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Nasal Polyposis: Insights in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Differentiation of Polyp Mesenchymal Stem Cells

1
Laboratory of Molecular Haematopoiesis and Stem Cell Biology, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University “Magna Græcia”, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Department Medical and Surgical Sciences, University “Magna Græcia”, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
3
Otolaryngology, A.O.U. Ospedali Riuniti, 60123 Ancona, Italy
4
Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186878
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 17 September 2020 / Published: 19 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Health and Disease)
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common inflammatory disease of paranasal sinuses, which causes rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and hyposmia. The genetic predisposition or the exposure to irritants can sustain the inflammatory response and the development of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps are benign and teardrop-shaped growths that project in the nasal cavities, and originate from the ethmoid sinuses. This inflammatory process is associated with high expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and IgE. Antibodies targeting these cytokines or receptors represent a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of nasal polyposis in combination with corticosteroids. The molecular pathogenesis of nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients is associated with remodeling transition, a process in which epithelial cells lose their typical phenotype, acquiring a mesenchymal-like aspect. TGFβ/SMAD, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are altered during the nasal tissue remodeling. miRNA and inhibitor molecules targeting these signaling pathways are able to interfere with the process; which could lead to alternative therapies. Nasal polyps are an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells, which can be isolated from surgical biopsies. A molecular understanding of the biology of PO-MSCs will contribute to the delineating inflammatory process underlying the development of nasal polyps. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic rhinosinusitis (CR); inflammation; nasal polyps; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); Nasal polyp derived mesenchymal stem cells (PO-MSCs) chronic rhinosinusitis (CR); inflammation; nasal polyps; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); Nasal polyp derived mesenchymal stem cells (PO-MSCs)
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Chiarella, E.; Lombardo, N.; Lobello, N.; Aloisio, A.; Aragona, T.; Pelaia, C.; Scicchitano, S.; Bond, H.M.; Mesuraca, M. Nasal Polyposis: Insights in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Differentiation of Polyp Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6878.

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