ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 30802

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physical Education and Sports School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941, RJ, Brazil
Interests: sports psychology; psychophysiology; cognitive behavioral analysis; physical activity; sports and martial arts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports psychology is an interdisciplinary science that investigates knowledge from related fields and physiology, biomechanics, kinesiology, and psychology. It includes studying how psychological aspects affect performance, and how participation in sport and exercise affect psychological and physical factors. Therefore, the Special Issue, titled “Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches” addresses the optimal performance and well-being of athletes and practitioners; the development of essential areas of study, i.e., personality, motivation, athletic performance, youth sport, coaching, team processes, anxiety and stress, biofeedback, cognitive, as well as social and behavior modeling; and interdisciplinary aspects of sports and physical activities.

Prof. Dr. Bianca Miarka
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • motivation
  • anxiety
  • mood state
  • arousal regulation
  • personality
  • thinking skills
  • behavior mechanisms
  • mental health
  • sports
  • physical fitness

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

10 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
How Can Autonomy Support from a Coach, Basic Psychological Needs, and the Psychological Climate Explain Ego and Task Involvement?
by Arne Martin Jakobsen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 6977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20216977 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The aim of this study was to consider the relationships among the autonomy support an athlete perceives from their coach, the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), the psychological motivational climate of the team (a task or ego climate), and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to consider the relationships among the autonomy support an athlete perceives from their coach, the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), the psychological motivational climate of the team (a task or ego climate), and the athlete’s motivational orientation (ego or task involvement). No other studies have investigated this. My three hypotheses were as follows: autonomy support from a coach will have an impact on motivational involvement, all three basic needs will have an impact on motivational involvement, and motivational involvement will be explained by the motivational climate. A total of 175 elite male ice hockey players from Norway, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years old, answered questionnaires about autonomy support, perceived motivational climate, achievement goal orientation, and basic psychological needs. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to predict ego–task involvement using autonomy support from the coach, the need for autonomy, the need for competence, the need for relatedness, the task climate, and the ego climate. The only two variables that statistically significantly predicted ego–task involvement were the autonomy support from the coach (std. beta = 0.28, sign = 0.05) and the ego climate (std. beta = 0.34, sign = 0.01). The analysis revealed that the athletes had a higher score on task (M = 4.85) than ego (M = 3.34) involvement, but when these were transformed into two variables (high and low) for task and ego involvement, we found that most players scored high for both task and ego involvement. We found that autonomy support from the coach had a positive relationship with a high score for players on both task and ego involvement. We also found that the three basic psychological needs had no impact on the motivational involvement of the athletes. Lastly, we found that the ego climate had an impact on motivational involvement. There was a positive relationship between a high score for the ego climate and a high score for both ego and task involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
10 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Exploring Response Inhibition, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Possible Sex Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes
by Lina J. K. Eriksson, Örjan Sundin and Billy Jansson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(14), 6340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20146340 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study was to revisit the question concerning whether athletes are better than non-athletes at fundamental cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control, in addition to also focusing on motivational dispositions and possible sex differences. Adding the latter could be [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this study was to revisit the question concerning whether athletes are better than non-athletes at fundamental cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control, in addition to also focusing on motivational dispositions and possible sex differences. Adding the latter could be crucial since both inhibitory control and motivational dispositions, such as approach and avoidance, are central to goal-directed behavior. Methods: This study’s sample was composed of 93 participants (40 males): 29 biathletes; 30 alpine skiers; and 34 non-athletes. A non-sport-specific stop-signal task was used for the assessment of inhibitory control in terms of response inhibition, and the motivational dispositions were assessed with the BIS/BAS scales. Results: The results showed that there were no differences between the two different sports or non-athletes with regard to response inhibition. However, females showed significantly slower response inhibition than males (p = 0.018) and scored significantly higher on the trait variable BIS (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that it might be meaningful to explore the contribution of sex differences and motivational dispositions on response inhibition in conjunction with different types of sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
12 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
A Holistic Vision of the Academic and Sports Development of Elite Spanish Track and Field Athletes
by Eva Asensio Castañeda, Rafael M. Navarro, José L. Chamorro and Jonathan Ospina-Betancurt
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065153 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Background: Combining sports and studies could be stressful, but beneficial for the athletes’ career development. This study explores resources and barriers in the combination of the sports and academic life spheres during the lifespan of elite Spanish track-and-field athletes. Methods: Seven elite Spanish [...] Read more.
Background: Combining sports and studies could be stressful, but beneficial for the athletes’ career development. This study explores resources and barriers in the combination of the sports and academic life spheres during the lifespan of elite Spanish track-and-field athletes. Methods: Seven elite Spanish track-and-field athletes participated in a semistructured interview about their experiences to establish a dual career combining sports and studies/work. Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) followed to analyze data. Results: Findings show that elite Spanish track-and-field athletes face educational and institutional barriers to developing a dual career. Time management, social support, and additional resources could play a key role in the success or failure to develop a dual career. Conclusions: This study shows that, to overcome dual-career barriers, athletes are resourceful if social support is provided at both the micro (coaches, families, etc.) and macro (political and educational institutions) levels. It also shows that pursuing an academic career can help in alleviating inherent tensions to athletic life and in finding personal balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
11 pages, 840 KiB  
Article
Music Alters Conscious Distance Monitoring without Changing Pacing and Performance during a Cycling Time Trial
by Gustavo C. Vasconcelos, Cayque Brietzke, Paulo E. Franco-Alvarenga, Florentina J. Hettinga and Flávio O. Pires
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 3890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20053890 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Athletes use their own perception to monitor distance and regulate their pace during exercise, avoiding premature fatigue before the endpoint. On the other hand, they may also listen to music while training and exercising. Given the potential role of music as a distractor, [...] Read more.
Athletes use their own perception to monitor distance and regulate their pace during exercise, avoiding premature fatigue before the endpoint. On the other hand, they may also listen to music while training and exercising. Given the potential role of music as a distractor, we verified if music influenced the athletes’ ability to monitor the distance covered during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). We hypothesized that music would elongate cyclists’ perceived distance due to reduced attentional focus on exercise-derived signals, which would also change their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). We also expected that the motivational role of music would also be beneficial in pacing and performance. After familiarization sessions, ten recreational cyclists performed an in-laboratory TT20km while either listening to music or not (control). They reported their RPE, associative thoughts to exercise (ATE), and motivation when they each perceived they had completed 2-km. Power output and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. Cyclists elongated their distance perception with music, increasing the distance covered for each perceived 2 km (p = 0.003). However, music reduced the error of conscious distance monitoring (p = 0.021), pushing the perceived distance towards the actual distance. Music increased the actual distance–RPE relationship (p = 0.004) and reduced ATE (p < 0.001). However, music affected neither performance assessed as mean power output (p = 0.564) and time (p = 0.524) nor psychophysiological responses such as HR (p = 0.066), RPE (p = 0.069), and motivation (p = 0.515). Cyclists elongated their distance perception during the TT20km and changed the actual distance–RPE relationship, which is likely due to a music-distractive effect. Although there was a reduced error of conscious distance monitoring, music affected neither pacing nor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 535 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Mechanical Properties of the Horizontal Force-Velocity Profile during a Repeated Sprint Test in Professional Soccer Players
by Felipe Hermosilla-Palma, Juan Francisco Loro-Ferrer, Pablo Merino-Muñoz, Nicolás Gómez-Álvarez, Alejandro Bustamante-Garrido, Hugo Cerda-Kohler, Moacyr Portes-Junior and Esteban Aedo-Muñoz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010704 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
The objective was to analyze the changes in the horizontal force-velocity profile (HFVP) during the execution of repeated sprinting. Methods: Seventeen first-division Chilean soccer players completed a repeated sprint protocol consisting of eight sprints of 30 m with 25-s pauses between repetitions. The [...] Read more.
The objective was to analyze the changes in the horizontal force-velocity profile (HFVP) during the execution of repeated sprinting. Methods: Seventeen first-division Chilean soccer players completed a repeated sprint protocol consisting of eight sprints of 30 m with 25-s pauses between repetitions. The behavior of HFVP variables in each attempt was recorded from video recordings and analysis in the MySprint® application. Results: Differences (p < 0.05) were found between sprints in the following: time (T), starting from sprint 5 (F = 35.6; η2p = 0.69); theoretical maximum speed (V0), starting from sprint 4 (F = 29.3; η2p = 0.51); maximum power (PM), starting from sprint 5 (F = 17; η2p = 0.52); rate of decrease in force index produced at each step (DRF), starting from sprint 1 (F = 3.20; η2p = 0.17); and RF10, starting from sprint 1 (F = 15.5; η2p = 0.49). In comparison, F0 and RFpeak did not present any differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The HFVP variables more sensitive to the effects of fatigue induced by an RSA protocol are those associated with the production of force at high speeds, being V0, DRF, and Pmax, while those that contribute to the generation of force at the beginning of the sprint, F0 and RFpeak, do not present essential variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
Psychological Femininity and Masculinity and Motivation in Team Sports
by Łukasz Bojkowski
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15767; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315767 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
It is hypothesized that levels of femininity and masculinity may be relevant to specific types of engagement in action. For this reason, the aim of this study was to search for relationships between psychological dimensions of femininity and masculinity and different forms of [...] Read more.
It is hypothesized that levels of femininity and masculinity may be relevant to specific types of engagement in action. For this reason, the aim of this study was to search for relationships between psychological dimensions of femininity and masculinity and different forms of motivation, as well as their specific parts, among women and male athletes practicing team sports games. We researched 49 women aged 19 to 32 years representing sports such as football, handball, hockey, volleyball, and basketball and 56 men aged 18 to 31 years practicing football, hockey, volleyball, basketball, and handball. The respondents completed the Inventory to Assess Psychological Gender (IPP) and the Polish adaptation of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). It was determined that the psychological dimension of femininity was (in the male group) positively related to the dimension of amotivation, i.e., the lack of perception of a relationship between one’s action and the outcome. In turn, the psychological dimension of masculinity was positively related to the motivation to know, motivation to accomplish, and motivation to experience stimulation, as well as the overall level of intrinsic motivation and the overall dimension of extrinsic motivation. Furthermore, the masculinity dimension is, in male athletes, related to the level of the introjection motive, i.e., the process of integrating accepted patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
14 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
Relationships among Sports Group Cohesion, Passion, and Mental Toughness in Chinese Team Sports Athletes
by Song Gu, Sheng Bi, Zhixun Guan, Xuemo Fang and Xulu Jiang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215209 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2350
Abstract
Background: Passion is an important motivational variable that profoundly affects athletes’ cognition, emotion, and behavior. This study constructed a mediating model to explore the mechanism of cohesion toward passion and mental toughness of Chinese team sports athletes and to investigate the mediating effect [...] Read more.
Background: Passion is an important motivational variable that profoundly affects athletes’ cognition, emotion, and behavior. This study constructed a mediating model to explore the mechanism of cohesion toward passion and mental toughness of Chinese team sports athletes and to investigate the mediating effect of harmonious passion and obsessive passion on cohesion and mental toughness. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted on 326 Chinese active athletes (M = 19.63, SD = 6.51) aged 14–26 years (54% male, 46% female) from eight sports. Results: Cohesion and its dimensions can positively predict athletes’ mental toughness, and ATG-T is more important in advantage analysis. The direct and indirect paths show that cohesion affects mental toughness through the mediating effect of harmonious passion and obsessive passion. Mediating effect model has a good fit and explained 22.1% of the variance in mental toughness. Conclusion: The relationship between cohesion, passion, and mental toughness reflects the psychological dynamic process from environment to motivation to sports performance. The development of team sports athletes’ mental toughness can be carried out from the following points. First, the team should define a sports goal and take the needs of members into account in goal-setting. Second, the sports team should build a team culture that is enterprising, inclusive, and cooperative and emphasizes members’ recognition of them. Third, the team should attach importance to the passion of the members and make good use of the team atmosphere. To protect the psychological health and long-term development of athletes, team culture should pay more attention to the cultivation of athletes’ harmonious passion. Improving cohesion is beneficial to athletes’ mental toughness in team sports. To protect the psychological health and long-term development of athletes, team culture should pay more attention to the cultivation of athletes’ harmonious passion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 895 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of 5v5 and 3x3 Men’s Basketball Regarding Shot Selection and Efficiency
by Zoltan Boros, Kata Toth, Gergely Csurilla and Tamas Sterbenz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215137 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Background: Both in 5v5 and 3x3 basketball, the goal of the players is to score more points than the opponent. However, the differences in rules between two basketball disciplines can affect thinking, behaviour, and decisions of the players. A core difference between two [...] Read more.
Background: Both in 5v5 and 3x3 basketball, the goal of the players is to score more points than the opponent. However, the differences in rules between two basketball disciplines can affect thinking, behaviour, and decisions of the players. A core difference between two disciplines is the value of the shots. In 5v5, long-range shots are worth three points and close-range two, while in 3x3, their values are two and one points, respectively. As the value ratio of the close and long-range shots is greater in 3x3, we assume that players make different decisions about their shot selection in 3x3 than in 5v5, which can affect offensive efficiency. Methods: We analysed game statistics of the 2019 men’s 5v5 and 3x3 Basketball World Cups. Besides regular statistical indicators, we applied relative offensive rating to be able to compare the two disciplines. Results: The analysis of relative offensive rating showed that offences are more effective in 5v5 than in 3x3. We also found significant difference in shot selection and efficiency. In 3x3, there is a higher proportion of the shots than in 5v5, but long-range shots are more successful in 5v5. Conclusions: For rule differences that affect player’s shot selection and affect offensive efficiency, their decisions are characterized by ecological dynamics and naturalistic decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 517 KiB  
Article
Competencies That Japanese Collegiate Sports Coaches Require for Dual-Career Support for Student Athletes
by Goichi Hagiwara, Kayoko Kurita, Shinichi Warisawa, Satori Hachisuka, Jim Ueda, Kensuke Ehara, Katsuhiko Ishikawa, Kosei Inoue, Daisuke Akiyama, Masakatsu Nakada and Masafumi Fujii
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811503 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to clarify coaches’ competencies (COM) regarding dual-career (DC) support for student athletes in Japan. The questionnaire survey was conducted at 31 universities with an online survey URL that was distributed to 300 collegiate athletic coaches. In total, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to clarify coaches’ competencies (COM) regarding dual-career (DC) support for student athletes in Japan. The questionnaire survey was conducted at 31 universities with an online survey URL that was distributed to 300 collegiate athletic coaches. In total, there were 152 respondents (female, 19; male, 133; mean age, 43.15 ± 12.07 years; coaching experience, 12.83 ± 9.72 years). The online survey adopted a Japanese-translated version of the Dual-Career Competency Questionnaire (DCCQ), which has been translated into nine languages and is widely used in European counties. The scale consists of six factors and 33 items, each rated on a five-point scale of importance (IM) and possession (PO). The Japanese version of the DCCQ was validated through a confirmatory factor analysis, and the internal consistency of the items was confirmed by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. In addition, we examined differences between the IM and PO for DC support by t-tests and by calculating effect sizes. The validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the DCCQ were confirmed based on the goodness-of-fit index and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, respectively. Our examination of the differences between IM and PO in DC support revealed that coaches perceived the importance of DC support but did not possess the necessary COM to offer DC support. That finding was similar to those of previous European studies. In particular, the Japanese coaches who participated in our online survey recognized the importance of COM in terms of “collaboration with various stakeholders and departments” for DC support but did not feel as though they held sufficient COM in that regard. In other words, the improvement of DC support requires the development of a coaching program that fosters COM to work with various stakeholders. This key insight provides a direction and specific focus for programs to improve coaches’ DC support for student athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
11 pages, 368 KiB  
Article
Parental Stressors in Sports Influenced by Attributes of Parents and Their Children
by Krisztina Kovács, Rita F. Földi, Gábor Géczi and Noémi Gyömbér
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138015 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3335
Abstract
(1) Background: Although parental behavior is known to be an important source of influence, relatively few studies have examined the factors possibly contributing parental stressors as being directly related to their children’s sport socialization. The present study explored the relative importance of related [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Although parental behavior is known to be an important source of influence, relatively few studies have examined the factors possibly contributing parental stressors as being directly related to their children’s sport socialization. The present study explored the relative importance of related parental stressors and the associations between these stressors and various types of parental involvement. (2) Method: A total of 1260 parents completed an online form including demographic questions, questions on their children’s sport participation, and three self-report measures (PSSS, PISQ, and PASSES). (3) Results: The results revealed that the multiple linear regression models for overall parental stress were statistically significant. The significant predictors were the parent’s educational level, the child’s current stage of sports participation, and the child’s sport injury (or the lack thereof). Furthermore, the stressors perceived by parents were positively associated with parental direct behavior and pressure. (4) Conclusions: Parents are under more stress as their child’s stages of sport development increases, if their child has already had a sports injury, and the parents’ directive behavior and experienced stress were significantly associated. The obtained results expand the existing knowledge of the complexity of parents’ importance in children’s sports careers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
14 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between the Color of Electronic Protectors and the Outcome in Taekwondo Matches: Is There Fairness in National Competitions?
by Gennaro Apollaro, Pedro Vieira Sarmet Moreira, Yarisel Quiñones Rodríguez, Verónica Morales-Sánchez and Coral Falcó
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127243 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Although research on the effect of color in taekwondo has involved several international competitions, no previous study has investigated the presence of this phenomenon in national-level competitions. The main objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between the color protectors and [...] Read more.
Although research on the effect of color in taekwondo has involved several international competitions, no previous study has investigated the presence of this phenomenon in national-level competitions. The main objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between the color protectors and success in 1155 taekwondo matches of the Italian and Uzbekistan Senior Championships (ITA-SC and UZB-SC) (2019 and 2021). The results showed no relationship between the color protectors and the match outcome, in both ITA-SC and UZB-SC (p = 0.71, V = 0.01; p = 0.61, V = 0.02). Moreover, no relationship emerged between the color protectors and the match outcome in the four editions of the SC. Stratifying analyses by weight category and sex, males showed positive relationships between the color blue/red and winning the match in 3 and 1 of 16 weight categories, respectively. Contrary, females showed positive relationships between the color blue/red and winning the match in 1 and 3 of 16 weight categories, respectively. Analyzing the two national contexts found that, in both the Italian and Uzbek contexts, matches in 2 and 2 of 16 weight categories were won by athletes wearing blue and red protectors, respectively. Significant relationships emerged between the color blue and winning the match with small asymmetry in the men’s UZB-SC and between the color red and winning the match with large asymmetry in the female ITA-SC. The implementation of the electronic point recording system for the body and head has had a positive impact on fairness in national taekwondo competitions, did not detect any effect of color related to cultural context, and did not allow for the color red to tip the scales between losing and winning in matches between athletes of similar ability and strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Understanding Players’ Sportspersonship Attitude, Expectancy-Related Beliefs, and Subjective Task Values in Field Hockey: An Integrated Approach
by Kanagarajah Rarujanai, Eng Wah Teo, Chin Ngien Siong, Arthur Ling and Garry Kuan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084819 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between expectancy-value components and attitudes toward sportspersonship among Malaysian adolescent field hockey players. This study also examined the effect of expectancy beliefs, task values, and sportspersonship attitude on the motivation of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between expectancy-value components and attitudes toward sportspersonship among Malaysian adolescent field hockey players. This study also examined the effect of expectancy beliefs, task values, and sportspersonship attitude on the motivation of adolescent field hockey players by gender and age group. (2) Methods: The Malay versioned Expectancy Value Model Questionnaire and the Malay versioned Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale were administered on 730 respondents (µ = 15.46 ± 1.83 years). (3) Results: The expectancy values and attainment value (r = 0.894), utility value and attainment value (r = 0.833) were highly correlated. There was no significant gender difference in expectancy, task values, and sportspersonship attitude dimensions. The main effect of age group was significant on task values: F (2724) = 4.19; p = 0.01. The difference was indicated between age groups of 15–16 years and 12–14 years (p = 0.02, d = 0.014) under task values variable. (4) Conclusions: There is no significant relationships between sportspersonship attitude (MSOS-M) and of expectancy beliefs and task values (EVMQ-M). To conclude, female and younger players demonstrate lower expectancy beliefs, task values, and sportspersonship attitudes than male and older field hockey players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy in the Relationship between Approach Motivational System and Sports Success among Elite Speed Skating Athletes and Physical Education Students
by Aleksandra M. Rogowska, Rafał Tataruch, Konrad Niedźwiecki and Bożena Wojciechowska-Maszkowska
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052899 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3804
Abstract
Background: While the association between self-efficacy and sports success has been well established in previous studies, little is known regarding whether the basic approach motivation system contributes to this relationship in athletes. The study examines associations between self-reported temperamental approach disposition, self-efficacy, and [...] Read more.
Background: While the association between self-efficacy and sports success has been well established in previous studies, little is known regarding whether the basic approach motivation system contributes to this relationship in athletes. The study examines associations between self-reported temperamental approach disposition, self-efficacy, and predispositions to sports success in athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between August 3 and 30 November 2020. The participants were 156 athletes, aged 16–34 years (M = 21.57, SD = 3.58, 41.67% women), in two groups: 54 elite athletes in speed skating (EASS) and 102 physical education students (PES). The online survey consisted of the Reinforced Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and Sports Success Scale (SSS). Results: There were no differences in self-efficacy and sports success in terms of gender, sports discipline, and level of competitions. The Behavioral Activation System (BAS) results were lower in the EASS sample compared with in the PES group. Self-efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationships between BAS and sports success among athletes, with sport discipline as a moderator between BAS and self-efficacy. Sports success in speed skating relies strongly on BAS, while a weak link has been found in other sports disciplines. Conclusions: BAS is directly correlated to sports success and indirectly related through self-efficacy. Mental training should be focused on maintaining self-efficacy and reward motivation in athletes to increase their sports success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Psychology for Athletes and Coaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop