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Topical Collection "Children and Adolescents’ Development: New Challenges and New Insights"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Belén Martínez-Ferrer
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Education and Social Psychology, Pablo Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
Interests: peer aggression; peer victimization; aggressive-victims; cyberbullying; cyber-victimization; Social Networking Sites; school adjustment; family environment, risk factors; protective factors; forgiveness, perception of insecurity; victimization; wellbeing; psychosocial adjustment
Dr. Ana Romero-Abrio
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Education and Social Psychology, Pablo Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
Interests: social psychology; adolescents; violence; education
Dr. Celeste León-Moreno
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Research staff member in the Department of Education and Social Psychology, Pablo Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
Interests: cyber/violence; cyber/victimization; group relationships; forgiveness; psychosocial adjustment; adolescence

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Social transformations have contributed to generating new transformations in children and adolescents’ development within the main socialization contexts: family, peers, school, and communities. For instance, the uses of the internet and social networking sites as communication tools have changed how they move quickly from the real world to the virtual world and vice versa. Consequently, maladjustment problems also show this continuity among online and offline scenarios. The growing complexity of our social reality is rapidly revealing new challenges in the lives of children, and all this challenges the influence of family, school, and community contexts. 

On the other hand, these new challenges have become a subject of concern and interest from various fields, such as psychological, educational, social, health, and professional, in general, as well as from the research perspective in school and community contexts, especially during COVID-19, which has become one of the strongest stressors for children and adolescents. For this reason, a growing set of studies focused on children and adolescent new challenges are necessary for healthy development.

This Topical Collection, therefore, aims to provide ideas for psychologists and other professionals that will allow them to respond to the demands of social and educational institutions, in order to promote children and adolescents’ wellbeing.

This Topical Collection is open to high-quality contributions on the study of healthy development, especially those focused on children and adolescents and their socialization contexts. We invite authors to contribute research that addresses the influence of social determinants in adolescent adjustment and adaptation to this new environment.

Prof. Dr. Belén Martínez-Ferrer
Dr. Ana Romero-Abrio
Dr. Celeste León-Moreno
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Emotional adjustment
  • Psychological adjustment
  • Social networking sites
  • Social media
  • Adolescent health
  • Children
  • Adolescence
  • High-Risk behavior
  • Internet risks
  • Adjustment

Published Papers (23 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Factors Influencing Smoking among Multicultural Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811219 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Since an increasing number of multicultural adolescents have started smoking in Korean society, it is necessary to check the smoking status among multicultural adolescents and provide differentiated smoking cessation education and awareness through intervention programs. This study examined the factors that influenced smoking [...] Read more.
Since an increasing number of multicultural adolescents have started smoking in Korean society, it is necessary to check the smoking status among multicultural adolescents and provide differentiated smoking cessation education and awareness through intervention programs. This study examined the factors that influenced smoking among multicultural adolescents and identified interventions. This study was a cross-sectional survey. It used raw data from the 15th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) of 2019. Of the 57,303 participants in the 15th KYRBS, 749 were multicultural adolescents, i.e., their fathers or mothers were not born in Korea. The factors affecting smoking among multicultural adolescents were determined using a composite sample multiple logistic regression analysis. The results of the composite sample multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that 41 (6.4%) participants were smokers, had low academic performance levels, drank alcohol, were sexually active, and were more likely to smoke with other adolescents. They were 15.79 times more likely to smoke while drinking than when not drinking. Educational and psychological interventions are needed to increase multicultural youth school adaptation and academic performance levels, reduce health risk behaviors (drinking and sexually active), and ultimately, lower the smoking rate. Full article
Article
From Self-Doubt to Pride: Understanding the Empowering Effects of Delivering School-Based Wellness Programmes for Emerging Adult Facilitators—A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148421 - 10 Jul 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Ample literature exists on the impact of prevention programmes on their target audience, while much less is known about how delivering such programmes influences their facilitators. Even less literature exists on the emotional and social processes that form this potential impact on facilitators. [...] Read more.
Ample literature exists on the impact of prevention programmes on their target audience, while much less is known about how delivering such programmes influences their facilitators. Even less literature exists on the emotional and social processes that form this potential impact on facilitators. The current study analysed qualitative in-depth, non-structured interviews, as well as written essays provided by 33 student-facilitators who delivered the “Favoring Myself” programme in Israel during 2019–2021. This school-based wellness programme comprised 10 weekly, 90 min sessions on self-care behaviours, media literacy, self-esteem, and positive body image, which are well-known protective factors against risky behaviours. A thematic analysis was applied to explore the main themes in the collected data. An interesting affective transformation from self-doubt to pride in themselves emerged as a shared experience of these young facilitators. Facilitators related their ability to facilitate the programme, as well as to undergo an individual maturation and empowerment experience, to certain components of the programme itself, such as the preparatory course, individual supervision, and the peer-group experience. This shift from doubt to pride is discussed using two frameworks—a theoretical discourse of emerging adulthood as a developmental stage, and the self-determination theory. Full article
Article
Efficacy of a Psycho-Educational and Socio-Emotional Intervention Programme for Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138153 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of a psycho-educational intervention programme. The objective of this programme was to achieve optimisation of self-concept and basic socio-emotional skills for comprehensive development in the adolescent stage. The sample consisted [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of a psycho-educational intervention programme. The objective of this programme was to achieve optimisation of self-concept and basic socio-emotional skills for comprehensive development in the adolescent stage. The sample consisted of 402 students from 19 groups from public secondary schools in the province of Badajoz. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was applied with a control group using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, Self-Concept Form 5, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The analysis showed that the programme was effective in the family and social dimensions of self-concept, while in the other dimensions, the changes were not statistically significant. The results for emotion perception, understanding and regulation show that there were no statistically significant differences in the experimental group, although there were significant differences in the control group. Full article
Article
Examining the Survey Setting Effect on Current E-Cigarette Use Estimates among High School Students in the 2021 National Youth Tobacco Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116468 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
The 2021 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was completed by youth online during class time, either in school or at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the role of NYTS data in tobacco regulatory science, it is vital to understand the effect [...] Read more.
The 2021 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was completed by youth online during class time, either in school or at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the role of NYTS data in tobacco regulatory science, it is vital to understand the effect of survey settings (home, school) on tobacco-use estimates. We used a series of multivariable logistic regressions to examine whether survey settings (home vs. school) predicted current e-cigarette use among high school students, controlling for other known predictors of e-cigarette use as well as the pandemic learning model that was dominant in students’ counties (e.g., nearly all at-home, majority in school). We observed a significant survey setting effect. Those who completed the survey in school had higher odds of current e-cigarette use than those who completed the same survey at home (AOR = 1.74); this effect was attenuated when we controlled for the pandemic learning model (AOR = 1.38). Moreover, e-cigarette use was independently associated with students’ learning model; students whose schools were nearly entirely in-person had the highest odds of e-cigarette use compared to students whose learning model was nearly all at-home (AOR = 1.65). Survey setting is a methodological artifact in the 2021 NYTS. Perceived privacy and peer effects can potentially explain this artifact. Full article
Article
Volunteering among Chinese College Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095154 - 23 Apr 2022
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Volunteering has been found to be not only beneficial to the well-being of recipients but also to the volunteers themselves, particularly from the life course perspective. Although previous studies have identified key factors of volunteering motivation, the literature is less focused on the [...] Read more.
Volunteering has been found to be not only beneficial to the well-being of recipients but also to the volunteers themselves, particularly from the life course perspective. Although previous studies have identified key factors of volunteering motivation, the literature is less focused on the interplay of public interest and private gains in volunteering motivation. This study used 1871 college students across China to examine how the interplay between public interest and private gains affects general and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-specific volunteering during the pandemic. The results show that the interplay of these two factors constitutes a dynamic process, depending on the volunteering and time-specific context. Overall, undergraduate students with greater concern for public interest and less preference in private gains had the highest rate of overall volunteering, followed by students with high concern for both public interest and private gains. It is crucial to take both public interest and private gains into account when discussing volunteering opportunities among Chinese college students, which may increase the well-being of students in the long run. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Delivering School-Based Wellness Programs for Emerging Adult Facilitators—A Quasi-Controlled Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074278 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
A quasi-controlled clinical trial included a university-based supervision course for facilitators of an interactive wellness school-based program. The study aimed to investigate how students that facilitate prevention programs are personally affected by delivering content related to self-esteem, body-image, and media literacy. In total, [...] Read more.
A quasi-controlled clinical trial included a university-based supervision course for facilitators of an interactive wellness school-based program. The study aimed to investigate how students that facilitate prevention programs are personally affected by delivering content related to self-esteem, body-image, and media literacy. In total, 66 university students who were either facilitators of preventive programs (intervention group) or non-facilitators (comparison group) completed questionnaires before, after, and three months following the program’s termination. All methods were performed following the Declaration of Helsinki regulations and Consort 2010 guidelines. Participants in the facilitator group demonstrated statistically significant superiority, with large effect size, regarding improvement in identifying advertisement strategies. Weight-related body-esteem, and the reduced impact of media messages’ pressure also had statistically significant superiority, with small effect size. The number of participants with pathological EAT-26 scores (>20) decreased from 5 to 2 in the facilitator group compared to an increase from 5 to 6 (no statistical significance) in the comparison group. Both groups demonstrated statistically significant decreases in eating disorder perceptions and behaviors from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Delivering a prevention program proved beneficial to facilitators, in addition to the target school pupils, and thus may be considered as part of the prevention programs’ effectiveness assessment. Full article
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Systematic Review
Interventions to Improve Treatment Outcomes among Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy with Unsuppressed Viral Loads: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073940 - 25 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face unique developmental challenges that increase the risk of unsuppressed viral loads. Current reviews present a need for proven interventions to improve viral suppression among ALHIV on ART, who have a history of unsuppressed viral loads. This systematic [...] Read more.
Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face unique developmental challenges that increase the risk of unsuppressed viral loads. Current reviews present a need for proven interventions to improve viral suppression among ALHIV on ART, who have a history of unsuppressed viral loads. This systematic review aims to synthesize and appraise evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to improve treatment outcomes among ALHIV with unsuppressed viral loads. Six bibliographic databases were searched for published studies and gray literature from 2010 to 2021. The risk of bias and certainty of evidence was assessed using the ROBINS-I tool, CASP checklists and GRADE. A total of 28 studies were eligible for full-text screening; and only three were included in the qualitative synthesis. In addition, two studies were included from website searches. Four types of interventions to improve viral suppression were identified, namely: intensive adherence counselling; community- and facility-based peer-led differentiated service delivery (DSD); family based economic empowerment; and conditional economic incentives and motivational interviewing. We strongly recommend peer-led community-based DSD interventions, intensive adherence counselling, and family-based economic empowerment as potential interventions to improve viral suppression among ALHIV. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Gender Stereotypes among Teachers and Trainers Working with Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412964 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Previous scientific literature has not determined the influence exerted by trainers and teachers of adolescents on the development of gender stereotypes in sport. For this reason, the aims of the present research were to establish differences in gender stereotypes in sport among teachers [...] Read more.
Previous scientific literature has not determined the influence exerted by trainers and teachers of adolescents on the development of gender stereotypes in sport. For this reason, the aims of the present research were to establish differences in gender stereotypes in sport among teachers and trainers as a function of profession and sex and to analyze the influence of age and years of experience of male and female trainers and teachers on the gender stereotypes in sport. For this purpose, 127 teachers and trainers completed the questionnaire “gender beliefs and stereotypes towards physical activity and sport”. The results showed a significantly higher score of the teachers in “beliefs about physical activity and gender” (p = 0.048) and of the trainers in “physical education classes and gender” (p = 0.006). Concerning sex, women showed higher scores in “sport and gender” (p = 0.005), and men in “beliefs about physical activity and gender” (p = 0.045). Regarding covariates, age showed significant differences in “sport and gender” (p = 0.029), with female teachers showing higher values with respect to female trainers and male teachers, while years of experience showed differences in “beliefs about sport and gender” (p = 0.044), with male teachers showing higher values than male trainers and female teachers. Full article
Article
Longitudinal Changes in Swiss Adolescent’s Mental Health Outcomes from before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312734 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
This study aimed to explore changes in mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, home, and school stress) from before the first COVID-19 wave (autumn 2019) to the later stages of the same wave (autumn 2020) in a sample of N = 377 Swiss adolescents [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore changes in mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, home, and school stress) from before the first COVID-19 wave (autumn 2019) to the later stages of the same wave (autumn 2020) in a sample of N = 377 Swiss adolescents (Mage = 12.67; 47% female). It also examined whether students’ background characteristics (gender, immigrant status, and socio-economic status) and reported COVID-19 burden predicted students’ outcomes and their intra-individual changes. Student’s mental health, background characteristics, and reported COVID-19 burden were assessed by a self-report questionnaire. The intra-individual changes in students’ scores were estimated using random coefficients regression analyses, with time points nested in individuals. To examine the effects of predictors (students’ background characteristics and the reported COVID-19 burden) on outcome scores and changes, multilevel intercepts-and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used. The results showed that the expected impact of the pandemic on mental health was not noticeable in the later stages of the first COVID-19 wave. Only two effects were demonstrated in terms of intra-individual changes, namely, an effect of gender on depression and anxiety symptoms and an effect of reported COVID-19 burden on school stress symptoms. Moreover, few associations were found for selected predictors and students’ mean level scores, averaged across both time points. Full article
Article
Associations of Emotional Behavior with Nutritional Status and Lifestyle Habits among Schoolchildren Aged 5–10 Years in Sri Lanka
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910332 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 883
Abstract
We aimed to examine the relationships of lifestyle habits and nutritional status with emotional behavior among schoolchildren in Sri Lanka. Five hundred and eight schoolchildren (195 boys and 313 girls) aged 5–10 years were included. Emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the relationships of lifestyle habits and nutritional status with emotional behavior among schoolchildren in Sri Lanka. Five hundred and eight schoolchildren (195 boys and 313 girls) aged 5–10 years were included. Emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Nutritional status was used for body mass index-for-age z-score. Breakfast consumption, daily moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), wake-up time, and bedtime were considered lifestyle habits. The mean total difficulties score ± standard deviation was 12.0 ± 5.3, and the mean prosocial behavior score was 7.4 ± 1.9. In total, 89.2% children ate breakfast, and 41.3% engaged in at least 60 min of MVPA per day. After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that breakfast skipping was associated with high scores on conduct problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50 to 5.77, p < 0.01) and that late bedtime was related to low prosocial behavior scores (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.17 to 5.03, p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that promoting regular lifestyle habits helps reduce psychological difficulties in schoolchildren. However, further research, including longitudinal studies, are required to identify the mechanism underlying this relationship. Full article
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Article
Parenting Styles as a Moderator of the Association between Pubertal Timing and Chinese Adolescents’ Smoking Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 8903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178903 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Background: Pubertal timing refers to the timing of an individual regarding pubertal sexual maturation, both physiologically and psychologically. Existing research shows that pubertal timing is associated with behavioral problems. This study investigated the role of parenting style in the relationship between pubertal timing [...] Read more.
Background: Pubertal timing refers to the timing of an individual regarding pubertal sexual maturation, both physiologically and psychologically. Existing research shows that pubertal timing is associated with behavioral problems. This study investigated the role of parenting style in the relationship between pubertal timing and Chinese adolescents’ smoking behavior. Methods: The study examined the association of pubertal timing, parenting style and adolescents’ smoking behavior, using the Pubertal Development Scale (Chinese version), Simplified Parenting Style Scale-Chinese version, and three items related to adolescents’ smoking situation. Participants were 1391 Chinese adolescents aged 11–16 years old (53.41% boys). Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed the moderating role of parenting style on the association between pubertal timing and adolescent smoking behavior. Results: The results indicated that parenting style moderates the relationship between pubertal timing and adolescent smoking behavior. For male adolescents, father rejection moderated the relationship between early pubertal timing and smoking behavior. For female adolescents, father rejection, father emotional warmth, and mother emotional warmth moderated the relationship between pubertal timing and smoking behavior. Conclusions: Findings from the study highlight the importance of parenting style, which may influence the negative outcomes associated with early pubertal timing and can help improve interventions aimed at reducing these negative outcomes. Full article
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Article
Flourishing of Rural Adolescents in China: A Moderated Mediation Model of Social Capital and Intrinsic Motivation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158158 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
Flourishing, an indicator which reflects one’s emotional status and ability to function, is an important antecedent for adolescents’ later psychological and physical development. This study aimed to shift the research focus on rural adolescents from a deficit-based orientation to a strength-based orientation by [...] Read more.
Flourishing, an indicator which reflects one’s emotional status and ability to function, is an important antecedent for adolescents’ later psychological and physical development. This study aimed to shift the research focus on rural adolescents from a deficit-based orientation to a strength-based orientation by integrating the effects of individual and social factors. Altogether, 995 Chinese rural adolescents (569 boys and 426 girls, Mage = 12.56 years) completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Ego Identity Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Scale, Social Capital Scale and Flourishing Scale. The results indicate that: (1) ego identity exploration has a positive effect on rural adolescents’ flourishing; (2) intrinsic motivation has an indirect effect on the relationship between ego identity exploration and flourishing; and (3) social capital may moderate the indirect effect by attenuating the relationship between ego identity exploration and intrinsic motivation. The findings highlight the importance of constructing a more comprehensive framework by integrating individual and social perspectives to understand and foster the flourishing of rural adolescents. Meanwhile, it is necessary to incorporate the strengths of family, school and social organizations in order to enhance rural adolescents’ flourishing. Full article
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Article
Adolescents’ Social Media Use and Their Voluntary Garbage Sorting Intention: A Sequential Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158119 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Encouraging adolescents to sort garbage is vital for the sustainable development of the ecological environment. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents’ social media use and their garbage sorting intention. A survey, in both online and paper-based versions, was distributed in 2020 in [...] Read more.
Encouraging adolescents to sort garbage is vital for the sustainable development of the ecological environment. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents’ social media use and their garbage sorting intention. A survey, in both online and paper-based versions, was distributed in 2020 in Shanghai and a total number of 605 valid responses were obtained. This study supports the proposed sequential mediation model, indicating that adolescents’ social media use increased their garbage sorting intention via the serial mediation effect of objective and subjective knowledge and the perceived importance of garbage sorting. The current study and its findings provide important insights into the link between adolescents’ social media use and their garbage sorting intention, particularly its underlying mechanism, by distinguishing knowledge into two specific types and introducing perceived importance into the conceptual model. Practical implications for improving adolescents’ intention to sort garbage are also discussed. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Organised Sport, Physical Education and Active Commuting on Physical Activity in a Sample of New Zealand Adolescent Females
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158077 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Background: The majority of adolescents do less physical activity than is recommended by the World Health Organization. Active commuting and participation in organised sport and/or physical education individually have been shown to increase physical activity in adolescents. However, how these domains impact physical [...] Read more.
Background: The majority of adolescents do less physical activity than is recommended by the World Health Organization. Active commuting and participation in organised sport and/or physical education individually have been shown to increase physical activity in adolescents. However, how these domains impact physical activity both individually and in combination has yet to be investigated in a sample of New Zealand female adolescents from around the country. Methods: Adolescent females aged 15–18 y (n = 111) were recruited from 13 schools across eight locations throughout New Zealand to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed questions about active commuting, and participation in organised sport and physical education, before wearing an Actigraph GT3X (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) +24 h a day for seven consecutive days to determine time spent in total, MVPA and light physical activity. Results: Active commuters accumulated 17 min/d (95% CI 8 to 26 min/d) more MVPA compared to those who did not. Those who participated in sport accumulated 45 min/d (95% CI 20 to 71 min/d) more light physical activity and 14 min/d (95% CI 5 to 23 min/d) more MVPA compared to those who did not. Participation in physical education did not seem to have a large impact on any component of physical activity. Participation in multiple domains of activity, e.g., active commuting and organised sport, was associated with higher accumulation of MVPA but not light activity. Conclusion Active commuting and sport both contribute a meaningful amount of daily MVPA. Sport participation has the potential to increase overall activity and displace sedentary behaviour. A combination of physical activity domains may be an important consideration when targeting ways to increase physical activity in adolescent females. Full article
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Article
Using a 24 h Activity Recall (STAR-24) to Describe Activity in Adolescent Boys in New Zealand: Comparisons between a Sample Collected before, and a Sample Collected during the COVID-19 Lockdown
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158035 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Background: Tools that assess all three components of 24 h movement guidelines (sleep, physical activity, and screen use) are scarce. Our objective was to use a newly developed Screen Time and Activity Recall (STAR-24) to demonstrate how this tool could be used to [...] Read more.
Background: Tools that assess all three components of 24 h movement guidelines (sleep, physical activity, and screen use) are scarce. Our objective was to use a newly developed Screen Time and Activity Recall (STAR-24) to demonstrate how this tool could be used to illustrate differences in time-use across the day between two independent samples of male adolescents collected before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: Adolescent boys aged 15–18 years (n = 109) each completed the STAR-24 twice, n = 74 before lockdown and n = 35 during lockdown. Results: During lockdown more than 50% of the sample reported gaming between 10 a.m. and 12 noon, transport was not reported as an activity, and activities of daily living spiked at mealtimes. Gaming and screen time were more prevalent in weekends than weekdays, with the highest prevalence of weekday screen use (before lockdown) occurring between 8 and 9 p.m. Differences in estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity prior to and during lockdown (mean difference (95% CI); 21 (−9 to 51) min) and sleep (0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2) h) were small. Total and recreational screen time were higher during lockdown (2 h (0.7 to 3.3 h) and 48 min (−36 to 132 min), respectively). Conclusions: The STAR-24 holds promise as a single tool that assesses compliance with 24 h movement guidelines. This tool also allows clear illustration of how adolescent boys are using their time (instead of only providing summary measures), providing richer data to inform public health initiatives. Full article
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Article
Analyses of Child and Youth Self-Poisoning Hospitalizations by Substance and Socioeconomic Status
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137003 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Child and youth self-poisoning is a growing public health issue in many regions of the world, including British Columbia (BC), Canada, where 15–19-year-olds have the highest rates of self-poisoning hospitalizations compared with those of all other ages. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
Child and youth self-poisoning is a growing public health issue in many regions of the world, including British Columbia (BC), Canada, where 15–19-year-olds have the highest rates of self-poisoning hospitalizations compared with those of all other ages. The purpose of this study was to identify what substances children and youth commonly used to poison themselves in BC and how socioeconomic status may impact self-poisoning risk. Self-poisoning hospitalization rates among 10–14 and 15–19-year-olds from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2020 were calculated by substance using ICD-10-CA codes X60-X69 and T36-T65, as well as by socioeconomic status using the Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec’s Deprivation Index. Nonopioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics were the most common substances involved, with rates of 27.6 and 74.3 per 100,000 population among 10–14 and 15–19-year-olds, respectively, followed by antiepileptic, sedative–hypnotic, antiparkinsonism, and psychotropic drugs, with rates of 20.2 and 68.1 per 100,000 population among 10–14 and 15–19-year-olds, respectively. In terms of socioeconomic status, rates were highest among 10–19-year-olds living in neighbourhoods with the fewest social connections (243.7 per 100,000 population). These findings can inform poisoning prevention strategies and relevant policies, thereby reducing the number of self-poisoning events among children and youth. Full article
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Article
Increased Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Higher Efficacy Beliefs Are Associated with Better Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of High School Adolescents in Lebanon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136928 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
This longitudinal study aims to examine how changes in health behaviors and socio-cognitive factors influence the academic achievement of Lebanese adolescents over a period of 12 months. Adolescents (n = 563) from private and public schools in Mount Lebanon and the Beirut [...] Read more.
This longitudinal study aims to examine how changes in health behaviors and socio-cognitive factors influence the academic achievement of Lebanese adolescents over a period of 12 months. Adolescents (n = 563) from private and public schools in Mount Lebanon and the Beirut area, aged between 15 and 18, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study and completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health behaviors, socio-cognitive factors, parenting styles, and academic achievement. A linear mixed model was carried out to examine if changes in health behaviors and cognitive factors affect changes in academic achievement after 6 and 12 months from the baseline, adjusting for demographic variables and parenting style. Results show that improved adherence to the Mediterranean diet and an increase in self-efficacy were associated with an increase in academic achievement. An increase in adherence to the Mediterranean diet had the same effect on academic achievement 6 and 12 months from the baseline, whereas an increase in efficacy beliefs was only significantly associated with achievement at 12 months from the baseline. This study supports the longitudinal link between diet quality and efficacy beliefs with the academic achievement of adolescents. This relationship is independent of sex, age, religion, parents’ education, and raising styles. Full article
Article
Closeness to Parents and Experiencing Threats with COVID-19 Mediates the Link between Personality and Stress among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126358 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Purpose: many researchers have already established that the 2019 COVID-19 pandemic poses a threat to adolescent psychological health. Studies on the COVID-19 pandemic mainly focus on individual psychological consequences, such as anxiety, depression or stress. The presented study added a family context to [...] Read more.
Purpose: many researchers have already established that the 2019 COVID-19 pandemic poses a threat to adolescent psychological health. Studies on the COVID-19 pandemic mainly focus on individual psychological consequences, such as anxiety, depression or stress. The presented study added a family context to psychological analyses of the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescence. We examined the mediational effects of closeness to parents and perceived pandemic-related threats to relationships between personality (emotional stability and agreeableness) and stress in adolescents. Methods: in total, 413 students from secondary schools in southern Poland completed questionnaires measuring stress, personality, closeness to parents and experiencing threats with COVID-19. Results: the results demonstrated that closeness with parents in conjunction with experiencing family-related threats and threats related to lifestyle changes were mediators between adolescent personality traits and the intensity of the stress experienced. Conclusions: closeness with parents and threats experienced with COVID-19 mediate relationships between personality traits (emotional stability and agreeableness) and the intensification of stress in adolescents. Full article
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Psychometric Properties of the Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles Scale in Chilean Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126229 - 09 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Parenting style has been related to a series of positive outcomes that extend into adulthood. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the maternal and paternal parenting styles scale (PSS-MP) in a sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional design [...] Read more.
Parenting style has been related to a series of positive outcomes that extend into adulthood. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the maternal and paternal parenting styles scale (PSS-MP) in a sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional design was used, with a probability sample of 2683 adolescents (48.8% women) from 32 public, private, and subsidized schools in Chile. In total, four confirmatory factor models were contrasted, which was the best fit to support the originally proposed six-correlated factor structure. The factor invariance analysis reflected that the metric equivalence according to sex is present at the level of scale invariance. It is concluded that the abbreviated version of the PSS-MP provides sufficient evidence for use in the Chilean adolescent population. Full article
Article
Social and Behavioral Correlates of Adolescent Sexual Experience and Intention to Use Condoms in Northwestern Botswana
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115583 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Adolescent sexual behavior is shaped by individual, social, and structural factors that can increase HIV-risk, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. To inform the development of a comprehensive sexuality education program, 239 secondary school adolescents ages 14–19 in Maun, Botswana, completed a survey [...] Read more.
Adolescent sexual behavior is shaped by individual, social, and structural factors that can increase HIV-risk, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. To inform the development of a comprehensive sexuality education program, 239 secondary school adolescents ages 14–19 in Maun, Botswana, completed a survey of sexual and reproductive health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in February–March 2020. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined factors associated with sexual experience and perceived ability to insist on condoms. Approximately 21% of respondents reported having had sexual intercourse. More than half felt able to insist on condoms. Sources of information about human reproduction, alcohol use, attitudes about when sex is acceptable, and perceived sexual activity by one’s peers were predictive of sexual experience. Age, confidence in correct condom use, perceived acceptability of adolescent sex with condoms, and endorsement of prevailing gender norms were significantly associated with perceived ability to insist on condom use. Full article
Article
Associations between Parent–Child Communication on Sexual Health and Drug Use and Use of Drugs during Sex among Urban Black Youth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105170 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Black youth and their families living in urban settings may experience unique stressors that contribute to underlying issues due to the environmental context. Such factors may exacerbate and promote drug use and engagement in risky sexual behaviors, unknowingly. Little is known about how [...] Read more.
Black youth and their families living in urban settings may experience unique stressors that contribute to underlying issues due to the environmental context. Such factors may exacerbate and promote drug use and engagement in risky sexual behaviors, unknowingly. Little is known about how family factors, peer pressure, condom use, and other related factors are associated with substance use and engaging in sexual behaviors while on drugs among urban African American youth aged 12–22 (N = 638). We used regression models to examine associations between parental bonding, parent–adolescent sexual health communication, condom use, peer pressure on substance use, and having sex while on drugs. Multivariate results indicated that parental bonding was statistically significant and associated with drug use (OR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.36). Our study highlights that parental bonding plays a critical role in youth using drugs while living in urban environments. Full article
Article
Twenty-Four-Year Trends in Family and Regional Disparities in Fruit, Vegetable and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Adolescents in Belgium
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094408 - 21 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Dietary habits are influenced by various determinants that may evolve over time. This study aimed to examine, among adolescents in Belgium, trends in the dietary habits between 1990 and 2014 and to determine changes in family and regional disparities related to diet during [...] Read more.
Dietary habits are influenced by various determinants that may evolve over time. This study aimed to examine, among adolescents in Belgium, trends in the dietary habits between 1990 and 2014 and to determine changes in family and regional disparities related to diet during this time period. In the 1990, 2002 and 2014 cross-sectional “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children” (HBSC) surveys, food consumption was estimated using a short Food Frequency Questionnaire. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) enabled quantification of the gradients of inequality related to the family structure and to the region for non-daily fruit and vegetable and daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Between 1990 and 2014, the prevalence of non-daily fruit consumption increased from 27.7% to 60.6%, whereas the daily SSB consumption decreased from 58.9% to 34.8%. Over time, a downward trend in family disparities (p = 0.007) was observed for daily fruit consumption (RII: 1.58 (1.33–1.88) to 1.18 (1.13–1.23)). An upward trend in region-related disparities (p < 0.001) for SSB was found (RII: 1.15 (1.07–1.23) to 1.37 (1.28–1.47)). The overall trend of increasing disparities when dietary habits improved and decreasing disparities when dietary habits worsened highlights the need to implement actions that improve overall dietary habits while ensuring that disparities do not increase. Full article
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Article
Palestinian Refugee Youth in Jordan: Parental Practices, Neighborhood Cohesion and Assistance, and Adolescent Wellbeing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073649 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
In this study, a total of 335 Palestinian refugees (M = 15.5 years, SD = 1.05, 49% males), recruited from four United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA) schools at the Al-Baqa’a and Jabal Al-Hussein refugee camps in Jordan, rated their neighborhood [...] Read more.
In this study, a total of 335 Palestinian refugees (M = 15.5 years, SD = 1.05, 49% males), recruited from four United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA) schools at the Al-Baqa’a and Jabal Al-Hussein refugee camps in Jordan, rated their neighborhood physical environment and neighborhood support and cohesion, separately rated their mothers’ and fathers’ parenting on several dimensions, and reported on their adjustment to these circumstances (internalizing symptoms, self-concept clarity, and norm breaking). Living in more dangerous physical environments was associated with higher levels of refugee youths’ internalizing symptoms and norm breaking, but effects were not significant when parenting was considered. Our study showed that higher levels of psychological control–disrespect (significantly for fathers and marginally for mothers) and marginally, higher levels of maternal harsh punishment were associated with more teen internalizing symptoms. In addition, fathers’ greater psychological control and lower levels of support had a marginally significant effect on teens’ greater norm breaking. For behavioral control, only mothers’ greater behavioral control was associated with refugee youths’ greater self-concept clarity but not with paternal behavioral control. Thus, fathers’ psychological control and mothers’ behavioral control had the biggest association with adolescent outcomes. Full article
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