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Special Issue "Nanobiomaterials for Precision Medicinal Systems"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecules".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2022) | Viewed by 4606

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Abbas Amini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dean's Unit School of Engineering, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia
Interests: materials; Nano Biotech; Nano Energy; biomedical
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditional systems are being replaced with precision medical systems in order to achieve more accurate results with less side effects. Using interdisciplinary sciences such as nanobiotechnology, these systems can diagnose and treat diseases at a molecular level. The main strategies in precision medicine include the following: (1) spotting genetic/molecular defects using nano-bio detectors and sensors, (2) designing targeted nano-bio drugs, (3) designing smart drug delivery systems such as nano-bio vehicles, and (4) monitoring the disease and/or therapy procedures. Some biological detecting tools, such as sequencing, microarray, and CRISPR-based tools, utilize nano-systems in their structures. For smart treatments, some bio and small molecule drugs can be conjugated with nanomaterials and nano-vectors in order to achieve more stability with a better targeting capability. Some of these nano-vectors can carry imaging materials for real-time monitoring purposes. The last generation of nanomaterials are multi-potential systems that can simultaneously detect/sense, treat, and monitor. In the near future, 3D nano-bio printers will be able to simulate every single cell structure and to open new doors in precision regenerative medicine.  

Gaps and Challenges

We are at the beginning of this path, unfortunately some of nano-biomaterials are less accurate or efficient compared to their biological counterparts, for example liposomes and other nano-vehicles have less efficiency compared to viral vectors in gene therapies. In addition, multi-potential nano-systems are bulkier to enter the cell easily. One of the main problems of targeted nano-bio-therapies is off-target effects, where a drug binds to other molecules non-specifically.

Special Issue Topics of Interest:

The following topics are expected for this section:

  • New nano-bio detecting or sensing methods to discover ongoing mutations or molecular faults
  • New generation of nano-bio drug delivery systems to overcome natural biological barriers in molecular targeted therapies
  • Novel nano-bio imaging/monitoring systems
  • Specific nano-bio approaches to boost the efficiency of current precision medicinal systems
  • Systematic approaches to overcome the off-target effects of current nano-bio systems
  • 3D nano-bio printer systems for precise cell and tissue engineering mapping
  • Nanoenergy, nanobioenergy, macroenergy, and energy systems 

Dr. Abbas Amini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanobiomaterials
  • Precision Medicinal Systems
  • nano-bio detectors and sensors
  • nano-bio drugs
  • nano-bio vehicles
  • nano-bio systems
  • 3D Nano-bio Printing
  • Nano-bio-energy Systems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Bioengineering Approach for the Development of Fibroblast Growth Factor-7-Functionalized Sericin Biomaterial Applicable for the Cultivation of Keratinocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 9953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23179953 - 01 Sep 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), are a group of proteins that stimulate various cellular processes and are often used with carriers to prevent the rapid loss of their activities. Sericin with great biocompatibility has been investigated as a proteinaceous carrier to [...] Read more.
Growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), are a group of proteins that stimulate various cellular processes and are often used with carriers to prevent the rapid loss of their activities. Sericin with great biocompatibility has been investigated as a proteinaceous carrier to enhance the stability of incorporated proteins. The difficulties in obtaining intact sericin from silkworm cocoons and the handling of growth factors with poor stability necessitate an efficient technique to incorporate the protein into a sericin-based biomaterial. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic silkworm line simultaneously expressing and incorporating FGF-7 into cocoon shells containing almost exclusively sericin. Growth-factor-functionalized sericin cocoon shells requiring simple lyophilization and pulverization processes were successfully used to induce the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes. Moreover, FGF-7 incorporated into sericin-cocoon powder exhibited remarkable stability, with more than 70% of bioactivity being retained after being stored as a suspension at 25 °C for 3 months. Transgenic sericin-cocoon powder was used to continuously supply biologically active FGF-7 to generate a three-dimensionally cultured keratinocyte model in vitro. The outcomes of this study propound a feasible approach to producing cytokine-functionalized sericin materials that are ready to use for cell cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiomaterials for Precision Medicinal Systems)
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Article
Bioengineered Silkworm for Producing Cocoons with High Fibroin Content for Regenerated Fibroin Biomaterial-Based Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 7433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137433 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
Silk fibroin exhibits high biocompatibility and biodegradability, making it a versatile biomaterial for medical applications. However, contaminated silkworm-derived substances in remnant sericin from the filature and degumming process can result in undesired immune reactions and silk allergy, limiting the widespread use of fibroin. [...] Read more.
Silk fibroin exhibits high biocompatibility and biodegradability, making it a versatile biomaterial for medical applications. However, contaminated silkworm-derived substances in remnant sericin from the filature and degumming process can result in undesired immune reactions and silk allergy, limiting the widespread use of fibroin. Here, we established transgenic silkworms with modified middle silk glands, in which sericin expression was repressed by the ectopic expression of cabbage butterfly-derived cytotoxin pierisin-1A, to produce cocoons composed solely of fibroin. Intact, nondegraded fibroin can be prepared from the transgenic cocoons without the need for sericin removal by the filature and degumming steps that cause fibroin degradation. A wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed low crystallinity in the transgenic cocoons. However, nondegraded fibroin obtained from transgenic cocoons enabled the formation of fibroin sponges with varying densities by using 1–5% (v/v) alcohol. The effective chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells was induced following their cultivation on substrates coated with intact fibroin. Our results showed that intact, allergen-free fibroin can be obtained from transgenic cocoons without the need for sericin removal, providing a method to produce fibroin-based materials with high biocompatibility for biomedical uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiomaterials for Precision Medicinal Systems)
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Article
Natural vs. Synthetic Phosphate as Efficient Heterogeneous Compounds for Synthesis of Quinoxalines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413665 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Natural phosphate (NP) and synthetic fluorapatite phosphate (SFAP) were proposed as stable, inexpensive, readily available and recyclable catalysts for the condensation of 1,2-diamines with 1,2-dicarbonyls in methanol to afford quinoxaline at room temperature. NP provided as high as 92–99% yield for quinoxalines in [...] Read more.
Natural phosphate (NP) and synthetic fluorapatite phosphate (SFAP) were proposed as stable, inexpensive, readily available and recyclable catalysts for the condensation of 1,2-diamines with 1,2-dicarbonyls in methanol to afford quinoxaline at room temperature. NP provided as high as 92–99% yield for quinoxalines in short reaction times (i.e., 1–45 min), while SFAP created quinoxalines with 87–97% yield in 60–120 min. From the chemical analyses, X-ray fluoresecency, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy methods, two main phases (CaO, P2O5) appeared in NP together with other low content phases (SiO2, Fe2O3). Compared to other phases, apatite (CaO and P2O5 as Ca10(PO4)6) played a major role in the catalytic activity of NP. SFAP with similar Ca/P atomic ratio showed a relatively lower catalytic activity than NP for the condensation of 1,2-diamine with 1,2-dicarbonyl in methanol at ambient temperature. To investigate the recyclability of catalysts, the surface properties of NP and 6-recycled NP were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda methods. Some differences were observed in NP and 6-recycled NP’s particle size, surface area, the volume and size of pores, and the content of elements; nevertheless, the use–reuse process did not noticeably change the catalytic property of NP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiomaterials for Precision Medicinal Systems)
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Article
Highly-Efficient Sulfonated UiO-66(Zr) Optical Fiber for Rapid Detection of Trace Levels of Pb2+
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116053 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Lead detection for biological environments, aqueous resources, and medicinal compounds, rely mainly on either utilizing bulky lab equipment such as ICP-OES or ready-made sensors, which are based on colorimetry with some limitations including selectivity and low interference. Remote, rapid and efficient detection of [...] Read more.
Lead detection for biological environments, aqueous resources, and medicinal compounds, rely mainly on either utilizing bulky lab equipment such as ICP-OES or ready-made sensors, which are based on colorimetry with some limitations including selectivity and low interference. Remote, rapid and efficient detection of heavy metals in aqueous solutions at ppm and sub-ppm levels have faced significant challenges that requires novel compounds with such ability. Here, a UiO-66(Zr) metal-organic framework (MOF) functionalized with SO3H group (SO3H-UiO-66(Zr)) is deposited on the end-face of an optical fiber to detect lead cations (Pb2+) in water at 25.2, 43.5 and 64.0 ppm levels. The SO3H-UiO-66(Zr) system provides a Fabry–Perot sensor by which the lead ions are detected rapidly (milliseconds) at 25.2 ppm aqueous solution reflecting in the wavelength shifts in interference spectrum. The proposed removal mechanism is based on the adsorption of [Pb(OH2)6]2+ in water on SO3H-UiO-66(Zr) due to a strong affinity between functionalized MOF and lead. This is the first work that advances a multi-purpose optical fiber-coated functional MOF as an on-site remote chemical sensor for rapid detection of lead cations at extremely low concentrations in an aqueous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiomaterials for Precision Medicinal Systems)
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Review

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Review
Research on Graphene and Its Derivatives in Oral Disease Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094737 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
Oral diseases present a global public health problem that imposes heavy financial burdens on individuals and health-care systems. Most oral health conditions can be treated in their early stage. Even if the early symptoms of oral diseases do not seem to cause significant [...] Read more.
Oral diseases present a global public health problem that imposes heavy financial burdens on individuals and health-care systems. Most oral health conditions can be treated in their early stage. Even if the early symptoms of oral diseases do not seem to cause significant discomfort, prompt treatment is essential for preventing their progression. Biomaterials with superior properties enable dental therapies with applications in restoration, therapeutic drug/protein delivery, and tissue regeneration. Graphene nanomaterials have many unique mechanical and physiochemical properties and can respond to the complex oral microenvironment, which includes oral microbiota colonization and high masticatory force. Research on graphene nanomaterials in dentistry, especially in caries, periodontitis therapy, and implant coatings, is progressing rapidly. Here, we review the development of graphene and its derivatives for dental disease therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiomaterials for Precision Medicinal Systems)
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