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Special Issue "Role of the Extracellular Vesicles in Obesity and Related Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. María Pardo Pérez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS)/Servizo Galego de Saúde (SERGAS)
Interests: Obesity, adipose tissue, type 2 diabetes, adipokines, proteomics, secretomes, extracellular vesicles, biomarkers
Dr. Francisco Jose Ortega
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut d'Investigació Biomédica de Girona (IdIBGi)/ CIBEROBN and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII)
Interests: Biomarkers, genetics, genomics, epigenetics, non-coding RNAs, adipocytes, hepatocytes, adipose tissue, liver, metabolism, fatty acid homeostasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have arisen as a complex and very specialized mechanism for cell-to-cell crosstalk at the local (autocrine and paracrine signal) and distant level (endocrine system of communication). EVs comprise spherical lipovesicles, namely exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies of diverse sizes (up to 1,000 nm) and different origins, released by multiple cells responding to stimuli. EVs can be found in body fluids and in cell culture media, and enclose membrane and cytosolic components, such as proteins, lipids and many RNAs, including microRNAs and other non-coding RNA species with regulatory properties. This composition is conditioned by the site of biogenesis and the physiological response of cells, which may spread the signal along body tissues through this fine-tuned system of communication. In particular, exosomes have been recently rediscovered due to its ability as a sophisticated intercellular communicating system that implies interaction and fusion to liberate their molecular content in the cytoplasm of hosting cells. Then, exosomes impact commitment of target cells, inducing significant changes that may lead their contribution in different physiological processes. Also of key interest, since these vesicles and their molecular cargo may mirror physio-pathological conditions, EVs and their content have arisen as potential biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis value. All these attributes have generated great expectations around EVs, making the study of these vehicles a hot topic in many fields of research.

Nowadays, the role of EVs on cell communication relevant to the development of metabolic diseases is still poorly known. There is increasing evidence regarding the implication of circulating EVs in obesity-associated metabolic deregulation. Indeed, EVs shed by an hyperplasic adipose tissue have been demonstrated to be involved in adipocyte/macrophage crosstalk, and also to impact insulin signalling and gene expression in muscle and liver, contributing to the development of metabolic disturbances related to obesity. In addition, the synthesis and release of microRNAs loaded in EVs by adipocytes and activated macrophages found in obese fat depots make them attractive candidate biomarkers for obesity and associated diseases.

We invite researchers to contribute either with original research or review articles focusing on every aspect regarding the role and function of EVs shed by adipose tissue in healthy and pathological conditions including the onset and progression of obesity and its comorbidities.

Dr. María Pardo Pérez
Dr. Francisco Jose Ortega
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Exosomes
  • miRNA
  • Adipose tissue
  • Obesity
  • Cell communication
  • Biomarkers

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

Review
Beyond the Extracellular Vesicles: Technical Hurdles, Achieved Goals and Current Challenges When Working on Adipose Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073362 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Adipose tissue and its crosstalk with other organs plays an essential role in the metabolic homeostasis of the entire body. Alteration of this communication (i.e., due to obesity) is related to the development of several comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue and its crosstalk with other organs plays an essential role in the metabolic homeostasis of the entire body. Alteration of this communication (i.e., due to obesity) is related to the development of several comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or cancer. Within the adipose depot, adipocytes are the main cell type and thus the main source of secreted molecules, which exert modulating effects not only at a local but also at a systemic level. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently emerged as important mediators in cell–cell communication and account for part of the cellular secretome. In recent years, there has been a growing body of research on adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (Ad-EVs). However, there is still a lack of standardized methodological approaches, especially regarding primary adipocytes. In this review, we will provide an outline of crucial aspects when working on adipose-derived material, with a special focus on primary adipocytes. In parallel, we will point out current methodological challenges in the EV field and how they impact the transcriptomic, proteomic and functional evaluations of Ad-EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of the Extracellular Vesicles in Obesity and Related Diseases)
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Review
Adipocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: State of the Art
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041788 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
White adipose tissue (WAT) is involved in long-term energy storage and represents 10–15% of total body weight in healthy humans. WAT secretes many peptides (adipokines), hormones and steroids involved in its homeostatic role, especially in carbohydrate–lipid metabolism regulation. Recently, adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (AdEVs) [...] Read more.
White adipose tissue (WAT) is involved in long-term energy storage and represents 10–15% of total body weight in healthy humans. WAT secretes many peptides (adipokines), hormones and steroids involved in its homeostatic role, especially in carbohydrate–lipid metabolism regulation. Recently, adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (AdEVs) have been highlighted as important actors of intercellular communication that participate in metabolic responses to control energy flux and immune response. In this review, we focus on the role of AdEVs in the cross-talks between the different cellular types composing WAT with regard to their contribution to WAT homeostasis and metabolic complications development. We also discuss the AdEV cargoes (proteins, lipids, RNAs) which may explain AdEV’s biological effects and demonstrate that, in terms of proteins, AdEV has a very specific signature. Finally, we list and suggest potential therapeutic strategies to modulate AdEV release and composition in order to reduce their deleterious effects during the development of metabolic complications associated with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of the Extracellular Vesicles in Obesity and Related Diseases)
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Review
Deciphering Adipose Tissue Extracellular Vesicles Protein Cargo and Its Role in Obesity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249366 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
The extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players in metabolic disorders rising as an alternative way of paracrine/endocrine communication. In particular, in relation to adipose tissue (AT) secreted EVs, the current knowledge about its composition and function is still very limited. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
The extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players in metabolic disorders rising as an alternative way of paracrine/endocrine communication. In particular, in relation to adipose tissue (AT) secreted EVs, the current knowledge about its composition and function is still very limited. Nevertheless, those vesicles have been lately suggested as key players in AT communication at local level, and also with other metabolic peripheral and central organs participating in physiological homoeostasis, and also contributing to the metabolic deregulation related to obesity, diabetes, and associated comorbidities. The aim of this review is to summarize the most relevant data around the EVs secreted by adipose tissue, and especially in the context of obesity, focusing in its protein cargo. The description of the most frequent proteins identified in EVs shed by AT and its components, including their changes under pathological status, will give the reader a whole picture about the membrane/antigens, and intracellular proteins known so far, in an attempt to elucidate functional roles, and also suggesting biomarkers and new paths of therapeutic action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of the Extracellular Vesicles in Obesity and Related Diseases)
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Review
A Review of Exosomal Isolation Methods: Is Size Exclusion Chromatography the Best Option?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186466 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles secreted by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and play a vital role in intercellular communication. EVs are classified into several subtypes based on their origin, physical characteristics, and biomolecular makeup. Exosomes, a subtype of EVs, are released [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles secreted by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and play a vital role in intercellular communication. EVs are classified into several subtypes based on their origin, physical characteristics, and biomolecular makeup. Exosomes, a subtype of EVs, are released by the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane of the cell. Several methods have been described in literature to isolate exosomes from biofluids including blood, urine, milk, and cell culture media, among others. While differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) has been widely used to isolate exosomes, other techniques including ultrafiltration, precipitating agents such as poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), immunoaffinity capture, microfluidics, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) have emerged as credible alternatives with pros and cons associated with each. In this review, we provide a summary of commonly used exosomal isolation techniques with a focus on SEC as an ideal methodology. We evaluate the efficacy of SEC to isolate exosomes from an array of biological fluids, with a particular focus on its application to adipose tissue-derived exosomes. We argue that exosomes isolated via SEC are relatively pure and functional, and that this methodology is reproducible, scalable, inexpensive, and does not require specialized equipment or user expertise. However, it must be noted that while SEC is a good candidate method to isolate exosomes, direct comparative studies are required to support this conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of the Extracellular Vesicles in Obesity and Related Diseases)
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