Special Issue "Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Women's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Alessandra Casuccio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties “G. D’Alessandro” – Hygiene section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: public health; preventive medicine; communicable disease prevention; health promotion; palliative care epidemiology; health determinants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Vincenzo Restivo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties “G. D’Alessandro” – Hygiene section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: Non-communicable disease; Vaccine safety; Screening; Epidemiology; HPV; MPRV, Gynecological cancer; Health Belief Model
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Claudio Costantino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties “G. D’Alessandro” – Hygiene section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: Vaccination strategies; Health communication; Counselling; Smoking habit; Nutrition; Food Hygiene; Influenza
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In addition to diseases shared by both sexes, there are a number of illnesses and injuries that are primarily associated with women. These health problems are less likely to be detected and treated because of the narrow framework used in considering health care for women that results from the lack of awareness of both the recipients and providers regarding the extent of women's health care needs and their requirements for comprehensive care. Worldwide, women are either not aware of such health care needs; they are aware but tend to ignore these needs because of their demanding role responsibilities, workload, and other caregiving activities; or they have been prevented from seeking health care and from maintaining their health by limited resources and structural constraints. Among the preventive strategies adopted to counteract cervical cancer the only available instrument are vaccination and screening, and only a little percentage of socially deprived women adhere to these preventive practices. Furthermore, the exclusive breastfeeding is a major topic to give short and long time benefit on the health of children and several attitude by healthcare workers and mothers can have a particular role on breastfeeding attitude. Innovative surgical technique and drugs can have a higher impact to reduce women burden of disease. Only a little core of women are familiar with results of such intervention and their adoption among women with different deprivation level can have a great impact on women’s health. Communication strategies should be also a therapeutic instruments for hard to reach women and their effectiveness should be evaluated.

This Special Issue seeks research papers on various aspects of women’s health such as breastfeeding, HPV and gynecologic diseases. Especially we encourage the submission of interdisciplinary work and multi-country collaborative research. We welcome original research papers using different study designs as well as systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

Prof. Alessandra Casuccio
Dr. Vincenzo Restivo
Dr. Claudio Costantino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Women health
  • Health Promotion
  • HPV
  • Breastfeeding
  • Screening
  • Reproductive health
  • Social economic deprivation
  • Gynecology and Obstetrics

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Work Hours and Difficulty in Leaving Work on Time in Relation to Work-to-Family Conflict and Burnout Among Female Workers in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020605 (registering DOI) - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
The present study explores the relations between work hours and the difficulty in leaving work on time to both work-to-family conflict (WFC) and burnout among female workers in Taiwan. A cross-sectional research design and questionnaire were employed to obtain the research data. In [...] Read more.
The present study explores the relations between work hours and the difficulty in leaving work on time to both work-to-family conflict (WFC) and burnout among female workers in Taiwan. A cross-sectional research design and questionnaire were employed to obtain the research data. In total, 738 full-time female workers took part in the study. The results of regression analyses showed that when age, marital status, economic status, occupation, parental status, and housework responsibilities were controlled, more work hours were positively associated with WFC and burnout. When the difficulty in leaving work on time was also considered in the analysis, long working hours were still significantly associated with burnout; however, the significant relation with WFC disappeared. It is surmised that if female employees work overtime voluntarily, the perception of WFC diminishes; nevertheless, the adverse effect of long working hours on health remains unabated. This study concludes that female employees who work overtime on a voluntary basis are at risk of health problems, which should be a focus of concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Study on the Utilization of Inpatient Services for Middle-Aged and Elderly Rural Females in Less Developed Regions of China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020514 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study is to understand the utilization of inpatient services and its contributing factors among middle-aged and elderly females (MAEF) in less developed rural regions. Five surveys were conducted between 2006 and 2014 with rural residents of Jiangxi by stratified [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to understand the utilization of inpatient services and its contributing factors among middle-aged and elderly females (MAEF) in less developed rural regions. Five surveys were conducted between 2006 and 2014 with rural residents of Jiangxi by stratified cluster random sampling. Participant females included only those who were aged 45 and above. Complex sampling logistics analysis was performed to analyze the effect of three factors on inpatient service. Complex sampling logistics regression analysis revealed that the probability of hospitalization for the divorced or widowed females was significantly lower than that of married ones (aOR = 0.177, p < 0.05). However, the probability of early discharge was significantly higher among divorced or widowed females than married ones (aOR = 3.237, p < 0.05). In addition, females with chronic diseases were more likely to be hospitalized (aOR = 3.682, p < 0.05). Also, early discharge (aOR = 7.689, p < 0.05) occurred among the participants who should be hospitalized but were not hospitalized occurred (aOR = 3.258, p < 0.05). The continuous improvement of the new rural cooperative medical policy has promoted the utilization of inpatient services for the MAEF. Findings from this study emphasize the need to strengthen the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Night Eating with Depression and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234831 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
This study examined the associations of night eating with depression and depressive symptoms in Korean adults. The study used a nationally representative sample of 31,690 Korean adults (≥19 years old) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2013. [...] Read more.
This study examined the associations of night eating with depression and depressive symptoms in Korean adults. The study used a nationally representative sample of 31,690 Korean adults (≥19 years old) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2013. The participants were divided into two groups based on status of night eating: night eaters (consuming ≥25% of total daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00) and non-night eaters. Depression was defined based on diagnosis by a doctor, whereas depressive symptoms were defined as feelings of sadness or desperation for more than two weeks in the last one year. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between night eating and odds of depression and depressive symptoms after controlling for age, education, income, marital status, drinking, smoking, day of recalled intake, physical activity, body mass index, menopausal status (women only), total energy intake, and sleep duration. A total of 14.3% of Korean adults were night eaters. Night eaters were more likely to be men, young, less educated, single, drinkers, current smokers, and not employed (all ps < 0.05). In women, night eaters had higher odds of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.75; p for trend = 0.0389) and depressive symptoms (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01–1.41; p for trend = 0.0382) compared with non-night eaters. However, no associations of night eating with depression and depressive symptoms were found in men. Night eaters had higher odds of depression and depressive symptoms only in Korean women. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying psychological and behavioral mechanisms that in turn may shed light on the factors influencing both night eating and odds of depression and depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Domestic Violence During Pregnancy in Greece
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214222 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
There are no data about the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy in Greece. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of domestic violence in a representative population of pregnant women in Greece. Five hundred and [...] Read more.
There are no data about the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy in Greece. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of domestic violence in a representative population of pregnant women in Greece. Five hundred and forty-six consecutive women, in outpatient clinics of two Public General Regional Hospitals in Athens, agreed to answer anonymously the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) questionnaire, translated into the Greek language. Five hundred and forty-six questionnaires were returned (100% response rate), revealing that the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy is 6%, with 3.4% of the sample having being abused since the beginning of pregnancy, mainly by their husband/partner. The factors associated with higher risk of abuse during pregnancy were nationality, socio-economic background, and educational level. Foreign women or women with a foreign partner, unemployed individuals, housewives, and university students faced a higher risk of being abused. A substantial age difference (≥10 years) in the couple, a history of abortions, and an undesired pregnancy also increased the risk of violence in pregnancy. These findings suggest that prenatal care is an important period for discussing abuse and, in the end, encouraging women to seek help. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bespoke Social Network for Deaf Women in Ecuador to Access Information on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203962 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
Many deaf women face the lack of numerous resources related to their personal development. The unavailability of proper information on Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), in particular, causes problems of sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy in adolescence, sexual violence, complications during pregnancy, etc. [...] Read more.
Many deaf women face the lack of numerous resources related to their personal development. The unavailability of proper information on Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), in particular, causes problems of sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy in adolescence, sexual violence, complications during pregnancy, etc. In response to this, we have created a social network that delivers SRH content (verified and validated by experts) to women with different degrees of hearing loss. The site features a recommender system that selects the most relevant pieces of content to deliver to each woman, driven by her individual preferences, needs and levels of knowledge on the different subjects. We report experiments conducted in Cuenca, Ecuador, between 2017 and 2018 with 98 volunteers from low- and middle-income settings, aiming to evaluate the quality and appeal of the contents, the coherence of the methodology followed to create them, and the effectiveness of the content recommendations. The positive results encourage the frequent creation of new content and the refinement of the recommendation logic as the cohort of users expands over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Living with Urinary Incontinence: Potential Risks of Women’s Health? A Qualitative Study on the Perspectives of Female Patients Seeking Care for the First Time in a Specialized Center
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193781 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) represents a complex problem which commonly affects women and influences their physical, mental, and social wellbeing. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of a group of women with urinary incontinence. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study. [...] Read more.
Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) represents a complex problem which commonly affects women and influences their physical, mental, and social wellbeing. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of a group of women with urinary incontinence. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study. Purposeful sampling was used. Recruited patients were females aged >18 years old with positive symptoms, signs of urinary incontinence, and attending a specialized urinary incontinence center for the first time. We collected data using interviews and participants’ personal letters. A thematic analysis was performed. Results: 18 women participated with a mean age of 47.32 years. Four themes emerged: (a) Experiencing uncontrolled urinary leakage, (b) Information based on beliefs and myths regarding UI, (c) Adapting to change and developing strategies, (d) The role of education. Women’s experiences were accompanied by feelings of stress and shame. A lack of information regarding UI was found, together with numerous misconceptions. Urinary incontinence triggers many changes in women. Some women may develop feelings of rejection towards their own body. Family involvement during these times is essential for education and promoting healthy sexual practices. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of developing educational programs that focus on women’s information and education regarding triggering factors and coping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Association of the Individual and Context Inequalities on the Breastfeeding: A Study from the Sicily Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193514 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
Despite the advantages of breastfeeding being widely recognized, the economic level can have an influence on breastfeeding rates, with rich women breastfeeding longer than poor in high-income countries. In Italy, socio-economic differences affect breastfeeding start and continuation among most deprived people, such as [...] Read more.
Despite the advantages of breastfeeding being widely recognized, the economic level can have an influence on breastfeeding rates, with rich women breastfeeding longer than poor in high-income countries. In Italy, socio-economic differences affect breastfeeding start and continuation among most deprived people, such as in Southern Italy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the initiation and continuation of exclusive breastfeeding and its association with the levels of socio-economic deprivation in Sicily. A prospective cohort study with a two-phase survey in three breastfeeding detection times was conducted. Overall, 1,055 mothers were recruited with a mean age of 31 years. Breastfeeding decreased from 86% during hospitalization to 69% at the first month and 42% at the sixth month, yet at the same time, exclusive breastfeeding increased from 34% to 38% during hospitalization to the first month and went down to 20.2% at the sixth month. The adjusted multivariate analysis showed no association with individual inequalities. On the other hand, the context inequalities had a significant association with the risk of not following exclusive breastfeeding in the deprived class (odds ratio (OR): 2.08, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.01–4.27) and in the very deprived class (OR: 1.83, CI 95% 1.00–3.38) at the six-month survey. These results indicate that the context inequalities begin to emerge from the return home of the mother and the child. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Hospitalization Services Utilization Between Permanent and Migrant Females in Underdeveloped Rural Regions and Contributing Factors—A Five-Time Data Collection and Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183419 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The proportion of migrating females has increased, and more often, old females are left in rural regions. Resources are needed to provide suitable hospitalization service to females in underdeveloped rural regions. Using multi-stage hierarchical cluster random sampling method, nine towns from three counties [...] Read more.
The proportion of migrating females has increased, and more often, old females are left in rural regions. Resources are needed to provide suitable hospitalization service to females in underdeveloped rural regions. Using multi-stage hierarchical cluster random sampling method, nine towns from three counties were enrolled in five-time points between 2006 and 2014 in this study. The research subjects of this study were females age 15 and up. Data regarding the utilization of inpatient services were collected and analyzed. Complex sampling logistic regression was conducted to analyze influencing factors. This study reveals that for both permanent females and migrant females, the older their age, the higher their hospitalization rate. The utilization of hospitalization service for permanent females was associated with the occurrence of chronic diseases (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 5.402). In addition, permanent females suffering from chronic diseases were more likely to avoid hospitalization despite their doctor’s advice (aOR = 34.657) or leave the hospital early against medical advice (AMA) (aOR = 10.009). Interventions to combat chronic diseases and adjust compensation schemes for permanent females need to be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Determinants of Maternal Health-Related Quality of Life after Childbirth: The Generation R Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183231 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
Having good health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is essential, particularly for women after childbirth. However, little is known about its determinants. We aimed to identify the determinants of HRQoL after childbirth in a large community sample in the Netherlands. We have included 4312 [...] Read more.
Having good health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is essential, particularly for women after childbirth. However, little is known about its determinants. We aimed to identify the determinants of HRQoL after childbirth in a large community sample in the Netherlands. We have included 4312 women in the present study. HRQOL was assessed by a 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12) at around two months after childbirth; Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were calculated. Information on 27 potential determinants of HRQoL was collected through questionnaires and medical records. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to assess significant determinants of physical and mental HRQoL. Our study showed that older maternal age, shorter time since childbirth, elective/emergency cesarean delivery, loss of energy, maternal psychopathology, and the hospital admission of the infant were significantly associated with worse physical HRQoL (p < 0.05); older maternal age, non-western background, low household income, loss of energy, and maternal psychopathology were significantly associated with worse mental HRQoL (p < 0.05). We identified multiple determinants of suboptimal physical and mental HRQoL after childbirth. In particular, maternal psychopathology after childbirth was profoundly associated with mental HRQoL. These women may need support. We therefore call for awareness among health care professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Body Changes and Decreased Sexual Drive after Dialysis: A Qualitative Study on the Experiences of Women at an Ambulatory Dialysis Unit in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173086 - 25 Aug 2019
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has considerable effects on the quality of life of patients, impairing everyday activities and leading to lifestyle changes, as well as affecting body image and intimate relationships. Our aim was to describe the experience of female patients with CKD [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has considerable effects on the quality of life of patients, impairing everyday activities and leading to lifestyle changes, as well as affecting body image and intimate relationships. Our aim was to describe the experience of female patients with CKD at an ambulatory dialysis unit regarding body changes and sexuality. A qualitative phenomenological study exploring how 18 female patients, treated at the dialysis unit of a Spanish hospital, perceived their sexuality and intimate relationships. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, researcher field notes, and patients’ personal letters. A thematic analysis was performed. Four main themes arose from the data describing the experience of how CKD impacts body changes and sexuality: (a) Accepting body changes, (b) The catheter, the fistula, and body image, (c) Experiencing a different sexuality, and (d) The catheter, the fistula, and sexuality. Patients experienced changes in their body, perceiving it as being bloated or deformed, together with overall decline. The catheter and/or the fistula triggered changes in the way the women dress in an attempt to hide port sites. Women experience sexuality changes, affecting sexual desire and satisfaction. The presence of catheters was found to be the most cumbersome during sexual acts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: Effects on Pregnancy Planning and Childbirth among South Korean Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152672 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between gender discrimination in the workplace and pregnancy planning/childbirth experiences among working women in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed data from the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families (KLoWF) for the years [...] Read more.
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between gender discrimination in the workplace and pregnancy planning/childbirth experiences among working women in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed data from the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families (KLoWF) for the years 2007 to 2016. The study population consisted of 7996 working women, between the ages of 19 and 45. Gender discrimination was measured through the 6-item Workplace Gender Discrimination Scale, evaluating discrimination in terms of recruitment, promotions, pay, deployment, training and lay-offs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to measure the association between gender discrimination and the pregnancy planning/childbirth experience. Results: Compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing low [odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61–0.99] or medium (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54–0.89) levels of discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning. Likewise, individuals scoring low (OR: 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.92), medium (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51–0.92), or high (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27–0.80) levels of discrimination also had decreased odds of childbirth experience when compared to the no-experience group. When stratified by income, compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing gender discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning for low income (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45–0.92; medium OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.52–0.97; high OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24–0.87), medium income (medium OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37–0.77; high OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14–0.63), and high income groups (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49–0.84; medium OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52–0.92). Conclusions: The present study finds that gender discrimination in the workplace is associated with decreased odds of pregnancy planning/childbirth experience among working South Korean women. Furthermore, low and medium income groups were especially more likely to be affected by the level of gender discrimination in the workplace when planning pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Postmenopausal Women Subjected to an Aqua Fitness Training Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142505 - 13 Jul 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of aqua fitness training in deep water on bone tissue. The study was performed with 18 postmenopausal women separated into two groups: training and control groups. Before and after the training program, the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of aqua fitness training in deep water on bone tissue. The study was performed with 18 postmenopausal women separated into two groups: training and control groups. Before and after the training program, the hip and spine areal bone mineral density were measured along with the biochemical parameters of serum concentration of osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). The most significant effect was found in differences between the two groups of women in terms of femur strength index (p < 0.05) during the period of the training program. The study demonstrated that an aqua fitness training program caused favorable changes in femur strength index in postmenopausal women, and this kind of exercise could be a useful form of physical activity for postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Pregnancy with Heart Disease: Maternal Outcomes and Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122075 - 12 Jun 2019
Abstract
Caring for children and mothers suffering from cardiac disease is highly challenging, with issues including late diagnosis as well as inadequate infrastructure and supply of drugs. We aimed to evaluate maternal outcomes among pregnant women suffering from heart disease with a live birth, [...] Read more.
Caring for children and mothers suffering from cardiac disease is highly challenging, with issues including late diagnosis as well as inadequate infrastructure and supply of drugs. We aimed to evaluate maternal outcomes among pregnant women suffering from heart disease with a live birth, and explored the risk factors for fetal growth restriction among these patients. A retrospective study was performed at the National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Hanoi, Vietnam) over a 3-year period from 2014 to 2016. A total of 284 patients were enrolled in the study. Overall, most women were aged below 35 years and were diagnosed with heart disease before pregnancy. Of the women experiencing rheumatic heart disease, the prevalence of mitral valve regurgitation was the highest (40.14%), while the figure for aortic valve regurgitation was the lowest (4.23%). Of women with congenital heart defects, the most common defects were ventricular septal defect (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD) (19.37% and 16.55%, respectively), while 5.28% of mothers were diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and 1.76% with patent ductus arteriosus. Noted clinical presentations of the patients included palpitation (63.38%), breathlessness (23.59%), leg edema (8.45%), and chest pain (8.1%). The common complications in the study population included 16.90% of women having heart failure and 19.37% having arrhythmias. The incidence of fetal growth restriction was 9.15%. Hypertension (odds ratio (OR): 59.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1–392.17), the heart disease types (ASD (OR: 4.27, 95% CI: 1.19–15.29) and tetralogy of Fallot (OR: 6.82, 95% CI: 1.21–38.55)), and the complications (heart failure (OR: 10.34, 95% CI: 2.75–38.87) and pulmonary edema (OR: 107.16, 95% CI: 4.96–2313.93)) were observed as risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. This study provides a cornerstone to promote further studies and to motivate people to apply evidence-based medical care for mothers with diagnosed cardiac disease in the antenatal and postnatal periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Gender Gap in Self-Rated Health: A Generational Perspective
Authors: Marta Gil Lacruz [email protected]; Ana Isabel Gil-Lacruz [email protected]; Isabel Aguilar-Palacio [email protected]
Abstract: Self-rated health is an important indicator of people´s health status and differences by gender has been widely described. Analyzing gender gap differences from a generational perspective will allow us to explore health diversity from a multidisciplinary approach with policy implications. We used data drawn from the European Health Interview Survey for 14 European Countries and EUROSTAT from 2006 through 2009. We analyzed gender gap differences in self-rated health by generation and its related factors. We conducted multilevel analyses to understand individual and national health determinants of self-rated health by gender and if national differences remain after controlling from micro variables. In order to know if equity (Gini Quartile) and capacity to create richness (GDPpc Quartile) play an important role in the forming of health, an analysis of variance was developed. Results: Self-rated health gender gap increases with age. Individual characteristics, such as educational level, or smoking influence the citizens´ health perceived, with a stronger effect on women than men. Our research points out that random effects are greater for men than for women. Besides, random effects might be explained to certain extend by both indexes (Gini and GDPpc. The combined effect of gender, generation and geographical differences on self-rated health have to be taken into account to figure out public health policies.

 

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