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Natural Bioactives and Inflammation

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2023) | Viewed by 12087

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to our Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS), entitled “Natural Bioactives and Inflammation”.

Inflammation is a key physiological process in tissue repair and immunity against infections, trauma, toxins, or allergic reactions. However, chronic inflammation can cause the development of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, omega fatty acids, etc., are molecules that present therapeutic potential by reducing inflammation, thereby decreasing the risk of chronic diseases. As inflammation regulation is one of the keys to longevity, by consuming these bioactive compounds, we could potentially increase both our health- and lifespan.

For this Special Issue, we want to collect recent research topics and current review articles, to report the latest updates on inflammation and how to modulate it using natural bioactive compounds.

Prof. Dr. Juan Gambini
Guest Editor

Kristine Stromsnes
Guest Editor Assistant

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • inflammation
  • bioactive compounds
  • polyphenols
  • nutraceutical
  • diet
  • nutrition
  • pharmacology
  • health
  • lifespan
  • healthspan
  • aging
  • inflammaging

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

14 pages, 2533 KiB  
Article
Sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect in RAW 264.7 Cells via Inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathways
by Yaxin Zhao, Nanshan Zhao, Larwubah Kollie, Dongfeng Yang, Xiaodan Zhang, Haihua Zhang and Zongsuo Liang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042149 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Sasanquasaponin (SQS), a secondary metabolite that is derived from Camellia seeds, reportedly possesses notable biological properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of SQS and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly explored. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of SQS against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory [...] Read more.
Sasanquasaponin (SQS), a secondary metabolite that is derived from Camellia seeds, reportedly possesses notable biological properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of SQS and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly explored. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of SQS against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells, focusing on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and MAPK signaling pathways. SQS was isolated using a deep eutectic solvent and D101 macroporous adsorption resin and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The viability of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 was assessed using the CCK-8 assay. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected using reverse transcription–quantitative PCR and ELISA. Western blot was performed to analyze the protein expression of LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Herein, SQS exhibited anti-inflammatory activity: 30 μg/mL of SQS significantly reduced ROS generation, inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2, and attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. The anti-inflammatory activity was potentially mediated by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK in the MAPK signaling pathway. Accordingly, SQS could inhibit inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. This study demonstrated the potential application of SQS as an anti-inflammatory agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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18 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
The Chemical Profile, Antioxidant, and Anti-Lipid Droplet Activity of Fluid Extracts from Romanian Cultivars of Haskap Berries, Bitter Cherries, and Red Grape Pomace for the Management of Liver Steatosis
by Oana Craciunescu, Ana-Maria Seciu-Grama, Elena Mihai, Elena Utoiu, Ticuta Negreanu-Pirjol, Carmen Elena Lupu, Victoria Artem, Aurora Ranca and Bogdan-Stefan Negreanu-Pirjol
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316849 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fluid extracts obtained from three Romanian cultivars of haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) var. Loni, bitter cherries (Prunus avium var. sylvestris Ser.) var. Silva, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fluid extracts obtained from three Romanian cultivars of haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) var. Loni, bitter cherries (Prunus avium var. sylvestris Ser.) var. Silva, and pomace from red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) var. Mamaia, and their capacity to modulate in vitro steatosis, in view of developing novel anti-obesity products. Total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and ascorbic acid content of fluid extracts was spectrophotometrically assessed and their free radical scavenging capacity was evaluated using Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition assays. The Pearson coefficients showed a moderate correlation between the antioxidant activity of fluid extracts and their phenolic content, but a strong correlation between anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the main phenolic compounds of chlorogenic and syringic acid, catechin, and glycosylated kaempferol, apigenin, and quercetin, in variable proportions. An in vitro experimental model of steatosis was developed in HepG2 hepatocytes treated with a mixture of free fatty acids. Cell culture analyses showed that cytocompatible concentrations of fluid extracts could significantly reduce the lipid accumulation and inhibit the reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide secretion in stressed hepatocytes. In conclusion, these results put an emphasis on the chemical compounds’ high antioxidant and liver protection capacity of unstudied fluid extracts obtained from Romanian cultivars of bitter cherries var. Silva and pomace of red grapes var. Mamaia, similar to the fluid extract of haskap berries var. Loni, in particular, the positive modulation of fat deposition next to oxidative stress and the lipid peroxidation process triggered by fatty acids in HepG2 hepatocytes. Consequently, this study indicated that these fluid extracts could be further exploited as hepatoprotective agents in liver steatosis, which provides a basis for the further development of novel extract mixtures with synergistic activity as anti-obesity products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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23 pages, 15451 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics and Changes in Lipid Mediator Profiling after Consumption of Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid-Mediator-Enriched Marine Oil in Healthy Subjects
by Pilar Irún, Patricia Carrera-Lasfuentes, Marta Sánchez-Luengo, Úrsula Belio, María José Domper-Arnal, Gustavo A. Higuera, Malena Hawkins, Xavier de la Rosa and Angel Lanas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216143 - 9 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in human health, well-being, and the management of inflammatory diseases. Insufficient intake of omega-3 is linked to disease development. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are derived from omega-3 PUFAs and expedite the resolution of inflammation. [...] Read more.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in human health, well-being, and the management of inflammatory diseases. Insufficient intake of omega-3 is linked to disease development. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are derived from omega-3 PUFAs and expedite the resolution of inflammation. They fall into categories known as resolvins, maresins, protectins, and lipoxins. The actions of SPMs in the resolution of inflammation involve restricting neutrophil infiltration, facilitating the removal of apoptotic cells and cellular debris, promoting efferocytosis and phagocytosis, counteracting the production of pro-inflammatory molecules like chemokines and cytokines, and encouraging a pro-resolving macrophage phenotype. This is an experimental pilot study in which ten healthy subjects were enrolled and received a single dose of 6 g of an oral SPM-enriched marine oil emulsion. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-administration. Temporal increases in plasma and serum SPM levels were found by using LC-MS/MS lipid profiling. Additionally, we characterized the temporal increases in omega-3 levels and established fundamental pharmacokinetics in both aforementioned matrices. These findings provide substantial evidence of the time-dependent elevation of SPMs, reinforcing the notion that oral supplementation with SPM-enriched products represents a valuable source of essential bioactive SPMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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8 pages, 1040 KiB  
Communication
Sodium Ferrous Citrate and 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Exert a Therapeutic Effect on Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats
by Yuya Otaka, Kazutaka Kanai, Daiki Okada, Noriaki Nagai, Yohei Yamashita, Yoichiro Ichikawa and Kazuki Tajima
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713525 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The metabolism of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is more efficient when combined with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). Our previous study revealed that oral administration of ALA, which has anti-inflammatory properties, and SFC (ALA/SFC) immediately before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation suppressed endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. [...] Read more.
The metabolism of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is more efficient when combined with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). Our previous study revealed that oral administration of ALA, which has anti-inflammatory properties, and SFC (ALA/SFC) immediately before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation suppressed endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. However, the therapeutic effect of ALA/SFC post-administration remains unexplored. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ALA/SFC on EIU in rats, which were administered with a gastric gavage of ALA/SFC (100/157 mg/kg) or prednisolone (Pred, 10 mg/kg) after 4 h of LPS inoculation. The treatment groups showed ameliorated clinical scores, inflammatory cells, protein levels in the aqueous humor (AqH), and histopathologic evaluation 24 h after LPS inoculation. Furthermore, the treatment groups had reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-6 levels in the AqH. ALA/SFC demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect equivalent to that demonstrated by Pred. These findings indicate that ALA/SFC exerts a therapeutic effect on EIU in rats, indicating its clinical usefulness in uveitis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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18 pages, 7427 KiB  
Article
Putative Wound Healing Induction Functions of Exosomes Isolated from IMMUNEPOTENT CRP
by Paola Leonor García Coronado, Moisés Armides Franco Molina, Diana Ginette Zárate Triviño, Jorge Luis Menchaca Arredondo, Pablo Zapata Benavides and Cristina Rodriguez Padilla
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108971 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Chronic wounds in diabetic patients can take months or years to heal, representing a great cost for the healthcare sector and impacts on patients’ lifestyles. Therefore, new effective treatment alternatives are needed to accelerate the healing process. Exosomes are nanovesicles involved in the [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds in diabetic patients can take months or years to heal, representing a great cost for the healthcare sector and impacts on patients’ lifestyles. Therefore, new effective treatment alternatives are needed to accelerate the healing process. Exosomes are nanovesicles involved in the modulation of signaling pathways that can be produced by any cell and can exert functions similar to the cell of origin. For this reason, IMMUNEPOTENT CRP, which is a bovine spleen leukocyte extract, was analyzed to identify the proteins present and is proposed as a source of exosomes. The exosomes were isolated through ultracentrifugation and shape-size, characterized by atomic force microscopy. The protein content in IMMUNEPOTENT CRP was characterized by EV-trap coupled to liquid chromatography. The in silico analyses for biological pathways, tissue specificity, and transcription factor inducement were performed in GOrilla ontology, Panther ontology, Metascape, and Reactome. It was observed that IMMUNEPOTENT CRP contains diverse peptides. The peptide-containing exosomes had an average size of 60 nm, and exomeres of 30 nm. They had biological activity capable of modulating the wound healing process, through inflammation modulation and the activation of signaling pathways such as PIP3-AKT, as well as other pathways activated by FOXE genes related to specificity in the skin tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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16 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
Potential Anti-Inflammatory and Chondroprotective Effect of Luzula sylvatica
by Juliette Cholet, Caroline Decombat, Laetitia Delort, Maël Gainche, Alexandre Berry, Clémence Ogeron, Isabelle Ripoche, Marjolaine Vareille-Delarbre, Marion Vermerie, Didier Fraisse, Catherine Felgines, Adrien Rossary, Edwige Ranouille, Jean-Yves Berthon, Albert Tourrette, Julien Priam, Etienne Saunier, Yves Troin, François Senejoux, Pierre Chalard and Florence Caldefie-Chézetadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010127 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
(1) Interest in the Juncaceae family has risen as some members have shown anti-inflammatory properties and interesting compounds. In this regard, we decided to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Luzula sylvatica, a Juncaceae not yet extensively studied, in the context [...] Read more.
(1) Interest in the Juncaceae family has risen as some members have shown anti-inflammatory properties and interesting compounds. In this regard, we decided to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Luzula sylvatica, a Juncaceae not yet extensively studied, in the context of osteoarthritis. (2) The Luzula sylvatica Ethanol extract (LS-E) was used to test the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leucocytes, the IL1β and PGE2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the production of EP4, and the activation of NFκB in THP-1, as well as the IL1β-activated normal human knee articular chondrocytes (NHAC-Kn) gene expression, grown in monolayers or maintained in alginate beads. (3) Organic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, quercetin and luteolin, compounds frequently found in this family were identified. The LS-E exhibited inhibited ROS formation. The LS-E did not affect NFκB activation and IL1β secretion but dampened the secretion of PGE2 by PBMCs and the presence of EP4 in THP-1. It also modulated the expression of NHAC-Kn in both models and inhibited the expression of several proteases and inflammatory mediators. (4) Luzula sylvatica might supply interesting antioxidant protection against cartilage damages and lessen joint inflammation, notably by decreasing PGE2 secretion in the synovial fluid. Moreover, it could act directly on chondrocytes by decreasing the expression of proteases and, thus, preventing the degradation of the extracellular matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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Review

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22 pages, 1104 KiB  
Review
The Plethora of Microbes with Anti-Inflammatory Activities
by Flora Tsvetanova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052980 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Inflammation, which has important functions in human defense systems and in maintaining the dynamic homeostasis of the body, has become a major risk factor for the progression of many chronic diseases. Although the applied medical products alleviate the general status, they still exert [...] Read more.
Inflammation, which has important functions in human defense systems and in maintaining the dynamic homeostasis of the body, has become a major risk factor for the progression of many chronic diseases. Although the applied medical products alleviate the general status, they still exert adverse effects in the long term. For this reason, the solution should be sought in more harmless and affordable agents. Microorganisms offer a wide range of active substances with anti-inflammatory properties. They confer important advantages such as their renewable and inexhaustible nature. This review aims to provide the most recent updates on microorganisms of different types and genera, being carriers of anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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17 pages, 1166 KiB  
Review
Acerola (Malpighia emarginata) Anti-Inflammatory Activity—A Review
by Remigiusz Olędzki and Joanna Harasym
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042089 - 8 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The manuscript provides an overview of recent scientific reports on the properties and range of health-promoting effects of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC) fruits and leaves. Acerola is a natural raw material that, in its unprocessed form, is known to be a rich [...] Read more.
The manuscript provides an overview of recent scientific reports on the properties and range of health-promoting effects of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC) fruits and leaves. Acerola is a natural raw material that, in its unprocessed form, is known to be a rich source of vitamin C and polyphenolic compounds. For this reason, the consumption of acerola may provide a number of health-promoting benefits, particularly related to its strong anti-free radical effects. The review discusses anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of acerola fruit and leaves as well as its therapeutic effects on selected physiological processes in the human system. Their biochemical mechanisms are also explained. Recommendations for the consumption of acerola in the prevention of inflammatory and free radical diseases are presented. The part of the article devoted to anticancer effects of acerola describes the possibilities of using the edible parts of this raw material to obtain products and preparations of potential use in cancer prevention and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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19 pages, 2769 KiB  
Review
Enemies or Allies? Hormetic and Apparent Non-Dose-Dependent Effects of Natural Bioactive Antioxidants in the Treatment of Inflammation
by Uxía Barreiro-Sisto, Sandra Fernández-Fariña, Ana M. González-Noya, Rosa Pedrido and Marcelino Maneiro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031892 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1504
Abstract
This review aims to analyze the emerging number of studies on biological media that describe the unexpected effects of different natural bioactive antioxidants. Hormetic effects, with a biphasic response depending on the dose, or activities that are apparently non-dose-dependent, have been described for [...] Read more.
This review aims to analyze the emerging number of studies on biological media that describe the unexpected effects of different natural bioactive antioxidants. Hormetic effects, with a biphasic response depending on the dose, or activities that are apparently non-dose-dependent, have been described for compounds such as resveratrol, curcumin, ferulic acid or linoleic acid, among others. The analysis of the reported studies confirms the incidence of these types of effects, which should be taken into account by researchers, discarding initial interpretations of imprecise methodologies or measurements. The incidence of these types of effects should enhance research into the different mechanisms of action, particularly those studied in the field of basic research, that will help us understand the causes of these unusual behaviors, depending on the dose, such as the inactivation of the signaling pathways of the immune defense system. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in biological media should be addressed in ways that go beyond a mere statistical approach. In this work, some of the research pathways that may explain the understanding of these activities are revised, paying special attention to the ability of the selected bioactive compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, ferulic acid and linoleic acid) to form metal complexes and the activity of these complexes in biological media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Inflammation)
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