Special Issue "Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Bithin Datta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Discipline of Civil Engineering, College of Science & Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
Interests: Water resources systems planning and operation; groundwater flow and contaminant transport; remediation of contaminated aquifers; multiobjective decision models; application of Artificial Intelligence tools; risk and reliability; optimal monitoring network design; saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers; contaminant source identification; design and operation of reservoir systems
Prof. Dr. Mark H. Houck
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Volgenau School of Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
Interests: water management and engineering; water and wastewater infrastructure security; environmental economics; mathematical modeling (optimization and simulation) of complex engineering systems; operations research; urban systems engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable beneficial use of water as renewable resource to meet demands and ensuring its quality will be the most important and challenging issue confronting human population in most parts of the world. Efficient and economic management of surface and groundwater quality and quantity is essential to survival. The spatial and temporal availability of water in terms of space and time depends on vagaries of nature as well as human interventions. The quality of water available is also dependent on natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. In addition, quality of water is affected by chemical and geochemical processes and interactions, sometimes too complex to model and predict.

Therefore, this special issue invites important original contributions to all aspects of managing water resources in terms of quantity and quality, both regional scale and local scale. Topics may include but are not limited to: mathematical simulation and decision model development and validation, new experimental results improving the understanding and reliable prediction of complex chemical processes including reactive species, application of artificial intelligence tools in designing effective management strategies and monitoring networks, application of regional scale management methodologies to polluted sites, e.g., complex mine sites, coastal aquifer management, unknown contaminant source characterization, management of water resources as an inventory e.g., for a systems of multipurpose reservoirs, incorporation and improvement in the prediction of meteorological droughts to improve long-term water management, water sensitive urban design, improving the remediation of pollution using new technologies, and case studies related to water and environmental management. All submitted manuscripts will go through rigorous peer review process.

Dr. Bithin Datta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • multiple criteria decision models
  • optimal management
  • Artificial Intelligence techniques application
  • contamination remediation
  • saltwater intrusion
  • drought prediction and management
  • geochemical processes
  • monitoring for compliance and detection
  • water infrastructure
  • source characterization
  • environmental impacts

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Application of Monitoring Network Design and Feedback Information for Adaptive Management of Coastal Groundwater Resources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224365 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Optimal strategies for the management of coastal groundwater resources can be derived using coupled simulation-optimization based management models. However, the management strategy actually implemented on the field sometimes deviates from the recommended optimal strategy, resulting in field-level deviations. Monitoring these field-level deviations during [...] Read more.
Optimal strategies for the management of coastal groundwater resources can be derived using coupled simulation-optimization based management models. However, the management strategy actually implemented on the field sometimes deviates from the recommended optimal strategy, resulting in field-level deviations. Monitoring these field-level deviations during actual implementation of the recommended optimal management strategy and sequentially updating the management model using the feedback information is an important step towards efficient adaptive management of coastal groundwater resources. In this study, a three-phase adaptive management framework for a coastal aquifer subjected to saltwater intrusion is applied and evaluated for a regional-scale coastal aquifer study area. The methodology adopted includes three sequential components. First, an optimal management strategy (consisting of groundwater extraction from production and barrier wells) is derived and implemented for optimal management of the aquifer. The implemented management strategy is obtained by solving a homogenous ensemble-based coupled simulation-optimization model. Second, a regional-scale optimal monitoring network is designed for the aquifer system considering possible user noncompliance of a recommended management strategy, and uncertainties in estimating aquifer parameters. A new monitoring network design objective function is formulated to ensure that candidate monitoring wells are placed in high risk (highly contaminated) locations. In addition, a new methodology is utilized to select candidate monitoring wells in areas representative of the entire model domain. Finally, feedback information in the form of measured concentrations obtained from the designed optimal monitoring wells is used to sequentially modify pumping strategies for future time periods in the management horizon. The developed adaptive management framework is evaluated by applying it to the Bonriki aquifer system located in Kiribati, which is a small developing island country in the South Pacific region. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the implemented adaptive management strategy has the potential to address important practical implementation issues arising due to noncompliance of an optimal management strategy and uncertain aquifer parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Information Asymmetry Impact Sub-Regions’ Cooperation of Regional Water Resource Allocation?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214292 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Water resources allocation is an urgent problem for basin authorities. In order to obtain greater economic benefits from limited water supplies, sub-regions must cooperate with each other. To study the influence of cooperation among sub-regions and the symmetry of cooperation information on the [...] Read more.
Water resources allocation is an urgent problem for basin authorities. In order to obtain greater economic benefits from limited water supplies, sub-regions must cooperate with each other. To study the influence of cooperation among sub-regions and the symmetry of cooperation information on the interests of the basin authority and each sub-region, this study proposes a regional water allocation model in three different situations: (1) non-cooperation; (2) cooperation and information symmetry; (3) cooperation and information asymmetry. The proposed model clearly reflects the Stackelberg game relationship between the basin authority and sub-regions. Finally, the model is applied to the Qujiang River Basin in China, and the decisions of the basin authority and sub-regional managers of the Qujiang River Basin under three different situations are discussed. The results show that regional cooperation benefits both the cooperative regions and the social welfare value of the entire river basin, when compared with non-cooperation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct or Spillover Effect: The Impact of Pure Technical and Scale Efficiencies of Water Use on Water Scarcity in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183401 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
The spatial relationship between water use efficiency and water scarcity has been widely discussed, but little attention has been paid to the impact of the pure technical and scale efficiencies of water use on water scarcity. Using input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) and [...] Read more.
The spatial relationship between water use efficiency and water scarcity has been widely discussed, but little attention has been paid to the impact of the pure technical and scale efficiencies of water use on water scarcity. Using input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel spatial Durbin models (SDM), the direct and spillover effects of different water use efficiencies on water scarcity from 2007 to 2016 in China were examined at the regional scale. The results show that the water use pure technical efficiency had significantly negative direct effects on water scarcity; however, the water use scale efficiency did not have a similar effect. The improvement in water use pure technical efficiency in one region could aggravate the water scarcity in neighboring regions through spatial spillover effects, but the same effect was not observed between the water use scale efficiency and water scarcity. Finally, we propose solutions to improve the water use efficiency to reduce the water scarcity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Potential Risks Associated with Urban Stormwater Quality for Managed Aquifer Recharge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173121 - 27 Aug 2019
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can be used to increase storage and availability of groundwater resources, but water resources available for recharge are constrained due to a surface water shortage. Alternative resources, like stormwater, are receiving increasing attention as sustainable resources for reuse in [...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can be used to increase storage and availability of groundwater resources, but water resources available for recharge are constrained due to a surface water shortage. Alternative resources, like stormwater, are receiving increasing attention as sustainable resources for reuse in MAR. However, pollutants in stormwater can impact groundwater quality, and cause clogging of the infiltration system. Based on the stormwater data in the literature, the physicochemical stormwater properties of data were analyzed. The results showed that concentrations of pollutants from different underlying surfaces varied widely. The main pollutants of stormwater were as follows: Total suspended particles (TSSs), organic matter represented by the chemical oxygen demand (COD), nutrients (total nitrogen, TN; total phosphorus, TP; and NH3-N), and metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, and Mn). Based on the simulation of TOUGHREACT, the contamination risk of pollutants for each type of stormwater was assessed. The risk of contamination was divided into four categories due to the different migration times of ions through the sand column. The iron ion has the highest risk of contamination, followed by Zn and Mn, and the contamination risk of nutrients and other metals (Pb, Cu, and Cd) are relatively low. Besides, the physical, biological, and chemical clogging risk were evaluated. The physical clogging potential of all types of stormwater is very high because of the high concentration of TSS. According to the concentration of TN that can spur the growth of bacteria and algae, the relative risk of biological clogging for stormwater is greenbelt stormwater < road stormwater < roof stormwater. However, only road stormwater has high chemical clogging due to the existence of iron, which can generate precipitation that blocks the pore volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Ecological Water Demand of Schizothorax in Tibet Based on Habitat Area and Connectivity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173045 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Water resource regulation is convenient for humans, but also changes river hydrology and affects aquatic ecosystems. This study combined a field investigation and two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (MIKE21) to simulate the hydrodynamic distribution from 1 March to 30 April of 2008–2013 and establish the [...] Read more.
Water resource regulation is convenient for humans, but also changes river hydrology and affects aquatic ecosystems. This study combined a field investigation and two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (MIKE21) to simulate the hydrodynamic distribution from 1 March to 30 April of 2008–2013 and establish the HDI (habitat depth suitability index) and HVI (habitat velocity suitability index) based on static hydraulic conditions at typical points. Additionally, by using MIKE21 to simulate the hydraulic state in the study area under 20 flow conditions from 530–1060 m3/s, and combining these states with the HCI (habitat cover type suitability index), HDI, and HVI, we simulated the WUA (weighted usable area) and habitat connectivity under different runoff regulation scenarios to study the water requirements of Schizothorax during the spawning period in the Yanni wetland. The results showed the following: (1) the suitable cover type was cobble and rock substrate, with nearby sandy land; furthermore, the suitable water depth was 0.5–1.5 m, and the suitable velocity was 0.1–0.9 m/s. (2) Using the proximity index to analyse the connectivity of suitable habitats, the range of ecological discharge determined by the WUA and connectivity was 424–1060 m/s. (3) Habitat quality was divided into three levels to detail the flow demand further. When the flow was 424–530 m3/s or 848–1060 m3/s, the WUA and connectivity generally met the requirements under natural conditions. When the flow was 530–636 m3/s or 742–848 m3/s, the WUA and connectivity were in a good state. When the flow was 636–742 m3/s, the WUA and connectivity were in the best state. This study complements existing research on the suitability of Schizothorax habitat in Tibet, and introduces the connectivity index to enrich the method for calculating ecological water demand, providing a reference for resource regulation and the protection of aquatic organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting Sustainable Development of Water Resources: A Social Welfare Maximization Game Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162896 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
Water can carry a boat but can also overturn it (human societal sustainable development). Governments faced aquatic ecosystem restoration and preservation challenges following the establishment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This paper proposes a social welfare maximization game model to analyze [...] Read more.
Water can carry a boat but can also overturn it (human societal sustainable development). Governments faced aquatic ecosystem restoration and preservation challenges following the establishment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This paper proposes a social welfare maximization game model to analyze the dominant strategy equilibrium of enterprise-1 and enterprise-2 based on welfare maximization under the total sewage emission control policy. Under the aforementioned control policy, a stricter total sewage emission control of an enterprise corresponds to a lower enterprise output and a higher output of a competing enterprise; that is, the profit transfer effect occurs. When the government implements a relatively strict total sewage emission control policy for an enterprise, it is beneficial to reduce the amount of sewage emission from an enterprise but has no impact on the amount of sewage emission from a competing enterprise; however, the amount of sewage reduction of both enterprises will increase. If the government does not provide capital and technical support to enterprise-2, then enterprise-1 and enterprise-2 should implement total quantity control policies with different rigor degrees to avoid the one-size-fits-all phenomenon. To maximize social welfare, the government should adjust the total sewage emission control policy in time according to sewage stock changes and focus more on enterprises with insufficient capital and poor technical skills and provide financial and technical support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of River Water Quality Based on an Improved Fuzzy Matter-Element Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152793 - 05 Aug 2019
Abstract
In this paper, an improved fuzzy matter-element (IFME) method was proposed, which integrates the classical matter-element (ME) method, set pair analysis (SPA), and variable coefficient method (VCM). The method was applied to evaluate water quality of five monitor stations along Caoqiao River in [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved fuzzy matter-element (IFME) method was proposed, which integrates the classical matter-element (ME) method, set pair analysis (SPA), and variable coefficient method (VCM). The method was applied to evaluate water quality of five monitor stations along Caoqiao River in Yixing city, Jiangsu Province, China. The levels of river water quality were determined according to fuzzy closeness degree. Compared with the traditional evaluation methods, the IFME method has several characteristics as follows: (i) weights were determined by the VCM method, which can reduce workload and overcome the adverse effects of abnormal values, (ii) membership degrees were defined by SPA, which can utilize monitored data more scientifically and comprehensively, and (iii) IFME is more suitable for seriously polluted rivers. Overall, these findings reinforce the notion that an integrated approach is essential for attaining scientific and objective assessment of river water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Water Quality Evaluation of Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation Limestone Water in Sulin Mining Area in Northern Anhui, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142512 - 14 Jul 2019
Abstract
The Taiyuan formation limestone water in the Huaibei coalfield is not only the water source for coal mining, but also the water source for industry and agriculture in mining areas. Its hydrogeochemical characteristics and water quality are generally concerning. In this paper, conventional [...] Read more.
The Taiyuan formation limestone water in the Huaibei coalfield is not only the water source for coal mining, but also the water source for industry and agriculture in mining areas. Its hydrogeochemical characteristics and water quality are generally concerning. In this paper, conventional ion tests were carried out on the Taiyuan formation limestone water of 16 coal mines in the Sunan and Linhuan mining areas of the Huaibei coalfield. Piper trigram, Gibbs diagram and an ion scale coefficient map were used to analyze the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Taiyuan formation limestone water. The water quality was evaluated in a fuzzy comprehensive manner. The results show that the main cation and anion contents in the Taiyuan formation limestone water were Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+, SO42 > HCO3 > Cl. There were differences in the hydrogeochemical types of the Taiyuan formation limestone water in the two mining areas; HCO3-Na type water was dominant in the Sunan mining area and SO4·Cl-Na type water was dominant in the Linhuan mining area. The chemical composition of the Taiyuan formation limestone water is mainly affected by the weathering of the rock and is related to the dissolution of the evaporated salt and the weathering of the silicate. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results show that the V-type water accounts for a large proportion of the Taiyuan formation limestone water in the study area and the water quality is poor. This study provides a basis for the development and utilization of the Taiyuan formation limestone water and water environmental protection in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Attribution of Runoff Variation in the Headwaters of the Yangtze River Based on the Budyko Hypothesis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142506 - 13 Jul 2019
Abstract
Quantifying the contributions of climate change and human activities on runoff changes is of great importance for water resource management, sustainable water resource utilization, and sustainable development of society. In this study, hydrological and climatic data from hydrological and meteorological stations in the [...] Read more.
Quantifying the contributions of climate change and human activities on runoff changes is of great importance for water resource management, sustainable water resource utilization, and sustainable development of society. In this study, hydrological and climatic data from hydrological and meteorological stations in the headwaters of the Yangtze River (YRHA) from 1966 to 2013 were used to quantitatively attribute the runoff change to the impacts of climate change and human activities separately. Firstly, the change trends in precipitation, runoff depth and potential evapotranspiration were analyzed by the Mann-Kendall test method. Three methods, secondly, including ordered clustering, Mann-Kendall and cumulative anomaly curve were adopted to detect the change points of runoff at Zhimenda hydrological station and partition the whole study period into two sub-periods at the change point (base and impacted periods). Then, the elasticity coefficient method based on the Budyko hypothesis was applied to calculate elasticity coefficients of runoff to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and land use/cover during the two periods, and to evaluate the contributions of climate change and human activities. Results indicated that during 1966–2013, runoff depth, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration all showed a significant increasing trend, with increasing rates of 7.26 mm decade−1, 18.725 mm decade−1 and 7.228 mm decade−1, respectively. One change point (2004) was detected for the annual runoff, and 1966–2003 and 2004–2013 were respectively identified as base and impacted periods. The results of elasticity coefficients showed that the runoff depth was most sensitive to the change of precipitation during the two periods. The relative contributions of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and parameter n to runoff changes were 99.7%, −6.08% and 3.88%, respectively. Furthermore, the coupled contribution rate of other factors was less than 2.5%. Generally, results indicated that precipitation is the main factor on the historical runoff changes in this basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying the Driving Factors of Black Bloom in Lake Bay through Bayesian LASSO
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142492 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Black blooms are a serious and complex problem for lake bays, with far-reaching implications for water quality and drinking safety. While Fe(II) and S(−II) have been reported as the most important triggers of this phenomenon, little effort has been devoted in investigating the [...] Read more.
Black blooms are a serious and complex problem for lake bays, with far-reaching implications for water quality and drinking safety. While Fe(II) and S(−II) have been reported as the most important triggers of this phenomenon, little effort has been devoted in investigating the relationships between Fe(II) and S(−II) and the host of potentially important aquatic factors. However, a model involving many putative predictors and their interactions will be oversaturated and ill-defined, making ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation unfeasible. In such a case, sparsity assumption is typically required to exclude the redundant predictors from the model, either through variable selection or regularization. In this study, Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was employed to identify the major influence variables from 11 aquatic factors for Fe(II), S(−II), and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Chaohu Lake (Eastern of China) bay during black bloom maintenance. Both the main effects and the interactions between these factors were studied. The method successfully screened the most important variables from many items. The determination coefficients (R2) and adjusted determination coefficients (Adjust R2) showed that all regression equations for Fe(II), S(-II), and SSC were in good agreement with the situation observed in the Chaohu Lake. The outcome of correlation and LASSO regression indicated that total phosphorus (TP) was the single most important factor for Fe(II), S(-II), and SSC in black bloom with explanation ratios (ERs) of 76.1%, 37.0%, and 12.9%, respectively. The regression results showed that the interaction items previously deemed negligible have significant effects on Fe(II), S(−II), and SSC. For the Fe(II) equation, total nitrogen (TN) × dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (CHLA) × oxidation reduction potential (ORP), which contributed 10.6% and 13.3% ERs, respectively, were important interaction variables. TP emerged in each key interaction item of the regression equation for S(−II). Water depth (DEP) × Fe(II) (30.7% ER) was not only the main interaction item, but DEP (5.6% ER) was also an important single factor for the SSC regression equation. It also indicated that the sediment in shallow bay is an important source for SSC in water. The uncertainty of these relationships was also estimated by the posterior distribution and coefficient of variation (CV) of these items. Overall, our results suggest that TP concentration is the most important driver of black blooms in a lake bay, whereas the other factors, such as DO, DEP, and CHLA act in concert with other aquatic factors. There results provide a basis for the further control and management policy development of black blooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Pricing Model for Groundwater Rights in Ningxia, China Based on the Fuzzy Mathematical Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122176 - 19 Jun 2019
Abstract
To reduce groundwater overexploitation and alleviate water shortages, market mechanisms are introduced to allocate water rights. Scientific and reasonable pricing of groundwater rights is key to ensuring the effectiveness of the groundwater market. Because of the complexity and uncertainty of water resources, this [...] Read more.
To reduce groundwater overexploitation and alleviate water shortages, market mechanisms are introduced to allocate water rights. Scientific and reasonable pricing of groundwater rights is key to ensuring the effectiveness of the groundwater market. Because of the complexity and uncertainty of water resources, this study calculates the price of groundwater rights based on the value of water resources with an evaluation indicator system. The system includes 14 indicators developed with a fuzzy mathematics model addressing three dimensions: environment, society, and economy. The weights of the indicators are determined through the analytic network process (ANP) and the entropy method. The results show that the price of groundwater rights in Ningxia, China increased from 5.11 yuan/m3 to 5.73 yuan/m3 between 2013 and 2017; this means the price was basically stable, with a slight increase. The ratio of residents’ water fee expenditures to real disposable income also remained essentially stable, fluctuating around 0.37%, far below the normal level. These data demonstrated that the current regional water price policy does not reflect the true value of groundwater resources; there is room to increase urban water prices. Local governments need speed up water price system reforms and adopt water rights systems to optimize water resource allocations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Nonlinear Inexact Two-Stage Management Model for Agricultural Water Allocation under Uncertainty Based on the Heihe River Water Diversion Plan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111884 - 28 May 2019
Abstract
In this study, a nonlinear inexact two-stage management (NITM) model is proposed for optimal agricultural irrigation water management problems under uncertainty conditions. The model is derived from incorporating interval parameter programming (IPP), two-stage stochastic programming (TSP) and quadratic programming (QP) within the agricultural [...] Read more.
In this study, a nonlinear inexact two-stage management (NITM) model is proposed for optimal agricultural irrigation water management problems under uncertainty conditions. The model is derived from incorporating interval parameter programming (IPP), two-stage stochastic programming (TSP) and quadratic programming (QP) within the agricultural water management model. This model simultaneously handles uncertainties not only in discrete intervals, but also in probability distributions, as well as nonlinearity in the objective function. A concept of the law of diminishing marginal utility is introduced to reflect the relationship between unit benefits and allocated water, which can overcome the limitation of general TSP framework with a linear objective function. Moreover, these inexact linear functions of allocated water can be obtained by an interval regression analysis method. The model is applied to a real-world case study for optimal irrigation water allocation in midstream area of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China. Two Heihe River ecological water diversion plans, i.e., the original plan and an improved plan, will be used to determine the surface water availabilities under different inflow levels. Four scenarios associated with different irrigation target settings are examined. The results show that the entire study system can arrive at a minimum marginal utility and obtain maximum system benefits when optimal irrigation water allocations are the deterministic values. Under the same inflow level, the improved plan leads to a lower water shortage level than that of the original plan, and thus leads to less system-failure risk level. Moreover, the growth rate of the upper bound of economic benefits between each of two scenarios based on the improved plan are greater than that from the original plan. Therefore, these obtained solutions can provide the basis of decision-making for agricultural water allocation under uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Recovery Degree of the Natural Flow Regimes and the Corresponding Economic Costs for Reservoir Operation in Fish Spawning Seasons
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101699 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
The construction of large-scale reservoirs alters the natural flow process downstream and inevitably affects the aquatic organism. Current studies have verified that flow regimes play an important role in fish spawning stimulus. Recovery of the flow regimes may be incompatible with the economic [...] Read more.
The construction of large-scale reservoirs alters the natural flow process downstream and inevitably affects the aquatic organism. Current studies have verified that flow regimes play an important role in fish spawning stimulus. Recovery of the flow regimes may be incompatible with the economic benefit, mainly referring to hydropower generation. In this study, multiple models are established to study the relationship between the recovery degree of the natural flow regimes and the cost of the hydropower generation in spawning season for different hydrological years. The flow regimes are first quantitatively described by three characteristic parameters including the number of floods, the average duration of each flood, and the daily increment of the natural flow. The model for ecological operation needs to approach these characteristics as close as possible, while the model for economic benefit is set to generate power as much as possible. The ecological flow constraint is also considered to shape the flow process pattern. The proposed methodology is applied on the upper reaches of the Yellow River, where a large-scale reservoir is under planning. Different schemes are compared for different hydrological years to answer the question that to what extent can we recover the flow regime by reservoir operation, and how much the corresponding economic cost is. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergetic Relationship between Urban and Rural Water Poverty: Evidence from Northwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091647 - 11 May 2019
Abstract
Combining the measurement of urban and rural areas to link water and poverty provides a new insight into the fields of water resources management and poverty alleviation. Owing to rapid urban development, water resource conflicts between urban and rural areas are gettingbecoming more [...] Read more.
Combining the measurement of urban and rural areas to link water and poverty provides a new insight into the fields of water resources management and poverty alleviation. Owing to rapid urban development, water resource conflicts between urban and rural areas are gettingbecoming more intensified and more complex. This study details the application of a water poverty index (WPI) using 26 indicators to evaluate urban and rural water poverty in northwest China during the period 2000–2017. This study also analyzes temporal variations of urban and rural water poverty by the kernel density estimation (KDE). We found that the level of water poverty is gradually declining over time and the improvements in urban and rural areas are not harmonious. Additionally, it applies the synergic theory to analyze the relationships between urban and rural water poverty. The correspondence analysis between urban and rural water poverty is significant because of the synergic level results. The results show that there are four primary types in northwest China: synchronous areas, urban-priority areas, rural-priority areas, and conflict areas, and their evolution stages. The results suggest the need for location-specific policy interventions. Furthermore, we put forward corresponding countermeasures. The research findings also provide a theoretical foundation for the evaluation of urban and rural water poverty, and a regional strategy to relieve conflict between urban and rural water poverty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
An Interval Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Model for Flood Resources Allocation under Ecological Benefits as a Constraint Combined with Ecological Compensation Concept
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061033 - 21 Mar 2019
Abstract
The Momoge National Nature Reserve (MNNR) is located at the intersection of Nenjiang and Taoer Rivers in Baicheng City, Jilin Province, where the Taoer River is the main source of water for the nature reserve. However, due to the construction of the water [...] Read more.
The Momoge National Nature Reserve (MNNR) is located at the intersection of Nenjiang and Taoer Rivers in Baicheng City, Jilin Province, where the Taoer River is the main source of water for the nature reserve. However, due to the construction of the water control project in the upper reaches of the Taoer River, the MNNR has been in a state of water shortage for a long time. To guarantee the wetland function of the nature reserve, the government planned to carry out normal and flood water supply from Nenjiang River through the West Water Supply Project of Jilin Province. Therefore, how to improve the utilization of flood resources effectively has become one of the key issues of ecological compensation for the MNNR. In this paper, a flood resources optimal allocation model that is based on the interval two-stage stochastic programming method was constructed, and the corresponding flood resource availability in different flow scenarios of Nenjiang River were included in the total water resources to improve their utilization. The results showed that the proportion of flood resources that were used in the MNNR after optimization was more than 70% under different flow scenarios, among which the proportion of flood resources under a low-flow scenario reached 77%, which was 23% higher than the proposed increase. In addition, the ecological benefits of low, medium, and high flow levels reached the range of 26.30 (106 CNY) to 32.14(106 CNY), 28.21(106 CNY) to 34.49(106 CNY) and 29.41(106 CNY) to 35.94(106 CNY), respectively. According to the results, flood resources significantly reduce the utilization of normal water resources, which can be an effective supplement to the ecological compensation of nature reserves and provide a basis for the distribution of transit flood resources in other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
S-type Dissolved Oxygen Distribution along Water Depth in a Canyon-shaped and Algae Blooming Water Source Reservoir: Reasons and Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060987 - 19 Mar 2019
Abstract
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a crucial indicator of water quality. DO usually shows a monotonic decrease along water depth during thermal stratification in reservoir, whereas metalimnetic oxygen minimum (MOM) is observed in some cases. Although MOM phenomena have been reported in different areas, [...] Read more.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a crucial indicator of water quality. DO usually shows a monotonic decrease along water depth during thermal stratification in reservoir, whereas metalimnetic oxygen minimum (MOM) is observed in some cases. Although MOM phenomena have been reported in different areas, the characteristics of different reservoirs are greatly different, and few comprehensive studies have been published regarding MOM in Chinese drinking water source reservoirs. The DO distribution along water depth was determined and the detailed reasons were clarified by two-years of field monitoring. In addition the effect of water lifting aerators (WLAs) on DO improvement was investigated in the Lijiahe Reservoir in Northwest China. A typical S-type DO distribution with two anaerobic water layers, below the epilimnion (10–25 m water depth) and above the sediment (bottom water), was observed derived from the decomposition of dead algae or organic matter and the restriction of DO vertical exchange. Moreover, after WLAs’ operation since 10 June 2018, the water body was completely mixed and DO was rich and uniform along water depth by eliminating the water stratification and inhibiting algae growth. The deep understanding of the DO distribution in a deep canyon-shaped reservoir and the technical support for reservoir restoration are meaningful for optimizing reservoir management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Water Resource Management of Regulated Rivers under Uncertain Inflow Conditions Using a Noisy Genetic Algorithm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050868 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ecofriendly reservoir operation is an important tool for sustainable water resource management in regulated rivers. Optimization of reservoir operation is potentially affected by the stochastic characteristics of inflows. However, inflow stochastics are not widely incorporated in ecofriendly reservoir operation optimization. The reasons might [...] Read more.
Ecofriendly reservoir operation is an important tool for sustainable water resource management in regulated rivers. Optimization of reservoir operation is potentially affected by the stochastic characteristics of inflows. However, inflow stochastics are not widely incorporated in ecofriendly reservoir operation optimization. The reasons might be that computational cost and unsatisfactory performance are two key issues for reservoir operation under uncertainty inflows, since traditional simulation methods are usually needed to evaluate over many realizations and the results vary between different realizations. To solve this problem, a noisy genetic algorithm (NGA) is adopted in this study. The NGA uses an improved type of fitness function called sampling fitness function to reduce the noise of fitness assessment. Meanwhile, the Monte Carlo method, which is a commonly used approach to handle the stochastic problem, is also adopted here to compare the effectiveness of the NGA. Degree of hydrologic alteration and water supply reliability, are used to indicate satisfaction of environmental flow requirements and human needs. Using the Tanghe Reservoir in China as an example, the results of this study showed that the NGA can be a useful tool for ecofriendly reservoir operation under stochastic inflow conditions. Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the NGA reduces ~90% of the computational time and obtains higher water supply reliability in the optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Drought–Flood Abrupt Alternation and Its Impacts on Surface Water Quality from 2020 to 2050 in the Luanhe River Basin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050691 - 26 Feb 2019
Abstract
It has become a hot issue to study extreme climate change and its impacts on water quality. In this context, this study explored the evolution characteristics of drought–flood abrupt alternation (DFAA) and its impacts on total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) pollution, [...] Read more.
It has become a hot issue to study extreme climate change and its impacts on water quality. In this context, this study explored the evolution characteristics of drought–flood abrupt alternation (DFAA) and its impacts on total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) pollution, from 2020 to 2050, in the Luanhe river basin (LRB), based on the predicted meteorological data of the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) climate scenarios and simulated surface water quality data of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results show that DFAA occurred more frequently in summer, with an increasing trend from northwest to southeast of the LRB, basically concentrated in the downstream plain area, and the irrigation area. Meanwhile, most of the DFAA events were in light level. The incidence of TN pollution was much larger than the incidence of TP pollution and simultaneous occurrence of TN and TP pollution. The TN pollution was more serious than TP pollution in the basin. When DFAA occurred, TN pollution almost occurred simultaneously. Also, when TP pollution occurred, the TN pollution occurred simultaneously. These results could provide some references for the effects and adaptation-strategies study of extreme climate change and its influence on surface water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Intense Precipitation from Tropical Cyclones during the 21st Century by Dynamical Downscaling of CCSM4 RCP 4.5
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050687 - 26 Feb 2019
Abstract
In this article, a dynamical downscaling (DD) procedure is proposed to downscale tropical cyclones (TCs) from a general circulation model, with the goal of investigating inland intense precipitation from these storms in the future. This DD procedure is sequential as it is performed [...] Read more.
In this article, a dynamical downscaling (DD) procedure is proposed to downscale tropical cyclones (TCs) from a general circulation model, with the goal of investigating inland intense precipitation from these storms in the future. This DD procedure is sequential as it is performed from the large scale to the small scale within a one-way nesting modeling framework with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Furthermore, it involves a two-step validation process to ensure that the model produces realistic TCs, both in terms of their general properties and in terms of their intense precipitation statistics. In addition, this procedure makes use of several algorithms such as for the detection and tracking of TCs, with the objective of automatizing the DD process as much as possible so that this approach could be used to downscale massively many climate projections with several sets of model options. The DD approach was applied to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 4 using Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 during the period 2005–2100, and the resulting TCs and their intense precipitation were examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Flow Dynamics and Contaminant Transport in Y-Shaped River Channel Confluences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040572 - 16 Feb 2019
Abstract
River channel confluences are widespread in natural rivers. Understanding their unique hydrodynamic characteristics and contaminant transport rules may facilitate the rational and effective treatment of the water environment. In this study, we considered the Xitiaoxi River Basin as the research area, and a [...] Read more.
River channel confluences are widespread in natural rivers. Understanding their unique hydrodynamic characteristics and contaminant transport rules may facilitate the rational and effective treatment of the water environment. In this study, we considered the Xitiaoxi River Basin as the research area, and a well-designed flume was established based on the extracted water system features. Hydrodynamically, in the Y-shaped confluence channel the flow velocity was easy to separate at the confluence, and a low flow velocity region appeared in the two branches. The spiral flow mainly flowed counterclockwise to the downstream region and the spiral trend increased as the discharge ratio decreased. The spiral flow and its effect on the transport and blending of contaminants were distinct between Y-shaped and asymmetrical river confluences. Based on the flow dynamics test, a set of pollutant discharge devices and a multi-point electrolytic conductivity meter were employed to research the mixing rule for pollutants. A high concentration zone for pollutants was likely to occur near the intersection, and the contaminant concentration band after the confluence was first compressed and then diffused. In particular, line source discharge in the left branch and the point source discharge in the inner bank of the left branch and in the outer bank of the right branch were dominant, and were conducive to the detection and treatment of pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Environmental Capacity Calculated Based on Point and Non-Point Source Pollution Emission Intensity under Water Quality Assurance Rates in a Tidal River Network Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030428 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A mathematical model for simulating hydrodynamics and pollutants migration in a tidal river network was constructed, which takes the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall runoff and non-point pollutants into consideration. Under the design hydrologic conditions of a typical hydrological year, the daily [...] Read more.
A mathematical model for simulating hydrodynamics and pollutants migration in a tidal river network was constructed, which takes the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall runoff and non-point pollutants into consideration. Under the design hydrologic conditions of a typical hydrological year, the daily concentration change process for the control section is obtained. Aiming at the uncertainty of hydrology and water quality parameters such as flow direction, flow rate and concentration change in tidal river network area, a statistical analysis method is used to obtain the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in the control section under the condition of the water quality standard assurance rate of. Then, a formula for calculating the pollutions emission intensity of point and non-point sources is derived. The method was applied to the pollution source control in a typical region like Taihu in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous and Periodic Monitoring System of Surface Water Quality of an Impounding Reservoir: Sulejow Reservoir, Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030301 - 23 Jan 2019
Abstract
The paper presents results of water quality monitoring conducted within the frame of the MONSUL project. The main goal was to analyse and assess the impact of factors determining the ecological status of a dam reservoir on the basis of the Sulejow Reservoir [...] Read more.
The paper presents results of water quality monitoring conducted within the frame of the MONSUL project. The main goal was to analyse and assess the impact of factors determining the ecological status of a dam reservoir on the basis of the Sulejow Reservoir located in Central Poland. The project implementation plan based on comprehensive research-based monitoring covered the following parameters characterising the ecological potential of the reservoir: water temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, chlorophyll “a” and blue-green algae, concentration of ammonium ion, nitrate nitrogen phosphates as well as total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The parameters were measured with a mobile and stationary monitoring system and supplemented by an off-line analysis of water samples in the laboratory. The study was carried out during two seasons: May–October 2015 and April–November 2016; the results were analysed also with regard to the weather conditions. Despite the similar temperatures of water and air in the analysed seasons, significant differences were observed for atmospheric precipitation; 2015 was a dry year, and the climatic water balance for the analysed area was negative, which caused limited surface runoff and decreased the concentrations of nutrient in the reservoir waters. Data from continuous monitoring, supplemented with the results of laboratory measurements, indicated that the values of TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) parameters were within the purity class I; exceedances refer to the BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) value, which confirmed the presence of biodegradable organic compounds in the reservoir waters. The values of chlorophyll “a” and the presence of algae during the vegetation season testify to eutrophication of the Sulejow Reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Spatiotemporal Variability of River Water Quality and Its Relationships with Soil and Precipitation: A Case Study of the Mun River Basin in Thailand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112466 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Human activities can affect soil nutrients, thereby influencing river water quality. The spatial pattern of precipitation also impacts distributions of water quality. In this paper, we employed a method that combines point survey, soil, and water quality data to analyze the spatial relationships [...] Read more.
Human activities can affect soil nutrients, thereby influencing river water quality. The spatial pattern of precipitation also impacts distributions of water quality. In this paper, we employed a method that combines point survey, soil, and water quality data to analyze the spatial relationships between precipitation, soil nutrient and water quality in the basin on the basis of field surveys and laboratory analysis. The ordinary kriging method was applied to interpolate the precipitation and soil data, and the spatial pattern was analyzed. The water samples on the main stream and soil samples in the field were collected during both the dry and rainy seasons to analyze the water quality and soil nutrients. The results indicate: (1) The water quality in the dry season is better than that in the rainy season, the water quality in the upper reaches is better than that in the lower reaches, and agricultural activity is the direct source of water pollution. (2) The precipitation in the rainy and dry seasons is differente and the dilution effect of precipitation on pollutant concentrations and transport of water flow affect the spatial distribution of water quality. (3) There is a significant difference in the spatial pattern of soil nutrients between the dry and rainy seasons, and the soil nutrient content and the surface runoff directly affect the water quality. Soil nutrients are affected by human activities, and they potentially act as nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in this river basin. To improve the water quality, suitable agriculture measures need to be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of the Nutrient and Chlorophyll a Reference Conditions in Taihu Lake Based on A New Method with Extreme–Markov Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112372 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The nutrient reference conditions of lakes play a key role for lake water quality control and water resource management. The inferential models are important methods for calculating reference values; however, the dependence and “cluster” in time series make time series data difficult to [...] Read more.
The nutrient reference conditions of lakes play a key role for lake water quality control and water resource management. The inferential models are important methods for calculating reference values; however, the dependence and “cluster” in time series make time series data difficult to be applied in these methods. A new method based on Markov chain theory, which is used for modeling the dependence of data, and extreme statistics was proposed. The new method was used to estimate the nutrient and chlorophyll a reference conditions in Taihu Lake, which is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The results showed that there was remarkable dependence between the effective observations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a. The recommended reference conditions of TN, TP, and chlorophyll a in Taihu Lake were 0.69 mg/L, 0.029 mg/L, and 1.89 μg/L. Their 95% confidence intervals were 0.62–0.76 mg/L, 0.028–0.030 mg/L, and 1.55–2.23 μg/L. These results were consistent with previous researches, which showed that the proposed method is reliable and effective. The length of the intervals was remarkably reduced when compared with several methods. This implied that the proposed method could make full use of the observation data in time series and significantly improve the precision of the estimation results of reference conditions. In general, the proposed method could provide high precision and reliable lake nutrient reference conditions, which would be beneficial to lake water resource management and can be used for estimating the TN, TP, and chlorophyll a reference conditions of other lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Patterns of Urban Wastewater Discharge and Treatment Plants Efficiency in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091892 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the rapid economic development, water pollution has become a major concern in China. Understanding the spatial variation of urban wastewater discharge and measuring the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants are prerequisites for rationally designing schemes and infrastructures to control water pollution. Based [...] Read more.
With the rapid economic development, water pollution has become a major concern in China. Understanding the spatial variation of urban wastewater discharge and measuring the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants are prerequisites for rationally designing schemes and infrastructures to control water pollution. Based on the input and output urban wastewater treatment data of the 31 provinces of mainland China for the period 2011–2015, the spatial variation of urban water pollution and the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants were measured and mapped. The exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) model and super-efficiency data envelopment analysis (DEA) combined Malmquist index were used to achieve this goal. The following insight was obtained from the results. (1) The intensity of urban wastewater discharge increased, and the urban wastewater discharge showed a spatial agglomeration trend for the period 2011 to 2015. (2) The average inefficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for the study period was 39.2%. The plants’ efficiencies worsened from the eastern to western parts of the country. (3) The main reasons for the low efficiency were the lack of technological upgrade and scale-up. The technological upgrade rate was −4.8%, while the scale efficiency increases as a result of scaling up was −0.2%. Therefore, to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of the country, the provinces should work together to increase capital investment and technological advancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Environmental Groundwater Depth for Groundwater-Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems in Arid/Semiarid Regions: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050763 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Groundwater in arid/semiarid regions plays crucial roles in providing drinking water supply, supporting irrigated agriculture, and sustaining important native terrestrial ecosystems. Groundwater depth controls water availability to vegetation and is essential for conserving groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental groundwater depth can be defined as [...] Read more.
Groundwater in arid/semiarid regions plays crucial roles in providing drinking water supply, supporting irrigated agriculture, and sustaining important native terrestrial ecosystems. Groundwater depth controls water availability to vegetation and is essential for conserving groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental groundwater depth can be defined as a mean depth or a range of depths, satisfying the growth of natural vegetation that is not under stress, either due to lack of water or anoxia or soil salinization. Five methodologies have been reported to estimate environmental groundwater depth: the direct ones rely on response functions that relate vegetation condition, e.g., physiological parameters, appearance frequency, community structure, and remotely sensed physical indexes, to changes in groundwater depth; the indirect one estimates environmental groundwater depth based on the threshold of soil moisture content. To fill a knowledge gap of unique recognized methodology, a conceptual framework was proposed, which involves initial estimation (data collection, response assessment, and estimation) and feedback adjustment (implementation and modification). A key component of the framework is to quantify the linkage between ecological conditions and geohydrological features. This review may provide references for groundwater resources management, ecological conservation, and sustainable development in arid/semiarid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Systems Quality and Quantity Management)
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