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Special Issue "Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mikihito Kajiya
Website
Guest Editor
Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
Interests: Periodontitis, Inflammation, Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts, Osteo-immunology, Commensal bacteria, Regenerative Medicien, Stem Cell biology, Mesenchymal stem cells, Neural Crest Cells, iPS cells, Organoids, Signal transduction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and alveolar bone destruction, along with tooth loss. Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that such destructive inflammation is elicited by host innate and adaptive immune response to periodontal biofilm-associated multiple microorganisms. In addition, several inflammatory cytokines produced from lymphocytes, leukocytes, fibroblasts, and gingival epithelial cells in the context of host immune responses were identified as key molecules inducing periodontal tissue destruction. More specifically, proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, facilitate the RNAKL expression level in fibroblasts or lymphocytes, which results in the induction of bone resorption. However, despite the advances in our understanding of its etiology, scientific endeavors to fight against periodontal disease stand still. Accordingly, it is required to deepen the understanding of a more detailed molecular mechanism of immune system against oral microorganisms to develop preventive or therapeutic regimens. To that end, this Special Issue focuses on novel immune reaction systems from the molecular level (microbe, microRNA, inflammatory cytokines signaling cascade, etc.) to the cellular level (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg, and B cells activity, osteoclastogenesis, dendritic cells and monocytes immune response, the role of fibroblasts/epithelial cells in inflammation, etc.) in mouse periodontal disease models.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mikihito Kajiya
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • immune response
  • periodontal pathogens
  • bone resorption
  • RANKL

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Interleukin Gene Variability and Periodontal Bacteria in Patients with Generalized Aggressive Form of Periodontitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134728 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
Host genetic predispositions to dysregulated immune response can influence the development of the aggressive form of periodontitis (AgP) through susceptibility to oral dysbiosis and subsequent host-microbe interaction. This case-control study aimed to perform a multilocus analysis of functional variants in selected interleukin ( [...] Read more.
Host genetic predispositions to dysregulated immune response can influence the development of the aggressive form of periodontitis (AgP) through susceptibility to oral dysbiosis and subsequent host-microbe interaction. This case-control study aimed to perform a multilocus analysis of functional variants in selected interleukin (IL) genes in patients with the generalized form of AgP in a homogenous population. Twelve polymorphisms in IL-1 gene cluster, IL-6 and its receptor, IL-10, IL-17A, and IL-18 were determined in 91 AgP patients and 210 controls. Analysis of seven selected periodontal bacteria in subgingival sulci/pockets was performed with a commercial DNA-microarray kit in a subgroup of 76 individuals. The pilot in vitro study included stimulation of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) from 20 individuals with periodontal bacteria and measurement of IL-10 levels using the Luminex method. Only the unctional polymorphism IL-10 −1087 A/G (rs1800896) and specific IL-10 haplotypes were associated with the development of the disease (p < 0.05, Pcorr > 0.05). Four bacterial species occurred more frequently in AgP than in controls (p < 0.01, Pcorr < 0.05). Elevated IL-10 levels were found in AgP patients, carriers of IL-10 −1087GG genotype, and PBMCs stimulated by periodontal bacteria (p < 0.05, Pcorr > 0.05). We therefore conclude that a combination of genetic predisposition to the altered expression of IL-10 and the presence of specific periodontal bacteria may contribute to Th1/Th2 balance disruption and AgP development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Role for Lipids Secreted by Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Inflammatory Resolution in Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134694 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Periodontal inflammation is associated with dying cells that potentially release metabolites helping to promote inflammatory resolution. We had shown earlier that the secretome of irradiated, dying peripheral blood mononuclear cells support in vitro angiogenesis. However, the ability of the secretome to promote inflammatory [...] Read more.
Periodontal inflammation is associated with dying cells that potentially release metabolites helping to promote inflammatory resolution. We had shown earlier that the secretome of irradiated, dying peripheral blood mononuclear cells support in vitro angiogenesis. However, the ability of the secretome to promote inflammatory resolution remains unknown. Here, we determined the expression changes of inflammatory cytokines in murine bone marrow macrophages, RAW264.7 cells, and gingival fibroblasts exposed to the secretome obtained from γ-irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro by RT-PCR and immunoassays. Nuclear translocation of p65 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Phosphorylation of p65 and degradation of IκB was determined by Western blot. The secretome of irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells significantly decreased the expression of IL1 and IL6 in primary macrophages and RAW264.7 cells when exposed to LPS or saliva, and of IL1, IL6, and IL8 in gingival fibroblasts when exposed to IL-1β and TNFα. These changes were associated with decreased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 but not degradation of IκB in macrophages. We also show that the lipid fraction of the secretome lowered the inflammatory response of macrophages exposed to the inflammatory cues. These results demonstrate that the secretome of irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can lower an in vitro simulated inflammatory response, supporting the overall concept that the secretome of dying cells promotes inflammatory resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Increase in the Number of Bone Marrow Osteoclast Precursors at Different Skeletal Sites, Particularly in Long Bone and Jaw Marrow in Mice Lacking IL-1RA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113774 - 27 May 2020
Abstract
Recently, it was shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has diverse stimulatory effects on different murine long bone marrow osteoclast precursors (OCPs) in vitro. In this study, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist deficient (Il1rn−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared to investigate the effects [...] Read more.
Recently, it was shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has diverse stimulatory effects on different murine long bone marrow osteoclast precursors (OCPs) in vitro. In this study, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist deficient (Il1rn−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared to investigate the effects of enhanced IL-1 signaling on the composition of OCPs in long bone, calvaria, vertebra, and jaw. Bone marrow cells were isolated from these sites and the percentage of early blast (CD31hi Ly-6C), myeloid blast (CD31+ Ly-6C+), and monocyte (CD31 Ly-6Chi) OCPs was assessed by flow cytometry. At the time-point of cell isolation, Il1rn−/− mice showed no inflammation or bone destruction yet as determined by histology and microcomputed tomography. However, Il1rn−/− mice had an approximately two-fold higher percentage of OCPs in long bone and jaw marrow compared to WT. Conversely, vertebrae and calvaria marrow contained a similar composition of OCPs in both strains. Bone marrow cells were cultured with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor of NfκB ligand (RANKL) on bone slices to assess osteoclastogenesis and on calcium phosphate-coated plates to analyze mineral dissolution. Deletion of Il1rn increased osteoclastogenesis from long bone, calvaria, and jaw marrows, and all Il1rn−/− cultures showed increased mineral dissolution compared to WT. However, osteoclast markers increased exclusively in Il1rn−/− osteoclasts from long bone and jaw. Collectively, these findings indicate that a lack of IL-1RA increases the numbers of OCPs in vivo, particularly in long bone and jaw, where rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis develop. Thus, increased bone loss at these sites may be triggered by a larger pool of OCPs due to the disruption of IL-1 inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Blood Oxidative Stress Modulates Alveolar Bone Loss in Chronically Stressed Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103728 - 25 May 2020
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic stress (CS) on experimental periodontitis (EP) in rats. For this, 28 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (EP), chronic stress (CS; by physical restraint model) and CS+EP (association of chronic [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic stress (CS) on experimental periodontitis (EP) in rats. For this, 28 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (EP), chronic stress (CS; by physical restraint model) and CS+EP (association of chronic stress and ligature-induced periodontitis). The experimental period lasted 30 days, including exposure to CS every day and ligature was performed on the 15th experimental day. After 30 days, the animals were submitted to the behavioral test of the elevated plus maze (EPM). Next, rats were euthanized for blood and mandible collection in order to evaluate the oxidative biochemistry (by nitric oxide (NO), reduced-glutathione activity (GSH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS)) and alveolar bone characterization (by morphometric, micro-CT, and immunohistochemistry), respectively. The behavioral parameters evaluated in EPM indicated higher anxiogenic activity in the CS and CS+EP, groups, which is a behavioral reflex of CS. The results showed that CS was able to change the blood oxidative biochemistry in CS and CS+EP groups, decrease GSH activity in the blood, and increase the NO and TBARS concentrations. Thus, CS induces oxidative blood imbalance, which can potentialize or generate morphological, structural, and metabolic damages to the alveolar bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Salivary Small Extracellular Vesicles Associated miRNAs in Periodontal Status—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082809 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This pilot study aims to investigate whether salivary small extracellular vesicle (sEV)-associated microRNAs could act as potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status. Twenty-nine participants (10 who were healthy, nine with gingivitis, 10 with stage III/IV periodontitis) were recruited and unstimulated whole saliva samples [...] Read more.
This pilot study aims to investigate whether salivary small extracellular vesicle (sEV)-associated microRNAs could act as potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status. Twenty-nine participants (10 who were healthy, nine with gingivitis, 10 with stage III/IV periodontitis) were recruited and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected. Salivary sEVs were isolated using the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and characterised by morphology, EV-protein and size distribution using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western Blot and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), respectively. Ten mature microRNAs (miRNAs) in salivary sEVs and saliva were evaluated using RT-qPCR. The discriminatory power of miRNAs as biomarkers in gingivitis and periodontitis versus healthy controls was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. Salivary sEVs were comparable to sEVs morphology, mode, size distribution and particle concentration in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Compared to miRNAs in whole saliva, three significantly increased miRNAs (hsa-miR-140-5p, hsa-miR-146a-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p) were only detected in sEVs in periodontitis when compared to that of healthy controls, with a good discriminatory power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96) for periodontitis diagnosis. Our study demonstrated that salivary sEVs are a non-invasive source of miRNAs for periodontitis diagnosis. Three miRNAs that are selectively enriched in sEVs, but not whole saliva, could be potential biomarkers for periodontal disease status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Butyrate Decreases ICAM-1 Expression in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051679 - 29 Feb 2020
Abstract
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are bacterial metabolites that can be found in periodontal pockets. The expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) within the epithelium pocket is considered to be a key event for the selective transmigration of leucocytes towards [...] Read more.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are bacterial metabolites that can be found in periodontal pockets. The expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) within the epithelium pocket is considered to be a key event for the selective transmigration of leucocytes towards the gingival sulcus. However, the impact of SCFA on ICAM-1 expression by oral epithelial cells remains unclear. We therefore exposed the oral squamous carcinoma cell line HSC-2, primary oral epithelial cells and human gingival fibroblasts to SCFA, namely acetate, propionate and butyrate, and stimulated with known inducers of ICAM-1 such as interleukin-1-beta (IL1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNFα). We report here that butyrate but not acetate or propionate significantly suppressed the cytokine-induced ICAM-1 expression in HSC-2 epithelial cells and primary epithelial cells. The G-protein coupled receptor-43 (GPR43/ FFAR2) agonist but not the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, mimicked the butyrate effects. Butyrate also attenuated the nuclear translocation of p65 into the nucleus on HSC-2 cells. The decrease of ICAM-1 was independent of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and phosphorylation of JNK and p38. Nevertheless, butyrate could not reverse an ongoing cytokine-induced ICAM-1 expression in HSC-2 cells. Overall, these observations suggest that butyrate can attenuate cytokine-induced ICAM-1 expression in cells with epithelial origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
T Cell Proliferation Is Induced by Chronically TLR2-Stimulated Gingival Fibroblasts or Monocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246134 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
During inflammation of the gums, resident cells of the periodontium, gingival fibroblasts (GFs), interact with heterogeneous cell populations of the innate and adaptive immune system that play a crucial role in protecting the host from pathogenic infectious agents. We investigated the effects of [...] Read more.
During inflammation of the gums, resident cells of the periodontium, gingival fibroblasts (GFs), interact with heterogeneous cell populations of the innate and adaptive immune system that play a crucial role in protecting the host from pathogenic infectious agents. We investigated the effects of chronic inflammation, by exposing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cultures, and GF–PBMC cocultures to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 activators for 21 days and assessed whether this influenced leukocyte retention, survival, and proliferation. Chronic stimulation of PBMC–GF cocultures with TLR2 and TLR4 agonists induced a reduction of NK (CD56+CD3−), T (CD3+), and B (CD19+) cells, whereas the number of TLR-expressing monocytes were unaffected. TLR2 agonists doubled the T cell proliferation, likely of a selective population, given the net decrease of T cells. Subsequent chronic exposure experiments without GF, using PBMC and PBL cultures, showed a significantly (p < 0.0001) increased proinflammatory cytokine production of TNF-α and IL-1β up to 21 days only in TLR2-activated PBMC with concomitant T cell proliferation, suggesting a role for monocytes. In conclusion, chronic TLR activation mediates the shift in cell populations during infection. Particularly, TLR2 activators play an important role in T cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes, suggesting that TLR2 activation represents a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Expression of MicroRNAs in Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114147 - 10 Jun 2020
Abstract
Aim: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the expression patterns of miRNAs in periodontal and peri-implant diseases, while identifying potential miRNAs with the greatest diagnostic ability as an oral fluid biomarker. Materials and methods: Human and animal studies were included when [...] Read more.
Aim: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the expression patterns of miRNAs in periodontal and peri-implant diseases, while identifying potential miRNAs with the greatest diagnostic ability as an oral fluid biomarker. Materials and methods: Human and animal studies were included when evaluating expression of miRNAs between health and different forms/stages of diseases, in which microarray and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect fold changes in gene expression. After full-text analysis, 43 articles were considered for a qualitative assessment, and 16 miRNAs were selected to perform meta-analysis. Results: Based on human studies, results showed an overall upregulation of most of the evaluated miRNAs in periodontitis, with miRNA-142-3p and miRNA-146a being the most conclusive on both microarray and RT-PCR values and potentially serving as diagnostic biomarkers for disease activity. Conversely, miR-155 was the only miRNA revealing a statistically significant difference (SSD) (p < 0.05*) in experimental periodontitis models from RT-PCR values. Scarce scientific evidence is available from peri-implant diseases, however, most explored miRNAs in peri-implantitis were downregulated except for miR-145. Conclusions: Although our results revealed that a distinct differential expression of specific miRNAs can be noted between the state of health and disease, future research remains necessary to explore the functional role of specific miRNAs and their potential as therapeutic targets in periodontal and peri-implant diseases. MeSH Terms: periodontitis, peri-implantitis, epigenomics, microarray analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, microRNAs. Clinical relevance: Scientific background: Although most research identified different expression levels of miRNAs in periodontal and peri-implant diseases compared to their counterparts, their actual role in the pathogenesis of these conditions remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the expression patterns of miRNAs in periodontitis and peri-implantitis, while identifying potential miRNAs with the greatest diagnostic ability as an oral fluid biomarker. Principal findings: In periodontitis-related studies, miRNA-142-3p and miRNA-146a were the most conclusive on both microarray and RT-PCR values. Scarce scientific evidence is available from peri-implant diseases. Practical implications: Both miRNA-142-3p and miRNA-146a might serve as future diagnostic biomarkers for disease activity in periodontitis. Yet, future research remains necessary to explore the functional role of specific miRNAs and their potential as therapeutic targets in periodontal and peri-implant diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessReview
An Evidence-Based Update on the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Periodontal Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113829 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
Several investigators have reported about the intricate molecular mechanism underlying periodontal diseases (PD). Nevertheless, the role of specific genes, cells, or cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still unclear. Although periodontitis is one of the most prevalent oral diseases globally, [...] Read more.
Several investigators have reported about the intricate molecular mechanism underlying periodontal diseases (PD). Nevertheless, the role of specific genes, cells, or cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still unclear. Although periodontitis is one of the most prevalent oral diseases globally, there are no pre-diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets available for such inflammatory lesions. A pivotal role is played by pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in modulating pathophysiological and physiological processes in repairing damaged tissues. In addition, effects on osteoimmunology is ever evolving due to the ongoing research in understanding the molecular mechanism lying beneath periodontal diseases. The aim of the current review is to deliver an evidence-based update on the molecular mechanism of periodontitis with a particular focus on recent developments. Reports regarding the molecular mechanism of these diseases have revealed unforeseen results indicative of the fact that significant advances have been made to the periodontal medicine over the past decade. There is integrated hypothesis-driven research going on. Although a wide picture of association of periodontal diseases with immune response has been further clarified with present ongoing research, small parts of the puzzle remain a mystery and require further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and Immune Regulatory Lymphocytes in Periodontal Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093329 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
Periodontitis is known to be initiated by periodontal microbiota derived from biofilm formation. The microbial dysbiotic changes in the biofilm trigger the host immune and inflammatory responses that can be both beneficial for the protection of the host from infection, and detrimental to [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is known to be initiated by periodontal microbiota derived from biofilm formation. The microbial dysbiotic changes in the biofilm trigger the host immune and inflammatory responses that can be both beneficial for the protection of the host from infection, and detrimental to the host, causing tissue destruction. During this process, recognition of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by the host Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the host–microbe interaction and the subsequent innate as well as adaptive responses. If persistent, the adverse interaction triggered by the host immune response to the microorganisms associated with periodontal biofilms is a direct cause of periodontal inflammation and bone loss. A large number of T and B lymphocytes are infiltrated in the diseased gingival tissues, which can secrete inflammatory mediators and activate the osteolytic pathways, promoting periodontal inflammation and bone resorption. On the other hand, there is evidence showing that immune regulatory T and B cells are present in the diseased tissue and can be induced for the enhancement of their anti-inflammatory effects. Changes and distribution of the T/B lymphocytes phenotype seem to be a key determinant of the periodontal disease outcome, as the functional activities of these cells not only shape up the overall immune response pattern, but may directly regulate the osteoimmunological balance. Therefore, interventional strategies targeting TLR signaling and immune regulatory T/B cells may be a promising approach to rebalance the immune response and alleviate bone loss in periodontal disease. In this review, we will examine the etiological role of TLR signaling and immune cell osteoclastogenic activity in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. More importantly, the protective effects of immune regulatory lymphocytes, particularly the activation and functional role of IL-10 expressing regulatory B cells, will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Functional Relationship between Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Tissue Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093242 - 03 May 2020
Abstract
Bone tissue renewal can be outlined as a complicated mechanism centered on the interaction between osteogenic and angiogenic events capable of leading to bone formation and tissue renovation. The achievement or debacle of bone regeneration is focused on the primary role of vascularization [...] Read more.
Bone tissue renewal can be outlined as a complicated mechanism centered on the interaction between osteogenic and angiogenic events capable of leading to bone formation and tissue renovation. The achievement or debacle of bone regeneration is focused on the primary role of vascularization occurrence; in particular, the turning point is the opportunity to vascularize the bulk scaffolds, in order to deliver enough nutrients, growth factors, minerals and oxygen for tissue restoration. The optimal scaffolds should ensure the development of vascular networks to warrant a positive suitable microenvironment for tissue engineering and renewal. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a main player in angiogenesis, is capable of provoking the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells and indirectly stimulating osteogenesis, through the regulation of the osteogenic growth factors released and through paracrine signaling. For this reason, we concentrated our attention on two principal groups involved in the renewal of bone tissue defects: the cells and the scaffold that should guarantee an effective vascularization process. The application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), an excellent cell source for tissue restoration, evidences a crucial role in tissue engineering and bone development strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the intimate connection between blood vessels and bone formation that appear during bone regeneration when MSCs, their secretome—Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) —and bone substitutes are used in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Periodontal Disease)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Butyrate decreases ICAM-1 expression in human oral epithelial cells

Authors: Reinhard Gruber

Title: Omega 3 Fatty Acids and apical periodontitis

Authors: Toshihisa Kawai

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