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Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecules".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 10822

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Guest Editor
Instituto de Ciencia Molecular/ICMol, Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán 2, 46980 Valencia, Spain
Interests: self-assembled monolayers; molecular-weight distribution; shell-type architectures; cationic-polymerization; biological evaluation; poly(ethylene oxide); glycerol dendrimers; core; copolymers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cellulose, a linear polymer of beta-1,4-linked glucose moieties, is the most common and naturally occurring organic polymer on earth. It is considered an almost unabundant source of raw material for the production of environmentally benign and biocompatible products. The fascination of the cellulose biopolymer comes from its particular structure, diverse architectures, reactivities, and multi-functions. Cellulose constitutes the best example of the merging of carbohydrate and polymer chemistry. Consequently, the cellulose macromolecule is related to an extremely wide range of domains, including pure, polymer, fiber, paper, textile, pharmacy, and green chemistry fields.

The present Special Issue is planned to publish original research and review articles on the recent advances dealing with the chemsitry of cellulose from pure and applied points of views.

Dr. Salah-Eddine Stiriba
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cellulose chemistry
  • polymer materials
  • biocompatible
  • fiber chemistry
  • supramolecular chemistry
  • textile chemistry
  • pharmacy
  • bioenergy
  • sustainability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 8249 KiB  
Article
Size-Controlled Silver Nanoparticles Supported by Pyrolytic Carbon from Microcrystalline Cellulose
by Dayong Huang, Min Wu, Shigenori Kuga and Yong Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(19), 14431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241914431 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
A facile method was developed for preparing size-controlled silver nanoparticles supported by pyrolytic carbon from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The pyrolysis of cellulose-AgNO3 mixture caused the oxidation of cellulose, resulting in carboxyl groups to which silver ions can bind firmly and act as [...] Read more.
A facile method was developed for preparing size-controlled silver nanoparticles supported by pyrolytic carbon from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The pyrolysis of cellulose-AgNO3 mixture caused the oxidation of cellulose, resulting in carboxyl groups to which silver ions can bind firmly and act as nuclei for the deposition of silver nanoparticles. The structure and properties of the obtained nanocomposite were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggest that silver nanoparticles were integrated successfully and dispersed uniformly in the pyrolytic carbon matrix. The average particle size varied between 20 nm and 100 nm in correlation to the dose of silver nitrate and temperature of pyrolysis. The products showed high electric conductivity and strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry)
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12 pages, 5705 KiB  
Communication
Cellulose Acetate-Supported Copper as an Efficient Sustainable Heterogenous Catalyst for Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Click Reactions in Water
by Salah-Eddine Stiriba, Lahoucine Bahsis, Elhouceine Benhadria, Khaoula Oudghiri, Moha Taourirte and Miguel Julve
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119301 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
A new sustainable heterogeneous catalyst for copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) was investigated. The preparation of the sustainable catalyst was carried out through the complexation reaction between the polysaccharide cellulose acetate backbone (CA) and copper(II) ions. The resulting complex [Cu(II)-CA] was fully characterized [...] Read more.
A new sustainable heterogeneous catalyst for copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) was investigated. The preparation of the sustainable catalyst was carried out through the complexation reaction between the polysaccharide cellulose acetate backbone (CA) and copper(II) ions. The resulting complex [Cu(II)-CA] was fully characterized by using different spectroscopic methods such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analyses. The Cu(II)-CA complex exhibits high activity in the CuAAC reaction for substituted alkynes and organic azides, leading to a selective synthesis of the corresponding 1,4-isomer 1,2,3-triazoles in water as a solvent and working at room temperature. It is worth noting that this catalyst has several advantages from the sustainable chemistry point of view including no use of additives, biopolymer support, reactions carried out in water at room temperature, and easy recovery of the catalyst. These characteristics make it a potential candidate not only for the CuAAC reaction but also for other catalytic organic reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry)
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24 pages, 9827 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Silver-Containing Materials Based on Various Forms of Bacterial Cellulose: Synthesis, Structure, and Biological Activity
by Alexander Vasil’kov, Ivan Butenko, Alexander Naumkin, Anastasiia Voronova, Alexandre Golub, Mikhail Buzin, Eleonora Shtykova, Vladimir Volkov and Vera Sadykova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087667 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Sustained interest in the use of renewable resources for the production of medical materials has stimulated research on bacterial cellulose (BC) and nanocomposites based on it. New Ag-containing nanocomposites were obtained by modifying various forms of BC with Ag nanoparticles prepared by metal–vapor [...] Read more.
Sustained interest in the use of renewable resources for the production of medical materials has stimulated research on bacterial cellulose (BC) and nanocomposites based on it. New Ag-containing nanocomposites were obtained by modifying various forms of BC with Ag nanoparticles prepared by metal–vapor synthesis (MVS). Bacterial cellulose was obtained in the form of films (BCF) and spherical BC beads (SBCB) by the Gluconacetobacter hansenii GH-1/2008 strain under static and dynamic conditions. The Ag nanoparticles synthesized in 2-propanol were incorporated into the polymer matrix using metal-containing organosol. MVS is based on the interaction of extremely reactive atomic metals formed by evaporation in vacuum at a pressure of 10−2 Pa with organic substances during their co-condensation on the cooled walls of a reaction vessel. The composition, structure, and electronic state of the metal in the materials were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Since antimicrobial activity is largely determined by the surface composition, much attention was paid to studying its properties by XPS, a surface-sensitive method, at a sampling depth about 10 nm. C 1s and O 1s spectra were analyzed self-consistently. XPS C 1s spectra of the original and Ag-containing celluloses showed an increase in the intensity of the C-C/C-H groups in the latter, which are associated with carbon shell surrounding metal in Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The size effect observed in Ag 3d spectra evidenced on a large proportion of silver nanoparticles with a size of less than 3 nm in the near-surface region. Ag NPs in the BC films and spherical beads were mainly in the zerovalent state. BC-based nanocomposites with Ag nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger fungi. It was found that AgNPs/SBCB nanocomposites are more active than Ag NPs/BCF samples, especially against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger fungi. These results increase the possibility of their medical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry)
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15 pages, 51753 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Silane-Grafted Cellulose Nanocrystals and Their Effects on the Structural, Thermal, Mechanical, and Hysteretic Behavior of Thermoplastic Polyurethane
by Xuenan Sun, Xinze Yang, Jiajing Zhang, Bin Shang, Pei Lyu, Chunhua Zhang, Xin Liu and Liangjun Xia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 5036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24055036 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites can be achieved by the selection of the appropriate fabrication method, surface modification, and orientation of the filler. Herein, we present a nonsolvent-induced phase separation method with ternary solvents to prepare thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite films with excellent mechanical [...] Read more.
Reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites can be achieved by the selection of the appropriate fabrication method, surface modification, and orientation of the filler. Herein, we present a nonsolvent-induced phase separation method with ternary solvents to prepare thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite films with excellent mechanical properties using 3-Glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane-modified cellulose nanocrystals (GLCNCs). ATR-IR and SEM analyses of the GLCNCs confirmed that GL was successfully coated on the surface of the nanocrystals. The incorporation of GLCNCs in TPU resulted in the enhancement of the tensile strain and toughness of pure TPU owing to the enhanced interfacial interactions between them. The GLCNC–TPU composite film had tensile strain and toughness values of 1740.42% and 90.01 MJ/m3, respectively. Additionally, GLCNC–TPU exhibited a good elastic recovery rate. CNCs were readily aligned along the fiber axis after the spinning and drawing of the composites into fibers, which further improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The stress, strain, and toughness of the GLCNC–TPU composite fiber increased by 72.60%, 10.25%, and 103.61%, respectively, compared to those of the pure TPU film. This study demonstrates a facile and effective strategy for fabricating mechanically enhanced TPU composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry)
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20 pages, 2589 KiB  
Article
Dominant Factors Affecting Rheological Properties of Cellulose Derivatives Forming Thermotropic Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with Visible Reflection
by Yuki Ogiwara, Naoto Iwata and Seiichi Furumi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054269 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) derivatives with alkanoyl side chains are known to form thermotropic cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with visible reflection. Although the widely investigated CLCs are requisite for tedious syntheses of chiral and mesogenic compounds from precious petroleum resources, the HPC derivatives easily [...] Read more.
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) derivatives with alkanoyl side chains are known to form thermotropic cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with visible reflection. Although the widely investigated CLCs are requisite for tedious syntheses of chiral and mesogenic compounds from precious petroleum resources, the HPC derivatives easily prepared from biomass resources would contribute to the realization of environment-friendly CLC devices. In this study, we report the linear rheological behavior of thermotropic CLCs of HPC derivatives possessing alkanoyl side chains of different lengths. In addition, the HPC derivatives have been synthesized by the complete esterification of hydroxy groups in HPC. The master curves of these HPC derivatives were almost identical at reference temperatures, with their light reflection at 405 nm. The relaxation peaks appeared at an angular frequency of ~102 rad/s, suggesting the motion of the CLC helical axis. Moreover, the dominant factors affecting the rheological properties of HPC derivatives were strongly dependent on the CLC helical structures. Further, this study provides one of the most promising fabrication strategies for the highly oriented CLC helix by shearing force, which is indispensable to the development of advanced photonic devices with eco-friendliness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry)
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Review

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19 pages, 1683 KiB  
Review
Advances on Cellulose Manufacture in Biphasic Reaction Media
by Marcos Fernández-Bautista, Sergio Martínez-Gómez, Sandra Rivas, José Luis Alonso and Juan Carlos Parajó
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512404 - 3 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Cellulose is produced industrially by the kraft and sulfite processes. The evolution of these technologies in biorefineries is driven by the need to obtain greater added value through the efficient use of raw materials and energy. In this field, organosolv technologies (and within [...] Read more.
Cellulose is produced industrially by the kraft and sulfite processes. The evolution of these technologies in biorefineries is driven by the need to obtain greater added value through the efficient use of raw materials and energy. In this field, organosolv technologies (and within them, those using liquid phases made up of water and one partly miscible organic solvent, known as “biphasic fractionation” in reference to the number of liquid phases) represent an alternative that is receiving increasing interest. This study considers basic aspects of the composition of lignocellulosic materials, describes the fundamentals of industrial cellulose pulp production processes, introduces the organosolv methods, and comprehensively reviews published results on organosolv fractionation based on the use of media containing water and an immiscible solvent (1-butanol, 1-pentanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran). Special attention is devoted to aspects related to cellulose recovery and fractionation selectivity, measured through the amount and composition of the treated solids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellulose Chemistry)
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