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Genes Function and Mechanism Identification in Plant Stress Resistance

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 20388

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global warming and its exacerbation of extreme weather events has increased the prevalence of factors that affect the development of plants; these include droughts, high temperatures, and low temperatures, which have become common forms of abiotic stress in the development of plants, particularly in areas that produce crops such as cotton. Creating plant germplasms that are resistant to such forms of abiotic stress, by exploiting, cloning, and verifying novel genes, is urgently required.

This Special Issue, ‘Genes Function and Mechanism Identification in Plant Stress Resistance’, will address a selection of recent research topics and current review articles in the field of exploiting, cloning, and verifying novel genes related to plant stress resistance, and will also consider the factors of drought, high temperature, and low temperature, among others. Bioinformatics papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are also welcome.

Dr. Hengling Wei
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cotton
  • plant
  • abiotic stresses
  • drought resistance
  • high-temperature resistance
  • low-temperature resistance
  • salt resistance

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 4241 KiB  
Article
ZmHMA3, a Member of the Heavy-Metal-Transporting ATPase Family, Regulates Cd and Zn Tolerance in Maize
by Changjian Liao, Youqiang Li, Xiaohong Wu, Wenmei Wu, Yang Zhang, Penglin Zhan, Xin Meng, Gaojiao Hu, Shiqi Yang and Haijian Lin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713496 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
The pollution of heavy metals is extremely serious in China, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Heavy-metal-transporting ATPase (HMA) belongs to a subfamily of the P-ATPase family, which absorbs and transports Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in plants. Here, [...] Read more.
The pollution of heavy metals is extremely serious in China, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Heavy-metal-transporting ATPase (HMA) belongs to a subfamily of the P-ATPase family, which absorbs and transports Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in plants. Here, we describe a ZmHMA-encoding HMA family protein that positively regulates Cd and Zn tolerance. The real-time fluorescence quantification (RT-PCR) results revealed that ZmHMA3 had a high expression in B73, and the expression of ZmHMA3 was sensitive to Cd in yeast cells, which was related to Cd accumulation in yeast. Additionally, the Arabidopsis thaliana homologous mutants of AtHMA2 showed Cd sensitivity compared with WT. The overexpressing ZmHMA3 plants showed higher tolerance under Cd and Zn stresses than the wild type. The overexpression of ZmHMA3 led to higher Cd and Zn accumulation in tissues based on the subcellular distribution analysis. We propose that ZmHMA3 improves maize tolerance to Cd and Zn stresses by absorbing and transporting Cd and Zn ions. This study elucidates the gene function of the ZmHMA3 response to Cd and Zn stress and provides a reference for improving the characteristics of heavy metals enrichment in existing maize varieties and the plant remediation technology of heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Full article
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23 pages, 7873 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Differentially Expressed Genes in Leaves vs. Roots Subjected to Drought Stress in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)
by Ningning Wang, Fan Qi, Fu Wang, Yujie Lin, Chunxiao Xiaoyang, Zhanwu Peng, Bi Zhang, Xin Qi, Michael K. Deyholos and Jian Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512019 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Drought stress is a common environmental challenge that plants face, severely constraining plant growth and reducing crop yield and quality. Several studies have highlighted distinct responses between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. However, the mechanisms underlying flax tolerance to abiotic stress, such as drought, [...] Read more.
Drought stress is a common environmental challenge that plants face, severely constraining plant growth and reducing crop yield and quality. Several studies have highlighted distinct responses between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. However, the mechanisms underlying flax tolerance to abiotic stress, such as drought, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and the genome-wide gene expression of oil flax and fiber flax in response to drought stress. The results revealed that drought stress caused significant wilting of flax leaves. Within the first 24 h of stress, various physiological and biochemical characteristics exhibited rapid responses. These included fresh weight, relative water content (RWC), proline, soluble protein, soluble sugar, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in the leaves or roots of flax. Additionally, drought stress led to a significant rise in lignin content in fiber flax. In addition, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated genome-wide variations in gene expression induced by drought stress. Specifically, genes associated with photosynthesis, proline biosynthesis, and phytohormone metabolism exhibited significant differences in expression levels under stress conditions in flax. These findings highlight the rapid response of flax to drought stress within a short-term period. Our experiment also revealed that, although there were variations in the levels of small compound content or gene expression between Longya10 and Fany under drought stress, most stress-resistance responses were similar. Furthermore, the results provide additional evidence supporting the existence of mechanisms underlying the response to drought stress in plants. Full article
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18 pages, 3988 KiB  
Article
MsNRAMP2 Enhances Tolerance to Iron Excess Stress in Nicotiana tabacum and MsMYB Binds to Its Promoter
by Run-Tian Li, Yun-Jiao Yang, Wen-Jun Liu, Wen-Wei Liang, Miao Zhang, Shi-Chen Dong, Yong-Jun Shu, Dong-Lin Guo, Chang-Hong Guo and Ying-Dong Bi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(14), 11278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241411278 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Iron(Fe) is a trace metal element necessary for plant growth, but excess iron is harmful to plants. Natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) are important for divalent metal transport in plants. In this study, we isolated the MsNRAMP2 (MN_547960) gene from alfalfa, the perennial [...] Read more.
Iron(Fe) is a trace metal element necessary for plant growth, but excess iron is harmful to plants. Natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) are important for divalent metal transport in plants. In this study, we isolated the MsNRAMP2 (MN_547960) gene from alfalfa, the perennial legume forage. The expression of MsNRAMP2 is specifically induced by iron excess. Overexpression of MsNRAMP2 conferred transgenic tobacco tolerance to iron excess, while it conferred yeast sensitivity to excess iron. Together with the MsNRAMP2 gene, MsMYB (MN_547959) expression is induced by excess iron. Y1H indicated that the MsMYB protein could bind to the “CTGTTG” cis element of the MsNRAMP2 promoter. The results indicated that MsNRAMP2 has a function in iron transport and its expression might be regulated by MsMYB. The excess iron tolerance ability enhancement of MsNRAMP2 may be involved in iron transport, sequestration, or redistribution. Full article
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22 pages, 24051 KiB  
Article
Overexpression of TaMYB4 Confers Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
by Yu Tian, Kankan Peng, Xuan Ma, Zhipeng Ren, Guicheng Lou, Yunshuang Jiang, Jingqiu Xia, Duojia Wang, Jing Yu and Jing Cang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 11090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241311090 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Freezing stress is one of the main factors limiting the growth and yield of wheat. In this study, we found that TaMYB4 expression was significantly upregulated in the tillering nodes of the strong cold-resistant winter wheat variety Dongnongdongmai1 (Dn1) under freezing stress. Weighted [...] Read more.
Freezing stress is one of the main factors limiting the growth and yield of wheat. In this study, we found that TaMYB4 expression was significantly upregulated in the tillering nodes of the strong cold-resistant winter wheat variety Dongnongdongmai1 (Dn1) under freezing stress. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, qRT-PCR and protein–DNA interaction experiments demonstrated that monodehydroascorbate reductase (TaMDHAR) is a direct target of TaMYB4. The results showed that overexpression of TaMYB4 enhanced the freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. In TaMYB4 overexpression lines (OE-TaMYB4), AtMDHAR2 expression was upregulated and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA–GSH) cycle operation was enhanced. In addition, the expression of cold stress marker genes such as AtCBF1, AtCBF2, AtCBF3, AtCOR15A, AtCOR47, AtKIN1 and AtRD29A in OE-TaMYB4 lines was significantly upregulated. Therefore, TaMYB4 may increase freezing tolerance as a transcription factor (TF) in Arabidopsis through the AsA–GSH cycle and DREB/CBF signaling pathway. This study provides a potential gene for molecular breeding against freezing stress. Full article
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18 pages, 8450 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of GATA Family Genes in Phoebe bournei and Their Transcriptional Analysis under Abiotic Stresses
by Ziyuan Yin, Wenhai Liao, Jingshu Li, Jinxi Pan, Sijia Yang, Shipin Chen and Shijiang Cao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 10342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210342 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
GATA transcription factors are crucial proteins in regulating transcription and are characterized by a type-IV zinc finger DNA-binding domain. They play a significant role in the growth and development of plants. While the GATA family gene has been identified in several plant species, [...] Read more.
GATA transcription factors are crucial proteins in regulating transcription and are characterized by a type-IV zinc finger DNA-binding domain. They play a significant role in the growth and development of plants. While the GATA family gene has been identified in several plant species, it has not yet been reported in Phoebe bournei. In this study, 22 GATA family genes were identified from the P. bournei genome, and their physicochemical properties, chromosomal distribution, subcellular localization, phylogenetic tree, conserved motif, gene structure, cis-regulatory elements in promoters, and expression in plant tissues were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PbGATAs were clearly divided into four subfamilies. They are unequally distributed across 11 out of 12 chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Promoter cis-elements are mostly involved in environmental stress and hormonal regulation. Further studies showed that PbGATA11 was localized to chloroplasts and expressed in five tissues, including the root bark, root xylem, stem bark, stem xylem, and leaf, which means that PbGATA11 may have a potential role in the regulation of chlorophyll synthesis. Finally, the expression profiles of four representative genes, PbGATA5, PbGATA12, PbGATA16, and PbGATA22, under drought, salinity, and temperature stress, were detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that PbGATA5, PbGATA22, and PbGATA16 were significantly expressed under drought stress. PbGATA12 and PbGATA22 were significantly expressed after 8 h of low-temperature stress at 10 °C. This study concludes that the growth and development of the PbGATA family gene in P. bournei in coping with adversity stress are crucial. This study provides new ideas for studying the evolution of GATAs, provides useful information for future functional analysis of PbGATA genes, and helps better understand the abiotic stress response of P. bournei. Full article
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18 pages, 4248 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Reveals the Molecular Mechanism of the ScALDH21 Gene from the Desert Moss Syntrichia caninervis Conferring Resistance to Salt Stress in Cotton
by Honglan Yang, Qilin Yang, Dawei Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Ting Cao, Tohir A. Bozorov, Lihua Cheng and Daoyuan Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065822 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
The desert moss Syntrichia caninervis has proven to be an excellent plant material for mining resistance genes. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 21 (ScALDH21) gene from S. caninervis has been shown to confer tolerance to salt and drought, but it is unclear how the [...] Read more.
The desert moss Syntrichia caninervis has proven to be an excellent plant material for mining resistance genes. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 21 (ScALDH21) gene from S. caninervis has been shown to confer tolerance to salt and drought, but it is unclear how the transgene ScALDH21 regulates tolerance to abiotic stresses in cotton. In the present work, we studied the physiological and transcriptome analyses of non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic ScALDH21 cotton (L96) at 0 day, 2 days, and 5 days after salt stress. Through intergroup comparisons and a weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), we found that there were significant differences between NT and L96 cotton in the plant hormone, Ca2+, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways as well as for photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Overexpression of ScALDH21 significantly increased the expression of stress-related genes in L96 compared to NT cotton under both normal growth and salt stress conditions. These data suggest that the ScALDH21 transgene can scavenge more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo relative to NT cotton and improve cotton resistance to salt stress by increasing the expression of stress-responsive genes, responding quickly to stress stimuli, enhancing photosynthesis and improving carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, ScALDH21 is a promising candidate gene to improve resistance to salt stress, and the application of this gene in cotton provides new insights into molecular plant breeding. Full article
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19 pages, 6614 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Cysteine-Rich Polycomb-like Protein (CPP) Gene Family in Tomato
by Yaoguang Sun, Xinyi Jia, Dexia Chen, Qingjun Fu, Jinxiu Chen, Wenhui Yang, Huanhuan Yang and Xiangyang Xu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065762 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
The cysteine-rich polycomb-like protein (CPP) gene family is a class of transcription factors containing conserved cysteine-rich CRC structural domains that is involved in the regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance to adversity. Relative to other gene families, the CPP gene family has [...] Read more.
The cysteine-rich polycomb-like protein (CPP) gene family is a class of transcription factors containing conserved cysteine-rich CRC structural domains that is involved in the regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance to adversity. Relative to other gene families, the CPP gene family has not received sufficient attention. In this study, six SlCPPs were identified for the first time using the most recent genome-wide identification data of tomato. Subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis classified SlCPPs into four subfamilies. The analysis of cis-acting elements in the promoter indicates that SlCPPs are involved in plant growth and development and also stress response. We present for the first time the prediction of the tertiary structure of these SlCPPs proteins using the AlphaFold2 artificial intelligence system developed by the DeepMind team. Transcriptome data analysis showed that SlCPPs were differentially expressed in different tissues. Gene expression profiling showed that all SlCPPs except SlCPP5 were up-regulated under drought stress; SlCPP2, SlCPP3 and SlCPP4 were up-regulated under cold stress; SlCPP2 and SlCPP5 were up-regulated under salt stress; all SlCPPs were up-regulated under inoculation with Cladosporium fulvum; and SlCPP1, SlCPP3, and SlCPP4 were up-regulated under inoculation with Stemphylium lycopersici. We performed a virus-induced gene silencing experiment on SlCPP3, and the results indicated that SlCPP3 was involved in the response to drought stress. Finally, we predicted the interaction network of the key gene SlCPP3, and there was an interaction relationship between SlCPP3 and 10 genes, such as RBR1 and MSI1. The positive outcome showed that SlCPPs responded to environmental stress. This study provides a theoretical and empirical basis for the response mechanisms of tomato in abiotic stresses. Full article
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18 pages, 4984 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome and Metabolome Profiling Unveil Pigment Formation Variations in Brown Cotton Lines (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
by Yin-Ping Lv, Gang Zhao, Yong-Fei Xie, Anane Gideon Owusu, Yong Wu and Jun-Shan Gao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065249 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Naturally brown colored cotton (NBCC) is becoming increasingly popular due to its natural properties of coloration. However, poor fiber quality and color fading are key issues that are hindering the cultivation of naturally colored cotton. In this study, based on transcriptome and metabolome [...] Read more.
Naturally brown colored cotton (NBCC) is becoming increasingly popular due to its natural properties of coloration. However, poor fiber quality and color fading are key issues that are hindering the cultivation of naturally colored cotton. In this study, based on transcriptome and metabolome of 18 days post-anthesis (DPA), we compared the variations of pigment formation in two brown cotton fibers (DCF and LCF), with white cotton fiber (WCF) belonging to a near-isogenic line. A transcriptome study revealed a total of 15,785 differentially expressed genes significantly enriched in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, for flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes, such as flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), chalcone synthase (CHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and chalcone isomerase (CHI), their expressions significantly increased in LCF compared with DCF and WCF. Moreover, transcription factors MYB and bHLH were significantly expressed in LCF and DCF. Most flavonoid-related metabolites (myricetin naringenin, catechin, epicatechin-epiafzelechin, and epigallocatechin) were found to be more highly up-regulated in LCF and DCF than WCF. These findings reveal the regulatory mechanism controlling different brown pigmentation in cotton fibers and elucidate the need for the proper selection of high-quality brown cotton fiber breeding lines for promising fiber quality and durable brown color pigmentation. Full article
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15 pages, 4958 KiB  
Article
The CCCH-Type Zinc-Finger Protein GhC3H20 Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cotton through ABA Signal Transduction Pathway
by Qi Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Fei Wei, Xiaokang Fu, Hengling Wei, Jianhua Lu, Liang Ma and Hantao Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 5057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24055057 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
The CCCH zinc-finger protein contains a typical C3H-type motif widely existing in plants, and it plays an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this study, a CCCH zinc-finger gene, GhC3H20, was isolated and thoroughly characterized to regulate salt [...] Read more.
The CCCH zinc-finger protein contains a typical C3H-type motif widely existing in plants, and it plays an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this study, a CCCH zinc-finger gene, GhC3H20, was isolated and thoroughly characterized to regulate salt stress in cotton and Arabidopsis. The expression of GhC3H20 was up-regulated under salt, drought, and ABA treatments. GUS activity was detected in the root, stem, leaves, and flowers of ProGhC3H20::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis. Compared with the control, the GUS activity of ProGhC3H20::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings under NaCl treatment was stronger. Through the genetic transformation of Arabidopsis, three transgenic lines of 35S-GhC3H20 were obtained. Under NaCl and mannitol treatments, the roots of the transgenic lines were significantly longer than those of the wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis. The leaves of the WT turned yellow and wilted under high-concentration salt treatment at the seedling stage, while the leaves of the transgenic Arabidopsis lines did not. Further investigation showed that compared with the WT, the content of catalase (CAT) in the leaves of the transgenic lines was significantly higher. Therefore, compared with the WT, overexpression of GhC3H20 enhanced the salt stress tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. A virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) experiment showed that compared with the control, the leaves of pYL156-GhC3H20 plants were wilted and dehydrated. The content of chlorophyll in pYL156-GhC3H20 leaves was significantly lower than those of the control. Therefore, silencing of GhC3H20 reduced salt stress tolerance in cotton. Two interacting proteins (GhPP2CA and GhHAB1) of GhC3H20 have been identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The expression levels of PP2CA and HAB1 in transgenic Arabidopsis were higher than those in the WT, and pYL156-GhC3H20 had expression levels lower than those in the control. GhPP2CA and GhHAB1 are the key genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GhC3H20 may interact with GhPP2CA and GhHAB1 to participate in the ABA signaling pathway to enhance salt stress tolerance in cotton. Full article
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13 pages, 3990 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Experimental Expression Analysis of CNGC Gene Family in Gossypium
by Lei Chen, Wenwen Wang, Hailun He, Peng Yang, Xiaoting Sun and Zhengsheng Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054617 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are channel proteins for calcium ions, and have been reported to play important roles in regulating survival and environmental response of various plants. However, little is known about how the CNGC family works in Gossypium. In this [...] Read more.
Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are channel proteins for calcium ions, and have been reported to play important roles in regulating survival and environmental response of various plants. However, little is known about how the CNGC family works in Gossypium. In this study, 173 CNGC genes, which were identified from two diploid and five tetraploid Gossypium species, were classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. The collinearity results demonstrated that CNGC genes are integrally conservative among Gossypium species, but four gene losses and three simple translocations were detected, which is beneficial to analyzing the evolution of CNGCs in Gossypium. The various cis-acting regulatory elements in the CNGCs’ upstream sequences revealed their possible functions in responding to multiple stimuli such as hormonal changes and abiotic stresses. In addition, expression levels of 14 CNGC genes changed significantly after being treated with various hormones. The findings in this study will contribute to understanding the function of the CNGC family in cotton, and lay a foundation for unraveling the molecular mechanism of cotton plants’ response to hormonal changes. Full article
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14 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Defense Mechanism of Cotton against Verticillium dahliae Induced by Hypovirulent Fungus Gibellulopsis nigrescens CEF08111
by Zili Feng, Feng Wei, Hongjie Feng, Yalin Zhang, Lihong Zhao, Jinglong Zhou, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang and Heqin Zhu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021480 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Verticillium wilt is a kind of plant vascular disease caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae, which severely limits cotton production. Our previous studies showed that the endophytic fungus Gibellulopsis nigrescens CEF08111 can effectively control Verticillium wilt and induce a defense response [...] Read more.
Verticillium wilt is a kind of plant vascular disease caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae, which severely limits cotton production. Our previous studies showed that the endophytic fungus Gibellulopsis nigrescens CEF08111 can effectively control Verticillium wilt and induce a defense response in cotton plants. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism governing this response is not yet clear. To study the signaling mechanism induced by strain CEF08111, the transcriptome of cotton seedlings pretreated with CEF08111 was sequenced. The results revealed 249, 3559 and 33 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 3, 12 and 48 h post inoculation with CEF08111, respectively. At 12 h post inoculation with CEF08111, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were enriched mainly in the plant–pathogen interaction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway-plant, and plant hormone signal transduction pathways. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched mainly in the following terms: response to external stimulus, systemic acquired resistance, kinase activity, phosphotransferase activity, xyloglucan: xyloglucosyl transferase activity, xyloglucan metabolic process, cell wall polysaccharide metabolic process and hemicellulose metabolic process. Moreover, many genes, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK), flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2), resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1(RPM1) and myelocytomatosis protein 2 (MYC2), that regulate crucial points in defense-related pathways were identified and may contribute to V. dahliae resistance in cotton. Seven DEGs of the pathway phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), and these genes are related to lignin synthesis. The above genes were compared and analyzed, a total of 710 candidate genes that may be related to the resistance of cotton to Verticillium wilt were identified. These results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism by which the biocontrol fungus CEF08111 increases the resistance of cotton to Verticillium wilt. Full article
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20 pages, 26420 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Analysis of the DUF4228 Gene Family in Gossypium Reveals the Role of GhDUF4228-67 in Salt Tolerance
by Xiaoyan Lv, Fei Wei, Boying Lian, Guo Yin, Mengxi Sun, Pengyun Chen, Li An, Hongliang Jian, Hantao Wang, Xiaokang Fu, Liang Ma, Jianhua Lu, Baoquan Wang and Hengling Wei
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113542 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Soil salinization conditions seriously restrict cotton yield and quality. Related studies have shown that the DUF4228 proteins are pivotal in plant resistance to abiotic stress. However, there has been no systematic identification and analysis of the DUF4228 gene family in cotton and their [...] Read more.
Soil salinization conditions seriously restrict cotton yield and quality. Related studies have shown that the DUF4228 proteins are pivotal in plant resistance to abiotic stress. However, there has been no systematic identification and analysis of the DUF4228 gene family in cotton and their role in abiotic stress. In this study, a total of 308 DUF4228 genes were identified in four Gossypium species, which were divided into five subfamilies. Gene structure and protein motifs analysis showed that the GhDUF4228 proteins were conserved in each subfamily. In addition, whole genome duplication (WGD) events and allopolyploidization might play an essential role in the expansion of the DUF4228 genes. Besides, many stress-responsive (MYB, MYC) and hormone-responsive (ABA, MeJA) related cis-elements were detected in the promoters of the DUF4228 genes. The qRT-PCR results showed that GhDUF4228 genes might be involved in the response to abiotic stress. VIGS assays and the measurement of relative water content (RWC), Proline content, POD activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content indicated that GhDUF4228-67 might be a positive regulator of cotton response to salt stress. The results in this study systematically characterized the DUF4228s in Gossypium species and will provide helpful information to further research the role of DUF4228s in salt tolerance. Full article
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