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Special Issue "Advances in Cheap Vaccines for Public Goods"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Chang Won Choi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology & Medicinal Science, Pai Chai University, 155-40 Baejae-ro, Seo-Gu, Daejeon 35345, Korea
Tel. +82-42-520-5617; Fax: +82-70-4362-6308
Interests: plant-derived biomedicines; plant-made pharmaceuticals; molecular farming; recombinant proteins; plant metabolic engineering; hypoglycaemic; hypolipidemic; antioxidants; antiviral; bacterial ghost vaccine; inactivated vaccine; subunit vaccine
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vaccines are one of the most powerful and effective healthcare advances ever developed. Nevertheless, the most effective vaccine candidate for a cheap price is still lacking for developing-world populations. A number of factors limit complete global immunization and, among these, is the cost of procuring and distributing vaccines in lower-income countries. In this view, the topic focuses on the development of a cheap vaccine candidate against infectious diseases for humans and animals for global public good. Therefore, a new strategy is required to induce a broad range of protective immunity against bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogens. Specially, we need to develop a vaccine technology platform, targeting quality, efficacy, safety, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and affordability. Possible vaccine candidates include live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, toxoid vaccines, conjugate vaccines, DNA vaccines and recombinant vector vaccines. Possible approaches cover fundamental discovery of vaccine candidates through to their preclinical/clinical trials. In addition, the topic includes normal immunologic responses to vaccinations, patterns of abnormal responses, and methods for assessing these responses. Immune response should include a general evaluation of the immune system, including measurements of antibody levels and functional assessments of different immune cells, as well as cytokines. I wish to thank all authors for their contributions to this Special Issue.

Chang Won Choi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cheap Vaccine candidates
  • Broad range of protective immunity
  • Vaccine technology platform
  • Immune responses
  • Discovery, preclinical and clinical trials

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111904 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs) were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum [...] Read more.
Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs) were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and dual activities (IL-6) in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of trans-membrane lysis tunnel structures in the NaOH-induced VPGs. SDS-PAGE and agarose gel electrophoresis also confirmed that cytoplasmic proteins and genomic DNA released from the VPGs to culture medium through the lysis tunnel structures. Taken together, all these data indicate that the NaOH-induced VPGs show the potency of a safe, economical, and effective inactivated bacterial vaccine candidate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cheap Vaccines for Public Goods)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Future Prospects for the Development of Cost-Effective Adenovirus Vaccines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040686 - 23 Mar 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools for disease prevention, and a continuously growing field of research. However, despite progress, we still need more efficient and cost-effective vaccines that would improve access to those in need. In this review, we will describe [...] Read more.
Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools for disease prevention, and a continuously growing field of research. However, despite progress, we still need more efficient and cost-effective vaccines that would improve access to those in need. In this review, we will describe the status of virus-vectored vaccine technology with a focus on adenoviral-based vaccines. Adenovirus (Ad) vaccines have proven to be efficient in military vaccinations against Ad4 and Ad7 and as highly efficient vectored vaccines against rabies. The question of how other adenovirus-based vaccines can become as efficient as the rabies vaccine is the underlying theme in this review. Here, we will first give an overview of the basic properties of vectored vaccines, followed by an introduction to the characteristics of adenoviral vectors and previously tested modifications of the vector backbone and expression cassettes, with a focus on how they can contribute to increased vaccine cost-effectiveness. Finally, we will highlight a few successful examples of research that have attempted to improve the use of adenoviral-based vaccines by improving the transgene immunogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cheap Vaccines for Public Goods)
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