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Special Issue "Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Health and Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Vladislav Volarevic
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department for Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
Interests: Mesenchymal stem cells; T lymphocytes; flow cytometry; immunity; immunology of infectious diseases; immunomodulation; molecular immunology; inflammation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewable, adult stem cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissue and organs, where they regulate homeostasis and promote the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. Damage-associated molecular patterns and alarmins, released from injured cells, induce the activation of MSCs, which, in turn, prevent the apoptosis of uninjured parenchymal cells and stimulate their survival and proliferation. MSCs suppress the effector functions of inflammatory neutrophils, monocytes, T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells and promote the generation and expansion of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells (Tregs), leading to the alleviation of ongoing inflammation. Additionally, MSCs induce neoangiogenesis and promote the homing of alternatively activated macrophages and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) to the inflamed tissues, where these immunoregulatory cells enhance the endogenous healing process.

MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) have shown beneficial therapeutic effects similar to those observed after the transplantation of their parental cells. MSC-EVs, distributed via biological fluids, can easily penetrate through the tissues and reach the target cells (even distant ones), enabling both paracrine and endocrine effects. MSC-EVs rapidly diffuse throughout the tissue, successfully delivering trophic and immunomodulatory factors that results in the attenuation of tissue injury and inflammation.

Therefore, due to their immunosuppressive and regenerative properties, MSCs and their EVs have been considered as potentially new therapeutic agents in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases.

This Special Issue calls for original research and review articles that may provide novel insights regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that are responsible for MSC-based effects and also current knowledge and future perspectives regarding the therapeutic application of MSCs and MSC-EVs in experimental and clinical settings.

Prof. Dr. Vladislav Volarevic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Nasal Polyposis: Insights in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Differentiation of Polyp Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186878 - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common inflammatory disease of paranasal sinuses, which causes rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and hyposmia. The genetic predisposition or the exposure to irritants can sustain the inflammatory response and the development of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps are benign and teardrop-shaped growths [...] Read more.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common inflammatory disease of paranasal sinuses, which causes rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and hyposmia. The genetic predisposition or the exposure to irritants can sustain the inflammatory response and the development of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps are benign and teardrop-shaped growths that project in the nasal cavities, and originate from the ethmoid sinuses. This inflammatory process is associated with high expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and IgE. Antibodies targeting these cytokines or receptors represent a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of nasal polyposis in combination with corticosteroids. The molecular pathogenesis of nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients is associated with remodeling transition, a process in which epithelial cells lose their typical phenotype, acquiring a mesenchymal-like aspect. TGFβ/SMAD, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are altered during the nasal tissue remodeling. miRNA and inhibitor molecules targeting these signaling pathways are able to interfere with the process; which could lead to alternative therapies. Nasal polyps are an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells, which can be isolated from surgical biopsies. A molecular understanding of the biology of PO-MSCs will contribute to the delineating inflammatory process underlying the development of nasal polyps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Tunneling Nanotubes-Mediated Protection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An Update from Preclinical Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103481 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are thin membrane elongations among the cells that mediate the trafficking of subcellular organelles, biomolecules, and cues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) receive substantial attention in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many MSCs-based clinical trials are ongoing for dreadful diseases including [...] Read more.
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are thin membrane elongations among the cells that mediate the trafficking of subcellular organelles, biomolecules, and cues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) receive substantial attention in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many MSCs-based clinical trials are ongoing for dreadful diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial trafficking through TNTs is one of the mechanisms used by MSCs to repair tissue damage and to promote tissue regeneration. Preclinical studies linked with ischemia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, and respiratory illness have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs via TNTs-mediated transfer of mitochondria and other molecules into the injured cells. On the other hand, MSCs-based cancer studies showed that TNTs may modulate chemoresistance in tumor cells as a result of mitochondrial trafficking. In the present review, we discuss the role of TNTs from preclinical studies associated with MSCs treatment. We discuss the impact of TNTs formation between MSCs and cancer cells and emphasize to study the importance of TNTs-mediated MSCs protection in disease models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Health and Disease)
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