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Special Issue "Pediatric Infectious Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Karin Nielsen-Saines

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pediatric and perinatal HIV; HIV pathogenesis; prevention of mother to child HIV transmission; antiretroviral treatment of children; congenital infections; tropical diseases in children; viral illnesses; vaccine preventable diseases; pediatric global health; emerging infectious diseases in children; pediatric infections in the immunocompromised host

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on “Pediatric Infectious Diseases”. The venue is an ISI-indexed, peer-reviewed scientific journal in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Pediatric infectious diseases comprise a substantial gamut of conditions, infections, and approaches, which are essential to the practice of Pediatrics. From the neonate to the young adult, individuals of any age range are susceptible to infections, whether pathogenic or opportunistic organisms are involved. Children, given their environment, immature immune systems, and lack of prior exposure, are especially susceptible to infections, which happen following first or recurrent encounters with viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, or other pathogens in their early years. The landscape of pediatric infectious diseases is highly variable, depending on the surrounding burden of disease, the rate of immunization in the community, the inherent immune status of the host, and the child’s age and the environment, varying widely from developing to developed country, from the community to hospitalized patients. Prevention and treatment approaches highly impact the dynamics of circulating pathogens, such as vaccinations or indiscriminate use of antibiotics for example. Innocuous organisms can be lethal to immunocompromised patients in one instance or become highly opportunistic in the face of another offending agent. Conversely, emerging infectious agents play an important role in the field of pediatric infectious diseases. Infections in children often have specific pathogenic mechanisms, which differ from that of adults, while diagnostics and management of infectious diseases in pediatrics may be very distinct from that of other patient populations.

We invite international researchers to conbribute a variety of manuscripts to this Special Issue, including original research articles, review articles, and essays that will add to the current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, prevention and management of infectious disease processes in children. The listed keywords suggest a few of many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Karin Nielsen-Saines
Guest Editor


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • acute and chronic infections in children
  • tuberculosis in children
  • tropical diseases in children
  • parasitic diseases in children
  • disease processes in pediatric infectious diseases
  • congenital and perinatal infections
  • phase 1, 3 or 3 clinical trials of treatment or prevention in pediatric infectious diseases
  • diagnostics of infectious diseases in children
  • immunizations
  • vaccine preventable diseases
  • infectious diseases in the developing world
  • perinatal, pediatric and adolescent HIV disease and prevention
  • antibiotics, antifungals or antiviral studies in children
  • antibiotic stewardship in pediatrics
  • pediatric infection control
  • infections in the pediatric immunocompromised host
  • sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents
  • prevention, control, and treatment of infectious diseases

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Epidemiologic, Microbiologic and Clinical Picture of Bacteremia among Febrile Infants and Young Children Managed as Outpatients at the Emergency Room, before and after Initiation of the Routine Anti-Pneumococcal Immunization
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070723
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 9 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We described the occult bacteremia (OB) and bacteremia with diagnosed focus (BwF) picture among children managed as outpatients at the pediatric emergency room (PER) in southern Israel, before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) introduction in a retrospective study enrolling [...] Read more.
We described the occult bacteremia (OB) and bacteremia with diagnosed focus (BwF) picture among children managed as outpatients at the pediatric emergency room (PER) in southern Israel, before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) introduction in a retrospective study enrolling all three- to 36-month-old patients with fever >38.0 °C during 2005–2014. Of 511 (0.82% of all febrile patients) true bacteremias, 230 (45%) were managed as outpatients; 96 of 230 (41.7%) had OB and 134 (3.59%) had BwF. OB and BwF rates were 0.22% and 3.02%, respectively. A significant decrease was noted in OB and BwF rates (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.02, respectively). S. pneumoniae (SP, 37.5%), K. kingae (11.4%) and Brucella spp. (8.7%) were the most common OB pathogens and SP (29.8%), S. viridans (13.4%), and Brucella spp. (12.7%) were the most common in BwF patients. PCV13 serotypes were not found among the serotypes isolated post-PCV13 introduction. During 2010–2014 there was an increase in non-PCV13 serotype isolation (p = 0.005). SP was the main pathogen isolated among patients with pneumonia, acute otitis media (AOM) and periorbital cellulitis (62.5%, 33.3% and 60%, respectively). OB and BwF decreased following the introduction of PCVs and SP was the main pathogen in both conditions. Vaccine-SP serotypes were not isolated in OB after PCV13 introduction and non-vaccine serotypes increased significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070666
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3) Results: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males). Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1–6.8), HIV infection (3.1; 1.7–5.5), and WAZ <−3 (3.1; 1.6–5.7) as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4) Conclusions: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial elements for ensuring full recovery and improve child survival in malnourished Zambian children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV-1 Infection: Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment in the Brazilian Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060615
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and [...] Read more.
Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and social factors that might be associated with the caregivers’ role in the treatment adherence of children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV). Based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires applied to 69 caregivers seen at pediatric AIDS services of five Brazilian macro-regions, we observed that adherent caregivers had better acceptance of diagnosis and treatment, were less likely to face discrimination and social isolation secondary to AIDS-related stigma and tended to believe in the efficacy of treatment, and to be more optimistic about life perspectives of CALHIV. Interventions aiming to improve adherence and to promote the health of CALHIV should take in consideration the interplay of such different factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Viral Suppression and Resistance in a Cohort of Perinatally-HIV Infected (PHIV+) Pregnant Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060568
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our objective was to describe viral suppression and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in an ongoing cohort of perinatally-infected HIV+ (PHIV+) pregnant women. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. From 2011 to 2014, we followed 22 PHIV+ pregnant women. Median age at prenatal [...] Read more.
Our objective was to describe viral suppression and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in an ongoing cohort of perinatally-infected HIV+ (PHIV+) pregnant women. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. From 2011 to 2014, we followed 22 PHIV+ pregnant women. Median age at prenatal entry was 19 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 17.6–21.0); 86% had an AIDS diagnosis; 81% had disclosed their HIV status to partner 11. The median age at HIV diagnosis was 8.3 y (IQR 4.0–13.6), the median age at sexual debut was 16 years (IQR 14–18). At the time of prenatal care initiation, four (18%) were on their first antiretroviral treatment (ART), eight (36%) in their second regimen and nine (41%) in their third regimen or beyond, and one had no data. Seventeen of 22 (77%) had HIV-viral load (VL) > 50 copies/mL at prenatal care entry, 16 had a genotyping exam performed. Seventeen of 22 PHIV+ had VL results near delivery: 7/17 (41%) had VL < 50 copies/mL. Among those who had genotyping at prenatal entry, 11/16 (69%) had mutations associated with ARV resistance. The most frequent major mutations were K103N, M184V, T215, M41L, D67N at reverse transcriptase gene and M46, I54V and V82A at protease gene. No vertical transmissions occurred. Management of pregnancy among PHIV+ is challenging. Individualized ART are needed to achieve viral suppression in a highly ART-exposed subpopulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050481
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (4590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with [...] Read more.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050475
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region) between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from [...] Read more.
Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region) between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%), aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10). Of these, 44 children (28.4%) were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9%) were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%), aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Case of Acute Osteomyelitis: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060539
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteomyelitis in children is a serious disease in children requiring early diagnosis and treatment to minimize the risk of sequelae. Therefore, it is of primary importance to recognize the signs and symptoms at the onset and to properly use the available diagnostic tools. [...] Read more.
Osteomyelitis in children is a serious disease in children requiring early diagnosis and treatment to minimize the risk of sequelae. Therefore, it is of primary importance to recognize the signs and symptoms at the onset and to properly use the available diagnostic tools. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion and be aware of the evolving epidemiology and of the emergence of antibiotic resistant and aggressive strains requiring careful monitoring and targeted therapy. Hereby we present an instructive case and review the literature data on diagnosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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