Next Article in Journal
Global Long-Term Care Research: A Scientometric Review
Previous Article in Journal
Association between the First Occurrence of Asthma and Residential Greenness in Children and Teenagers in Taiwan
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Pregnancy with Heart Disease: Maternal Outcomes and Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction

Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Department of Science and Technology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Cardiovascular Center, Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Department of Dermatology, Dong A Hospital, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Department of Midwifery, Hanoi Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Institute for Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Danang 550000, Vietnam
NTT Hi-Tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 300A Nguyen Tat Thanh St., Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2075;
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
PDF [1092 KB, uploaded 12 June 2019]


Caring for children and mothers suffering from cardiac disease is highly challenging, with issues including late diagnosis as well as inadequate infrastructure and supply of drugs. We aimed to evaluate maternal outcomes among pregnant women suffering from heart disease with a live birth, and explored the risk factors for fetal growth restriction among these patients. A retrospective study was performed at the National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Hanoi, Vietnam) over a 3-year period from 2014 to 2016. A total of 284 patients were enrolled in the study. Overall, most women were aged below 35 years and were diagnosed with heart disease before pregnancy. Of the women experiencing rheumatic heart disease, the prevalence of mitral valve regurgitation was the highest (40.14%), while the figure for aortic valve regurgitation was the lowest (4.23%). Of women with congenital heart defects, the most common defects were ventricular septal defect (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD) (19.37% and 16.55%, respectively), while 5.28% of mothers were diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and 1.76% with patent ductus arteriosus. Noted clinical presentations of the patients included palpitation (63.38%), breathlessness (23.59%), leg edema (8.45%), and chest pain (8.1%). The common complications in the study population included 16.90% of women having heart failure and 19.37% having arrhythmias. The incidence of fetal growth restriction was 9.15%. Hypertension (odds ratio (OR): 59.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1–392.17), the heart disease types (ASD (OR: 4.27, 95% CI: 1.19–15.29) and tetralogy of Fallot (OR: 6.82, 95% CI: 1.21–38.55)), and the complications (heart failure (OR: 10.34, 95% CI: 2.75–38.87) and pulmonary edema (OR: 107.16, 95% CI: 4.96–2313.93)) were observed as risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. This study provides a cornerstone to promote further studies and to motivate people to apply evidence-based medical care for mothers with diagnosed cardiac disease in the antenatal and postnatal periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal outcomes; pregnant women; heart disease; risk factors maternal outcomes; pregnant women; heart disease; risk factors

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen Manh, T.; Bui Van, N.; Le Thi, H.; Vo Hoang, L.; Nguyen Si Anh, H.; Trinh Thi Thu, H.; Nguyen Xuan, T.; Vu Thi, N.; Minh, L.B.; Chu, D.-T. Pregnancy with Heart Disease: Maternal Outcomes and Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2075.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top