopenia and frailty have become major problems for our aging society.  Sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise due to recent COVID-19 pandemic also affect skeletal muscle functions. Skeletal muscles are also involved in whole body homeostasis and metabolism as well. Therefore, understanding myogenesis, muscle loss, muscle degeneration and regeneration and effective therapies for muscle diseases are very important.

This Special Issue, “Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders”, of the International Journal of Molecular Science will comprise recent insights for myogenesis and muscular disorders covering various aspects of molecular and cellular biology on myogenesis and therapeutic strategies toward muscular disorders. Contributions on signaling pathways involved in myogenesis, and characterization of muscle stem cells, will be welcome. Studies on the specific in vitro and in vivo myogenesis models using stem cells will also be highly considered. Therapeutic strategies and clinical studies against intractable muscular diseases including multiple types of muscular dystrophies, neurogenic muscle atrophies, sarcopenia, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Kunihiro Tsuchida
Guest Editor
Dr. So-ichiro Fukada
Co-Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Myogenesis
  • Muscle stem cells
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Gene therapy
  • Cell therapy
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Sarcopenia
  • Myokine

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antisense Oligonucleotides Conjugated with Lipophilic Compounds: Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Exon Skipping in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084270 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Our groups previously reported that conjugation at 3′-end with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) significantly enhanced in vitro exon skipping properties of ASO 51 oligonucleotide targeting the human DMD exon 51. In this study, we designed a series of lipophilic conjugates of ASO 51, to [...] Read more.
Our groups previously reported that conjugation at 3′-end with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) significantly enhanced in vitro exon skipping properties of ASO 51 oligonucleotide targeting the human DMD exon 51. In this study, we designed a series of lipophilic conjugates of ASO 51, to explore the influence of the lipophilic moiety on exon skipping efficiency. To this end, three bile acids and two fatty acids have been derivatized and/or modified and conjugated to ASO 51 by automatized solid phase synthesis. We measured the melting temperature (Tm) of lipophilic conjugates to evaluate their ability to form a stable duplex with the target RNA. The exon skipping efficiency has been evaluated in myogenic cell lines first in presence of a transfection agent, then in gymnotic conditions on a selection of conjugated ASO 51. In the case of 5′-UDC-ASO 51, we also evaluated the influence of PS content on exon skipping efficiency; we found that it performed better exon skipping with full PS linkages. The more efficient compounds in terms of exon skipping were found to be 5′-UDC- and 5′,3′-bis-UDC-ASO 51. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
Tceal5 and Tceal7 Function in C2C12 Myogenic Differentiation via Exosomes in Fetal Bovine Serum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042036 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells are usually controlled by serum components. Myogenic differentiation is induced by a reduction of serum components in vitro. It has been recently reported that serum contains not only various growth factors with specific actions on [...] Read more.
The proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells are usually controlled by serum components. Myogenic differentiation is induced by a reduction of serum components in vitro. It has been recently reported that serum contains not only various growth factors with specific actions on the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells, but also exogenous exosomes, the function of which is poorly understood in myogenesis. We have found that exosomes in fetal bovine serum are capable of exerting an inhibitive effect on the differentiation of C2C12 myogenic cells in vitro. In this process of inhibition, the downregulation of Tceal5 and Tceal7 genes was observed. Expression of these genes is specifically increased in direct proportion to myogenic differentiation. Loss- or gain- of function studies with Tceal5 and Tceal7 indicated that they have the potential to regulate myogenic differentiation via exosomes in fetal bovine serum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
Persistent Fibroadipogenic Progenitor Expansion Following Transient DUX4 Expression Provokes a Profibrotic State in a Mouse Model for FSHD
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23041983 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
FSHD is caused by loss of silencing of the DUX4 gene, but the DUX4 protein has not yet been directly detected immunohistologically in affected muscle, raising the possibility that DUX4 expression may occur at time points prior to obtaining adult biopsies for analysis, [...] Read more.
FSHD is caused by loss of silencing of the DUX4 gene, but the DUX4 protein has not yet been directly detected immunohistologically in affected muscle, raising the possibility that DUX4 expression may occur at time points prior to obtaining adult biopsies for analysis, with consequent perturbations of muscle being responsible for disease progression. To test the extent to which muscle can regenerate following DUX4-mediated degeneration, we employed an animal model with reversible DUX4 expression, the iDUX4pA;HSA mouse. We find that muscle histology does recover substantially after DUX4 expression is switched off, with the extent of recovery correlating inversely with the duration of prior DUX4 expression. However, despite fairly normal muscle histology, and recovery of most cytological parameters, the fibroadipogenic progenitor compartment, which is significantly elevated during bouts of fiber-specific DUX4 expression, does not return to basal levels, even many weeks after a single burst of DUX4 expression. We find that muscle that has recovered from a DUX4 burst acquires a propensity for severe fibrosis, which can be revealed by subsequent cardiotoxin injuries. These results suggest that a past history of DUX4 expression leads to maintained pro-fibrotic alterations in the cellular physiology of muscle, with potential implications for therapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
Myoparr-Associated and -Independent Multiple Roles of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K during Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010108 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 859
Abstract
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate cell physiology via the formation of ribonucleic-protein complexes with coding and non-coding RNAs. RBPs have multiple functions in the same cells; however, the precise mechanism through which their pleiotropic functions are determined remains unknown. In this study, we revealed [...] Read more.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate cell physiology via the formation of ribonucleic-protein complexes with coding and non-coding RNAs. RBPs have multiple functions in the same cells; however, the precise mechanism through which their pleiotropic functions are determined remains unknown. In this study, we revealed the multiple inhibitory functions of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) for myogenic differentiation. We first identified hnRNPK as a lncRNA Myoparr binding protein. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that hnRNPK repressed the expression of myogenin at the transcriptional level. The hnRNPK-binding region of Myoparr was required to repress myogenin expression. Moreover, hnRNPK repressed the expression of a set of genes coding for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in a Myoparr-independent manner. Mechanistically, hnRNPK regulated the eIF2α/Atf4 pathway, one branch of the intrinsic pathways of the endoplasmic reticulum sensors, in differentiating myoblasts. Thus, our findings demonstrate that hnRNPK plays lncRNA-associated and -independent multiple roles during myogenic differentiation, indicating that the analysis of lncRNA-binding proteins will be useful for elucidating both the physiological functions of lncRNAs and the multiple functions of RBPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
A Dystrophin Exon-52 Deleted Miniature Pig Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Evaluation of Exon Skipping
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 13065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313065 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene and the subsequent lack of dystrophin protein. Recently, phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO)-antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting exon 51 or 53 to reestablish the DMD reading frame have [...] Read more.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene and the subsequent lack of dystrophin protein. Recently, phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO)-antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting exon 51 or 53 to reestablish the DMD reading frame have received regulatory approval as commercially available drugs. However, their applicability and efficacy remain limited to particular patients. Large animal models and exon skipping evaluation are essential to facilitate ASO development together with a deeper understanding of dystrophinopathies. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer, we generated a Yucatan miniature pig model of DMD with an exon 52 deletion mutation equivalent to one of the most common mutations seen in patients. Exon 52-deleted mRNA expression and dystrophin deficiency were confirmed in the skeletal and cardiac muscles of DMD pigs. Accordingly, dystrophin-associated proteins failed to be recruited to the sarcolemma. The DMD pigs manifested early disease onset with severe bodywide skeletal muscle degeneration and with poor growth accompanied by a physical abnormality, but with no obvious cardiac phenotype. We also demonstrated that in primary DMD pig skeletal muscle cells, the genetically engineered exon-52 deleted pig DMD gene enables the evaluation of exon 51 or 53 skipping with PMO and its advanced technology, peptide-conjugated PMO. The results show that the DMD pigs developed here can be an appropriate large animal model for evaluating in vivo exon skipping efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
New Findings on LMO7 Transcripts, Proteins and Regulatory Regions in Human and Vertebrate Model Organisms and the Intracellular Distribution in Skeletal Muscle Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312885 - 28 Nov 2021
Viewed by 760
Abstract
LMO7 is a multifunctional PDZ–LIM protein that can interact with different molecular partners and is found in several intracellular locations. The aim of this work was to shed light on LMO7 evolution, alternative transcripts, protein structure and gene regulation through multiple in silico [...] Read more.
LMO7 is a multifunctional PDZ–LIM protein that can interact with different molecular partners and is found in several intracellular locations. The aim of this work was to shed light on LMO7 evolution, alternative transcripts, protein structure and gene regulation through multiple in silico analyses. We also explored the intracellular distribution of the LMO7 protein in chicken and zebrafish embryonic skeletal muscle cells by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy. Our results revealed a single LMO7 gene in mammals, sauropsids, Xenopus and in the holostean fish spotted gar while two lmo7 genes (lmo7a and lmo7b) were identified in teleost fishes. In addition, several different transcripts were predicted for LMO7 in human and in major vertebrate model organisms (mouse, chicken, Xenopus and zebrafish). Bioinformatics tools revealed several structural features of the LMO7 protein including intrinsically disordered regions. We found the LMO7 protein in multiple intracellular compartments in chicken and zebrafish skeletal muscle cells, such as membrane adhesion sites and the perinuclear region. Curiously, the LMO7 protein was detected within the nuclei of muscle cells in chicken but not in zebrafish. Our data showed that a conserved regulatory element may be related to muscle-specific LMO7 expression. Our findings uncover new and important information about LMO7 and open new challenges to understanding how the diverse regulation, structure and distribution of this protein are integrated into highly complex vertebrate cellular milieux, such as skeletal muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
Natural History of a Mouse Model Overexpressing the Dp71 Dystrophin Isoform
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312617 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Dystrophin is a 427 kDa protein that stabilizes muscle cell membranes through interactions with the cytoskeleton and various membrane-associated proteins. Loss of dystrophin as in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive skeletal muscle weakness and cardiac dysfunction. Multiple promoters along the dystrophin gene [...] Read more.
Dystrophin is a 427 kDa protein that stabilizes muscle cell membranes through interactions with the cytoskeleton and various membrane-associated proteins. Loss of dystrophin as in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive skeletal muscle weakness and cardiac dysfunction. Multiple promoters along the dystrophin gene (DMD) give rise to a number of shorter isoforms. Of interest is Dp71, a 71 kDa isoform implicated in DMD pathology by various animal and patient studies. Strong evidence supporting such a role for Dp71, however, is lacking. Here, we use del52;WT mice to understand how Dp71 overexpression affects skeletal and cardiac muscle phenotypes. Apart from the mouse Dmd gene, del52;WT mice are heterozygous for a full-length, exon 52-deleted human DMD transgene expected to only permit Dp71 expression in muscle. Thus, del52;WT mice overexpress Dp71 through both the human and murine dystrophin genes. We observed elevated Dp71 protein in del52;WT mice, significantly higher than wild-type in the heart but not the tibialis anterior. Moreover, del52;WT mice had generally normal skeletal muscle but impaired cardiac function, exhibiting significant systolic dysfunction as early as 3 months. No histological abnormalities were found in the tibialis anterior and heart. Our results suggest that Dp71 overexpression may have more detrimental effects on the heart than on skeletal muscles, providing insight into the role of Dp71 in DMD pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Communication
Measurement of Lateral Transmission of Force in the Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle of Young and Old Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212356 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
The main function of skeletal muscles is to generate force. The force developed by myofiber contraction is transmitted to the tendon. There are two pathways of force transmission from myofibers to tendons: longitudinal transmission that depends on tension elicited via the myotendinous junction [...] Read more.
The main function of skeletal muscles is to generate force. The force developed by myofiber contraction is transmitted to the tendon. There are two pathways of force transmission from myofibers to tendons: longitudinal transmission that depends on tension elicited via the myotendinous junction and lateral transmission that depends on shear elicited via the interface between the myofiber surface and surrounding connective tissue. Experiments using animal muscle and mathematical models indicated that lateral transmission is the dominant pathway in muscle force transmission. Studies using rat muscle showed that the efficiency of lateral force transmission declines with age. Here, the lateral transmission of force was measured using the extensor digitorum longus muscle from young and old mice. Dependence on longitudinal transmission increased in the old muscle, and there was a trend for lower efficiency of lateral force transmission in the old muscle compared to the young muscle. There was a noticeable increase in the connective tissue volume in the old muscle; however, there was no significant change in the expression of dystrophin, a critical molecule for the link between the myofiber cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. This study demonstrates the measurement of lateral force transmission in mouse muscles and that alteration in force transmission property may underlie age-related muscle weakness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
Chronic Systemic Curcumin Administration Antagonizes Murine Sarcopenia and Presarcopenia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111789 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 785
Abstract
Curcumin administration attenuates muscle disuse atrophy, but its effectiveness against aging-induced, selective loss of mass or force (presarcopenia or asthenia/dynopenia), or combined loss (sarcopenia), remains controversial. A new systemic curcumin treatment was developed and tested in 18-month-old C57BL6J and C57BL10ScSn male mice. The [...] Read more.
Curcumin administration attenuates muscle disuse atrophy, but its effectiveness against aging-induced, selective loss of mass or force (presarcopenia or asthenia/dynopenia), or combined loss (sarcopenia), remains controversial. A new systemic curcumin treatment was developed and tested in 18-month-old C57BL6J and C57BL10ScSn male mice. The effects on survival, liver toxicity, loss of muscle mass and force, and satellite cell responsivity and commitment were evaluated after 6-month treatment. Although only 24-month-old C57BL10ScSn mice displayed age-related muscle impairment, curcumin significantly increased survival of both strains (+20–35%), without signs of liver toxicity. Treatment prevented sarcopenia in soleus and presarcopenia in EDL of C57BL10ScSn mice, whereas it did not affect healthy-aged muscles of C57BL6J. Curcumin-treated old C57BL10ScSn soleus preserved type-1 myofiber size and increased type-2A one, whereas EDL maintained adult values of total myofiber number and fiber-type composition. Mechanistically, curcumin only partially prevented the age-related changes in protein level and subcellular distribution of major costamere components and regulators. Conversely, it affected satellite cells, by maintaining adult levels of myofiber maturation in old regenerating soleus and increasing percentage of isolated, MyoD-positive satellite cells from old hindlimb muscles. Therefore, curcumin treatment successfully prevents presarcopenia and sarcopenia development by improving satellite cell commitment and recruitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Article
Transgenic Expression of Bmp3b in Mesenchymal Progenitors Mitigates Age-Related Muscle Mass Loss and Neuromuscular Junction Degeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910246 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Skeletal muscle is a vital organ for a healthy life, but its mass and function decline with aging, resulting in a condition termed sarcopenia. The etiology of sarcopenia remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that interstitial mesenchymal progenitors are essential for homeostatic muscle maintenance, [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle is a vital organ for a healthy life, but its mass and function decline with aging, resulting in a condition termed sarcopenia. The etiology of sarcopenia remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that interstitial mesenchymal progenitors are essential for homeostatic muscle maintenance, and a diminished expression of the mesenchymal-specific gene Bmp3b is associated with sarcopenia. Here, we assessed the protective function of Bmp3b against sarcopenia by generating conditional transgenic (Tg) mice that enable a forced expression of Bmp3b specifically in mesenchymal progenitors. The mice were grown until they reached the geriatric stage, and the age-related muscle phenotypes were examined. The Tg mice had significantly heavier muscles compared to control mice, and the type IIB myofiber cross-sectional areas were preserved in Tg mice. The composition of the myofiber types did not differ between the genotypes. The Tg mice showed a decreasing trend of fibrosis, but the degree of fat infiltration was as low as that in the control mice. Finally, we observed the preservation of innervated neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in the Tg muscle in contrast to the control muscle, where the NMJ degeneration was conspicuous. Thus, our results indicate that the transgenic expression of Bmp3b in mesenchymal progenitors alleviates age-related muscle deterioration. Collectively, this study strengthens the beneficial role of mesenchymal Bmp3b against sarcopenia and suggests that preserving the youthfulness of mesenchymal progenitors may be an effective means of combating sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Review

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Review
Cellular Senescence and Aging in Myotonic Dystrophy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042339 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a dominantly inherited multisystemic disorder affecting various organs, such as skeletal muscle, heart, the nervous system, and the eye. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are caused by expanded CTG and CCTG repeats, respectively. In both [...] Read more.
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a dominantly inherited multisystemic disorder affecting various organs, such as skeletal muscle, heart, the nervous system, and the eye. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are caused by expanded CTG and CCTG repeats, respectively. In both forms, the mutant transcripts containing expanded repeats aggregate as nuclear foci and sequester several RNA-binding proteins, resulting in alternative splicing dysregulation. Although certain alternative splicing events are linked to the clinical DM phenotypes, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiple DM symptoms remain unclear. Interestingly, multi-systemic DM manifestations, including muscle weakness, cognitive impairment, cataract, and frontal baldness, resemble premature aging. Furthermore, cellular senescence, a critical contributor to aging, is suggested to play a key role in DM cellular pathophysiology. In particular, several senescence inducers including telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress and senescence biomarkers such as cell cycle inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype, chromatin reorganization, and microRNA have been implicated in DM pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on the clinical similarities between DM and aging, and summarize the involvement of cellular senescence in DM and the potential application of anti-aging DM therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Review
A Long Journey before Cycling: Regulation of Quiescence Exit in Adult Muscle Satellite Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031748 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Skeletal muscle harbors a pool of stem cells called muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) that are mainly responsible for its robust regenerative capacities. Adult satellite cells are mitotically quiescent in uninjured muscles under homeostasis, but they exit quiescence upon injury to re-enter the cell [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle harbors a pool of stem cells called muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) that are mainly responsible for its robust regenerative capacities. Adult satellite cells are mitotically quiescent in uninjured muscles under homeostasis, but they exit quiescence upon injury to re-enter the cell cycle to proliferate. While most of the expanded satellites cells differentiate and fuse to form new myofibers, some undergo self-renewal to replenish the stem cell pool. Specifically, quiescence exit describes the initial transition of MuSCs from quiescence to the first cell cycle, which takes much longer than the time required for subsequent cell cycles and involves drastic changes in cell size, epigenetic and transcriptomic profiles, and metabolic status. It is, therefore, an essential period indispensable for the success of muscle regeneration. Diverse mechanisms exist in MuSCs to regulate quiescence exit. In this review, we summarize key events that occur during quiescence exit in MuSCs and discuss the molecular regulation of this process with an emphasis on multiple levels of intrinsic regulatory mechanisms. A comprehensive understanding of how quiescence exit is regulated will facilitate satellite cell-based muscle regenerative therapies and advance their applications in various disease and aging conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Review
Dystroglycanopathy: From Elucidation of Molecular and Pathological Mechanisms to Development of Treatment Methods
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 13162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313162 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Dystroglycanopathy is a collective term referring to muscular dystrophies with abnormal glycosylation of dystroglycan. At least 18 causative genes of dystroglycanopathy have been identified, and its clinical symptoms are diverse, ranging from severe congenital to adult-onset limb-girdle types. Moreover, some cases are associated [...] Read more.
Dystroglycanopathy is a collective term referring to muscular dystrophies with abnormal glycosylation of dystroglycan. At least 18 causative genes of dystroglycanopathy have been identified, and its clinical symptoms are diverse, ranging from severe congenital to adult-onset limb-girdle types. Moreover, some cases are associated with symptoms involving the central nervous system. In the 2010s, the structure of sugar chains involved in the onset of dystroglycanopathy and the functions of its causative gene products began to be identified as if they were filling the missing pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. In parallel with these discoveries, various dystroglycanopathy model mice had been created, which led to the elucidation of its pathological mechanisms. Then, treatment strategies based on the molecular basis of glycosylation began to be proposed after the latter half of the 2010s. This review briefly explains the sugar chain structure of dystroglycan and the functions of the causative gene products of dystroglycanopathy, followed by introducing the pathological mechanisms involved as revealed from analyses of dystroglycanopathy model mice. Finally, potential therapeutic approaches based on the pathological mechanisms involved are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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Review
Epigenetic Regulation of Myogenesis: Focus on the Histone Variants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312727 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Skeletal muscle development and regeneration rely on the successive activation of specific transcription factors that engage cellular fate, promote commitment, and drive differentiation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that epigenetic regulation of gene expression is crucial for the maintenance of the cell differentiation status upon [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle development and regeneration rely on the successive activation of specific transcription factors that engage cellular fate, promote commitment, and drive differentiation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that epigenetic regulation of gene expression is crucial for the maintenance of the cell differentiation status upon division and, therefore, to preserve a specific cellular identity. This depends in part on the regulation of chromatin structure and its level of condensation. Chromatin architecture undergoes remodeling through changes in nucleosome composition, such as alterations in histone post-translational modifications or exchange in the type of histone variants. The mechanisms that link histone post-translational modifications and transcriptional regulation have been extensively evaluated in the context of cell fate and differentiation, whereas histone variants have attracted less attention in the field. In this review, we discuss the studies that have provided insights into the role of histone variants in the regulation of myogenic gene expression, myoblast differentiation, and maintenance of muscle cell identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myogenesis and Muscular Disorders)
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