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Open AccessArticle

Association of Night Eating with Depression and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women

by Kyung Won Lee 1 and Dayeon Shin 2,*
1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Gwangju University, Gwangju 61743, Korea
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234831
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Risks and Factors of Women's Health Promotion)
This study examined the associations of night eating with depression and depressive symptoms in Korean adults. The study used a nationally representative sample of 31,690 Korean adults (≥19 years old) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2013. The participants were divided into two groups based on status of night eating: night eaters (consuming ≥25% of total daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00) and non-night eaters. Depression was defined based on diagnosis by a doctor, whereas depressive symptoms were defined as feelings of sadness or desperation for more than two weeks in the last one year. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between night eating and odds of depression and depressive symptoms after controlling for age, education, income, marital status, drinking, smoking, day of recalled intake, physical activity, body mass index, menopausal status (women only), total energy intake, and sleep duration. A total of 14.3% of Korean adults were night eaters. Night eaters were more likely to be men, young, less educated, single, drinkers, current smokers, and not employed (all ps < 0.05). In women, night eaters had higher odds of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.75; p for trend = 0.0389) and depressive symptoms (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01–1.41; p for trend = 0.0382) compared with non-night eaters. However, no associations of night eating with depression and depressive symptoms were found in men. Night eaters had higher odds of depression and depressive symptoms only in Korean women. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying psychological and behavioral mechanisms that in turn may shed light on the factors influencing both night eating and odds of depression and depressive symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: night eating; depression; depressive symptoms; nocturnal ingestion of food; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey night eating; depression; depressive symptoms; nocturnal ingestion of food; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.W.; Shin, D. Association of Night Eating with Depression and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4831.

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