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Special Issue "Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Isabel Andia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bioprinting Laboratory, Regenerative Therapies, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Plaza Cruces 12, 48903 Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain
Interests: healing mechanisms; orthobiologics; sports injuries; regenerative medicine technologies; wound management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Nicola Maffulli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, University of Salerno School of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Via S Allende 26, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy
2. School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Keele University, Faculty of Medicine, Thornburrow Drive, Stoke on Trent ST4 7QB, UK
3. Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Mile End Hospital, 275 Bancroft Road, London E1 4DG, UK
Interests: sports injuries; orthopedic surgery; tendons; ligaments; arthroscopy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Blood-derived products, in particular, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), have recently become the focus of intensive interest and discussion, in part because of the evolution of our understanding of platelet biology and the reinterpretation of some of their traditional roles in hemostasis and tissue repair. The biological effects of PRPs are largely attributed to the platelet secretome and plasma signaling proteins. Clinical data suggest that PRPs may exploit different regenerative mechanisms under diverse clinical conditions, including hemostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue anabolism, among others. However, many potential molecular mechanisms acting simultaneously to promote tissue healing present a challenge to the identification of critical mechanisms behind PRP therapies.

A vast array of barriers, ranging from deficits in basic research to clinical differences in formulations and application procedures, challenge current efforts to set effective PRP protocols or interventions based on combination products (i.e. PRP + cell products) for optimized therapies in diverse medical fields.

This Special Issue will cover a selection of articles that inform and provide insights about PRP biology and PRPs’ (or other blood-derived products) and combination products’ (PRP + cell products, PRP + drugs, and PRP + biomaterials) clinical successes and failures.

Experimental papers, clinical studies, up-to date reviews, and commentaries are all welcome.

Dr. Isabel Andia
Dr. Nicola Maffulli
Guest Editors

Deadline of the First Round: 17 February 2019

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184581 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Medical interest in “blood-derived products for tissue repair/regeneration” has old roots, starting with chronic wounds in the 1980s, and boosted by sports medicine at the beginning of the millennium, when elite athletes treated with platelet rich plasma (PRP) resumed competition earlier than expected [...] Read more.
Medical interest in “blood-derived products for tissue repair/regeneration” has old roots, starting with chronic wounds in the 1980s, and boosted by sports medicine at the beginning of the millennium, when elite athletes treated with platelet rich plasma (PRP) resumed competition earlier than expected [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)

Research

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Article
Fibrin Sealant Derived from Human Plasma as a Scaffold for Bone Grafts Associated with Photobiomodulation Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071761 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Fibrin sealants derived from human blood can be used in tissue engineering to assist in the repair of bone defects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the support system formed by a xenograft fibrin sealant associated with photobiomodulation therapy of critical [...] Read more.
Fibrin sealants derived from human blood can be used in tissue engineering to assist in the repair of bone defects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the support system formed by a xenograft fibrin sealant associated with photobiomodulation therapy of critical defects in rat calvaria. Thirty-six rats were divided into four groups: BC (n = 8), defect filled with blood clot; FSB (n = 10), filled with fibrin sealant and xenograft; BCPBMT (n = 8), blood clot and photobiomodulation; FSBPBMT (n = 10), fibrin sealant, xenograft, and photobiomodulation. The animals were killed after 14 and 42 days. In the histological and microtomographic analysis, new bone formation was observed in all groups, limited to the defect margins, and without complete wound closure. In the FSB group, bone formation increased between periods (4.3 ± 0.46 to 6.01 ± 0.32), yet with lower volume density when compared to the FSBPBMT (5.6 ± 0.45 to 10.64 ± 0.97) group. It was concluded that the support system formed by the xenograft fibrin sealant associated with the photobiomodulation therapy protocol had a positive effect on the bone repair process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Hyaluronic Acid Combined with Serum Rich in Growth Factors in Corneal Epithelial Defects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071655 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess if an adhesive biopolymer, sodium hyaluronate (NaHA), has synergistic effects with s-PRGF (a serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors and a blood derivative that has already shown efficacy in corneal epithelial wound healing), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to assess if an adhesive biopolymer, sodium hyaluronate (NaHA), has synergistic effects with s-PRGF (a serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors and a blood derivative that has already shown efficacy in corneal epithelial wound healing), to reduce time of healing or posology. In vitro proliferation and migration studies, both in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and in rabbit primary corneal epithelial (RPCE) cultures, were carried out. In addition, we performed studies of corneal wound healing in vivo in rabbits treated with s-PRGF, NaHA, or the combination of both. We performed immunohistochemistry techniques (CK3, CK15, Ki67, ß4 integrin, ZO-1, α-SMA) in rabbit corneas 7 and 30 days after a surgically induced epithelial defect. In vitro results show that the combination of NaHA and s-PRGF offers the worst proliferation rates in both HCE and RPCE cells. Addition of NaHA to s-PRGF diminishes the re-epithelializing capability of s-PRGF. In vivo, all treatments, given twice a day, showed equivalent efficacy in corneal epithelial healing. We conclude that the combined use of s-PRGF and HaNA as an adhesive biopolymer does not improve the efficacy of s-PRGF alone in the wound healing of corneal epithelial defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Single Injection of High Volume of Autologous Pure PRP Provides a Significant Improvement in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Routine Care Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061327 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Background: Evidence is growing regarding the ability of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to enhance functional capacity and alleviate pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, heterogeneity in common practice regarding PRP preparation and biological content makes the initiation of this activity in a hospital [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence is growing regarding the ability of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to enhance functional capacity and alleviate pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, heterogeneity in common practice regarding PRP preparation and biological content makes the initiation of this activity in a hospital complex. The aim of this study was to document the efficacy of a single PRP injection to treat knee OA and validate a routine care procedure. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with symptomatic knee OA received a single injection of large volume of very pure PRP. They were assessed at baseline and after one, three and six months, by measuring Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS), Observed Pain after a 50-foot walk test and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessments. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) analysis was performed at baseline and six months after the procedure. The objective was to recover 50% of responders three months after the procedure using OMERACT-OARSI criteria. Results: A single administration of high volume pure PRP provided significant clinical benefit for 84.2% of the responders, three months after the procedure. The KOOS total score significantly increased from 43.5 ± 14.3 to 66.4 ± 21.7 six months after the procedure (p < 0.001). Pain also significantly decreased from 37.5 ± 25.1 to 12.9 ± 20.9 (p < 0.001). No difference was observed on MRI parameters. Conclusion: A single injection of large volume of very pure PRP is associated with significant functional improvement and pain relief, allowing initiation of daily PRP injection within our hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Development of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Mixed-Microfat as an Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product for Intra-Articular Injection of Radio-Carpal Osteoarthritis: From Validation Data to Preliminary Clinical Results
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051111 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Wrist osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common conditions encountered by hand surgeons with limited efficacy of non-surgical treatments. The purpose of this study is to describe the Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) mixed-microfat biological characteristics of an experimental Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) [...] Read more.
Wrist osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common conditions encountered by hand surgeons with limited efficacy of non-surgical treatments. The purpose of this study is to describe the Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) mixed-microfat biological characteristics of an experimental Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) needed for clinical trial authorization and describe the clinical results obtained from our first three patients 12 months after treatment (NCT03164122). Biological characterization of microfat, PRP and mixture were analysed in vitro according to validated methods. Patients with stage four OA according to the Kellgren Lawrence classification, with failure to conservative treatment and a persistent daily painful condition >40 mm according to the visual analog scale (VAS) were treated. Microfat-PRP ATMP is a product with high platelet purity, conserved viability of stromal vascular fraction cells, chondrogenic differentiation capacity in vitro and high secretion of IL-1Ra anti-inflammatory cytokine. For patients, the only side effect was pain at the adipose tissue harvesting sites. Potential efficacy was observed with a pain decrease of over 50% (per VAS score) and the achievement of minimal clinically important differences for DASH and PRWE functional scores at one year in all three patients. Microfat-PRP ATMP presented a good safety profile after an injection in wrist OA. Efficacy trials are necessary to assess whether this innovative strategy could delay the necessity to perform non-conservative surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Assessment of the Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Traumatic Canine Fractures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051075 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in promoting the healing of bone fractures has not yet been clearly stated. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF, a PRP derivate) in the [...] Read more.
The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in promoting the healing of bone fractures has not yet been clearly stated. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF, a PRP derivate) in the treatment of naturally-occurring bone fractures in dogs. With this objective, sixty-five dogs with radius/ulna or tibia/fibula bone fractures were randomly divided into two groups (PRGF and saline solution (SS) groups) and checked at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 60, 63, 70, 120, and 180. All the fractures were treated with an external skeletal fixation, and pain was controlled with Carprofen. Healing was evaluated by physical examination, limb function, radiography, and by a Likert-type owner satisfaction questionnaire. A faster fracture healing was observed in the PRGF group, with statistically significant differences with respect to the SS group. Swelling at the fracture site was significantly greater at day 14 and 28 in animals injected with PRGF, and more pain on palpation was found in the area at day 28. The injection of PRGF in acute bone fractures accelerates bone healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Platelet-Rich Fibrin Extract: A Promising Fetal Bovine Serum Alternative in Explant Cultures of Human Periosteal Sheets for Regenerative Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051053 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
In 2004, we developed autologous periosteal sheets for the treatment of periodontal bone defects. This regenerative therapy has successfully regenerated periodontal bone and augmented alveolar ridge for implant placement. However, the necessity for 6-week culture is a limitation. Here, we examined the applicability [...] Read more.
In 2004, we developed autologous periosteal sheets for the treatment of periodontal bone defects. This regenerative therapy has successfully regenerated periodontal bone and augmented alveolar ridge for implant placement. However, the necessity for 6-week culture is a limitation. Here, we examined the applicability of a human platelet-rich fibrin extract (PRFext) as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the explant culture of periosteal sheets in a novel culture medium (MSC-PCM) originally developed for maintaining mesenchymal stem cells. Small periosteum tissue segments were expanded in MSC-PCM + 2% PRFext for 4 weeks, and the resulting periosteal sheets were compared with those prepared by the conventional method using Medium199 + 10% FBS for their growth rate, cell multilayer formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and surface antigen expression (CD73, CD90, and CD105). Periosteal sheets grew faster in the novel culture medium than in the conventional medium. However, assessment of cell shape and ALP activity revealed that the periosteal cells growing in the novel medium were relatively immature. These findings suggest that the novel culture medium featuring PRFext offers advantages by shortening the culture period and excluding possible risks associated with xeno-factors without negatively altering the activity of periosteal sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Short-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Trephination with a Platelet Rich Plasma Intrameniscal Injection for the Repair of Degenerative Meniscal Lesions. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040856 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3481
Abstract
Meniscal tears are the most common orthopaedic injuries, with chronic lesions comprising up to 56% of cases. In these situations, no benefit with surgical treatment is observed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous intrameniscal [...] Read more.
Meniscal tears are the most common orthopaedic injuries, with chronic lesions comprising up to 56% of cases. In these situations, no benefit with surgical treatment is observed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous intrameniscal platelet rich plasma (PRP) application to complement repair of a chronic meniscal lesion. This single centre, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 72 patients. All subjects underwent meniscal trephination with or without concomitant PRP injection. Meniscal non-union observed in magnetic resonance arthrography or arthroscopy were considered as failures. Patient related outcome measures (PROMs) were assessed. The failure rate was significantly higher in the control group than in the PRP augmented group (70% vs. 48%, P = 0.04). Kaplan-Meyer analysis for arthroscopy-free survival showed significant reduction in the number of performed arthroscopies in the PRP augmented group. A notably higher percentage of patients treated with PRP achieved minimal clinically significant difference in visual analogue scale (VAS) and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) symptom scores. Our trial indicates that percutaneous meniscal trephination augmented with PRP results in a significant improvement in the rate of chronic meniscal tear healing and this procedure decreases the necessity for arthroscopy in the future (8% vs. 28%, P = 0.032). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
The Composition of Hyperacute Serum and Platelet-Rich Plasma Is Markedly Different despite the Similar Production Method
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030721 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Autologous blood derived products, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) are widely applied in regenerative therapies, in contrast to the drawbacks in their application, mainly deriving from the preparation methods used. Eliminating the disadvantages of both PRP and PRF, hyperacute [...] Read more.
Autologous blood derived products, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) are widely applied in regenerative therapies, in contrast to the drawbacks in their application, mainly deriving from the preparation methods used. Eliminating the disadvantages of both PRP and PRF, hyperacute serum (HAS) opens a new path in autologous serum therapy showing similar or even improved regenerative potential at the same time. Despite the frequent experimental and clinical use of PRP and HAS, their protein composition has not been examined thoroughly yet. Thus, we investigated and compared the composition of HAS, serum, PRP and plasma products using citrate and EDTA by simple laboratory tests, and we compared the composition of HAS, serum, EDTA PRP and plasma by Proteome Profiler and ELISA assays. According to our results the natural ionic balance was upset in both EDTA and citrate PRP as well as in plasma. EDTA PRP contained significantly higher level of growth factors and cytokines, especially platelet derived angiogenic and inflammatory proteins, that can be explained by the significantly higher number of platelets in EDTA PRP. The composition analysis of blood derivatives revealed that although the preparation method of PRP and HAS were similar, the ionic and protein composition of HAS could be advantageous for cell function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Article
Redifferentiation of Articular Chondrocytes by Hyperacute Serum and Platelet Rich Plasma in Collagen Type I Hydrogels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020316 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) for focal articular cartilage defects often fails to produce adequate cartilage-specific extracellular matrix in vitro and upon transplantation results in fibrocartilage due to dedifferentiation during cell expansion. This study aimed to redifferentiate the chondrocytes through supplementation of blood-products, [...] Read more.
Matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) for focal articular cartilage defects often fails to produce adequate cartilage-specific extracellular matrix in vitro and upon transplantation results in fibrocartilage due to dedifferentiation during cell expansion. This study aimed to redifferentiate the chondrocytes through supplementation of blood-products, such as hyperacute serum (HAS) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in vitro. Dedifferentiated monolayer chondrocytes embedded onto collagen type I hydrogels were redifferentiated through supplementation of 10% HAS or 10% PRP for 14 days in vitro under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (4% O2). Cell proliferation was increased by supplementing HAS for 14 days (p < 0.05) or by interchanging from HAS to PRP during Days 7–14 (p < 0.05). Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was deposited under both HAS, and PRP for 14 days and an interchange during Days 7–14 depleted the sGAG content to a certain extent. PRP enhanced the gene expression of anabolic markers COL2A1 and SOX9 (p < 0.05), whereas HAS enhanced COL1A1 production. An interchange led to reduction of COL1A1 and COL2A1 expression marked by increased MMP13 expression (p < 0.05). Chondrocytes secreted less IL-6 and more PDGF-BB under PRP for 14 days (p < 0.0.5). Hypoxia enhanced TGF-β1 and BMP-2 release in both HAS and PRP. Our study demonstrates a new approach for chondrocyte redifferentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Communication
Growth Factor Quantification of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Burn Patients Compared to Matched Healthy Volunteers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020288 - 12 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma with a platelet concentration above baseline. When activated, PRP releases growth factors involved in all stages of wound healing, potentially boosting the healing process. To expand our knowledge of the effectiveness of PRP, it is crucial [...] Read more.
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma with a platelet concentration above baseline. When activated, PRP releases growth factors involved in all stages of wound healing, potentially boosting the healing process. To expand our knowledge of the effectiveness of PRP, it is crucial to know the content and composition of PRP products. In this study, growth factor quantification measurements of PRP from burn patients and gender- and age-matched controls were performed. The PRP of burn patients showed levels of growth factors comparable to those of the PRP of healthy volunteers. Considerable intra-individual variation in growth factor content was found. However, a correlation was found between the platelet count of the PRP and most of the growth factors measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Review

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Review
Autologous Platelet Concentrates in Treatment of Furcation Defects—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061347 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Background: The aim of this review was to evaluate the adjunctive effect of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) for the treatment of furcation defects, in terms of scientific quality of the clinical trials and regeneration parameters assessment. Methods: A systematic search was carried out [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this review was to evaluate the adjunctive effect of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) for the treatment of furcation defects, in terms of scientific quality of the clinical trials and regeneration parameters assessment. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and EMBASE, together with hand searching of relevant journals. Two independent reviewers screened the articles yielded in the initial search and retrieved the full-text version of potentially eligible studies. Relevant data and outcomes were extracted from the included studies. Risk of bias assessment was also carried out. The outcome variables, relative to baseline and post-operative defect characteristics (probing pocket depth (PPD), horizontal and vertical clinical attachment loss (HCAL, VCAL), horizontal and vertical furcation depth (HFD, VFD) were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Ten randomized trials were included in this review. Only one study was judged at high risk of bias, while seven had a low risk, testifying to the good level of the evidence of this review. The meta-analysis showed a favorable effect regarding all outcome variables, for APCs used in adjunct to open flap debridement (p < 0.001). Regarding APCs in adjunct to bone grafting, a significant advantage was found only for HCAL (p < 0.001, mean difference 0.74, 95% CI 0.54, 0.94). The sub-group analysis showed that both platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich plasma in adjunct with open flap debridement, yielded significantly favorable results. No meta-analysis was performed for APCs in combination with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) as only one study was found. Conclusion: For the treatment of furcation defects APCs may be beneficial as an adjunct to open flap debridement alone and bone grafting, while limited evidence of an effect of APCs when used in combination with GTR was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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Review
Influence of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma on Endogenous Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Repair/Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030683 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
The morpho-functional recovery of injured skeletal muscle still represents an unmet need. None of the therapeutic options so far adopted have proved to be resolutive. A current scientific challenge remains the identification of effective strategies improving the endogenous skeletal muscle regenerative program. Indeed, [...] Read more.
The morpho-functional recovery of injured skeletal muscle still represents an unmet need. None of the therapeutic options so far adopted have proved to be resolutive. A current scientific challenge remains the identification of effective strategies improving the endogenous skeletal muscle regenerative program. Indeed, skeletal muscle tissue possesses an intrinsic remarkable regenerative capacity in response to injury, mainly thanks to the activity of a population of resident muscle progenitors called satellite cells, largely influenced by the dynamic interplay established with different molecular and cellular components of the surrounding niche/microenvironment. Other myogenic non-satellite cells, residing within muscle or recruited via circulation may contribute to post-natal muscle regeneration. Unfortunately, in the case of extended damage the tissue repair may become aberrant, giving rise to a maladaptive fibrotic scar or adipose tissue infiltration, mainly due to dysregulated activity of different muscle interstitial cells. In this context, plasma preparations, including Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and more recently Platelet-Poor Plasma (PPP), have shown advantages and promising therapeutic perspectives. This review focuses on the contribution of these blood-derived products on repair/regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle, paying particular attention to the potential cellular targets and molecular mechanisms through which these products may exert their beneficial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration)
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