Special Issue "Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antonio Sousa
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Guest Editor
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: concurrent training; aerobic training; strength training; combined training; sprint; velocity loss; training; exercise; force; strength and conditioning; sport training; athletic training
Dr. Ricardo Manuel Pires Ferraz
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sport Science, University of Beira-Interior (UBI/CIDESD), 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: exercise science; sports science; exercise performance; strength and conditioning; exercise testing, exercise intervention; physical education; football; motor skills; volleyball; psycophysiology
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Dr. Daniel Almeida Marinho
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: health fitness and exercise; sports biomechanics; exercise physiology; resistance training; strength training; concurrent training; performance assessment; strength and conditioning; physical fitness; exercise evaluation; exercise prescription; swimming; water aerobics; warm-up procedures; recovery procedures
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mário António Cardoso Marques
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Guest Editor
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: training; resistance training; older adults; frailty; evaluation; performance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Henrique Pereira Neiva
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Guest Editor
Department of Sport Science, University of Beira-Interior (UBI/CIDESD), 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: strength and conditioning; health fitness and exercise; sports biomechanics; exercise physiology; resistance training; strength training; concurrent training; performance assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monitoring and evaluation of training, which is often understood as the simplistic designation of training control, is considered to be a fundamental aspect in the planning of any sport and has represented for some years a primary task of the training process. The major purpose of these monitoring processes is the increase in training efficiency, which leads to performance improvement in sports and exercise. To achieve this, it is urgent to have concrete and objective mechanisms that reflect the real state of sports preparation of the athlete; therefore, several assessments have been developed in recent years, and evaluation procedures have been created to provide specific information about the fitness status of athletes and to consequently provide recommendations. In summary, we can say that the evaluation and control of training is, nowadays, a fundamental task of the training process, enabling coaches and technical teams to (i) identify subjects with increased potential; (ii) guide young people towards activities that best suit their abilities; (iii) know the current training and development status of the athlete; (iv) evaluate the effects of training; (v) know the advantages and difficulties to the athlete concerning the referred modality; (vi) collect information about the athlete's health status; (vii) objectify and confirm (or not) the subjective impressions resulting from the continuous observation of the athlete; (viii) verify the adequacy of the training plan; (ix) verify in a timely manner the best or worst development of a particular capacity; (x) longitudinally follow the progress linked to the training process; (xi) detect any flaws and weaknesses in the training process and validate new procedures;

(xii) profile the athlete's main capabilities; and (xiii) predict future sports performance. Following these evaluation and control procedures would allow us to better understand the body and the requirements of the sport in order to increase motivational levels by creating a feeling that other agents are committed to contributing to their evolution, to quantify participation in the training process, and to understand the rationale for the process. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high academic standard coupled with a practical focus on providing optimal solutions for this theme.

Dr. Antonio Sousa
Dr. Daniel Almeida Marinho
Dr. Henrique Pereira Neiva
Dr. Mário António Cardoso Marques
Dr. Ricardo Manuel Pires Ferraz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • training
  • evaluation
  • control
  • sports
  • performance

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Five Bench Inclinations on the Electromyographic Activity of the Pectoralis Major, Anterior Deltoid, and Triceps Brachii during the Bench Press Exercise
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197339 - 08 Oct 2020
Abstract
The bench press exercise is one of the most used for training and for evaluating upper-body strength. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity levels of the pectoralis major (PM) in its three portions (upper portion, PMUP, [...] Read more.
The bench press exercise is one of the most used for training and for evaluating upper-body strength. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity levels of the pectoralis major (PM) in its three portions (upper portion, PMUP, middle portion, PMMP, and lower portion, PMLP), the anterior deltoid (AD), and the triceps brachii (TB) medial head during the bench press exercise at five bench angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). Thirty trained adults participated in the study. The EMG activity of the muscles was recorded at the aforementioned inclinations at 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). The results showed that the maximal EMG activity for PMUP occurred at a bench inclination of 30°. PMMP and PMLP showed higher EMG activity at a 0° bench inclination. AD had the highest EMG activity at 60°. TB showed similar EMG activities at all bench inclinations. In conclusion, the horizontal bench press produces similar electromyographic activities for the pectoralis major and the anterior deltoid. An inclination of 30° produces greater activation of the upper portion of the pectoralis major. Inclinations greater than 45° produce significantly higher activation of the anterior deltoid and decrease the muscular performance of the pectoralis major. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultimate Full Contact: Fight Outcome Characterization Concerning Their Methods, Occurrence Times and Technical–Tactical Developments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197094 - 28 Sep 2020
Abstract
Fight analysis produces relevant technical–tactical information. However, this knowledge is limited in hybrid full-contact combat sports. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the results of the fights’ outcomes through the winners at the World Ultimate Full Contact (WUFC) Championships between 2008 and 2017. [...] Read more.
Fight analysis produces relevant technical–tactical information. However, this knowledge is limited in hybrid full-contact combat sports. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the results of the fights’ outcomes through the winners at the World Ultimate Full Contact (WUFC) Championships between 2008 and 2017. Methods: 170 combats between senior male fighters (master class) from 38 countries were observed; all fight outcome methods, their occurrence times, inherent skills and their development forms were analyzed through frequencies, percentages, crosstabs and chi-square test, considering a Fisher’s exact value of p < 0.05. The fight outcome methods were, in decreasing order, as follows: submission; decision and technical knockout (TKO); knockout (KO); and doctor stoppage. Only 19.4% fights completed the regular time 10 min (600 s), and 68.8% fight outcomes occurred in the first 5 min (300 s). Chokes were more used than joint locks, primarily developed in single actions. Head punches and kicks were the skills most responsible for KO, developed more in combinations and counter-attacks, while TKO was always through combination attacks and mostly by ground and pound. Ground fighting is most effective. In stand-up fighting, combination attacks and counter-attack are most effective. It is important to increase the technical–tactical capacities and adjustable decision-making to perform the regular fight time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise)
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Specific Warm-up during Bench Press and Squat Exercises: A Novel Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186882 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
The current study aims to verify the effects of three specific warm-ups on squat and bench press resistance training. Forty resistance-trained males (19–30 years) performed 3 × 6 repetitions with 80% of maximal dynamic strength (designated as training load) after one of the [...] Read more.
The current study aims to verify the effects of three specific warm-ups on squat and bench press resistance training. Forty resistance-trained males (19–30 years) performed 3 × 6 repetitions with 80% of maximal dynamic strength (designated as training load) after one of the following warm-ups (48 h between): (i) 2 × 6 repetitions with 40% and 80% of the training load (WU), (ii) 6 × 80% of training load (WU80), or (iii) 6 × 40% of the training load (WU40). Mean propulsive velocity (MPV), velocity loss (VL), peak velocity (PV), time to achieve PV, power, work, heart rates, and ratings of perceived exertion were analyzed. In squat exercises, higher MPV were found in WU80 compared with WU40 (2nd set: 0.69 ± 0.09 vs. 0.67 ± 0.06 m.s−1, p = 0.02, ES = 0.80; 3rd set: 0.68 ± 0.09 vs. 0.66 ± 0.07 m.s−1, p = 0.05, ES = 0.51). In bench press exercises, time to PV was lower in WU compared with WU40 (1st set: 574.77 ± 233.46 vs. 694.50 ± 211.71 m.s−1, p < 0.01, ES = 0.69; 2nd set: 533.19 ± 272.22 vs. 662.31 ± 257.51 m.s−1, p = 0.04, ES = 0.43) and total work was higher (4749.90 ± 1312.99 vs. 4631.80 ± 1355.01 j, p = 0.01, ES = 0.54). The results showed that force outputs were mainly optimized by WU80 in squat training and by WU in bench press training. Moreover, warming-up with few repetitions and low loads is not enough to optimize squat and bench press performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
The Drag Crisis Phenomenon on an Elite Road Cyclist—A Preliminary Numerical Simulations Analysis in the Aero Position at Different Speeds
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145003 - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
The drag crisis phenomenon is the drop of drag coefficient (Cd) with increasing Reynolds number (Re) or speed. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothetical drag crisis phenomenon in a sports setting, assessing it in [...] Read more.
The drag crisis phenomenon is the drop of drag coefficient (Cd) with increasing Reynolds number (Re) or speed. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothetical drag crisis phenomenon in a sports setting, assessing it in a bicycle–cyclist system. A male elite-level cyclist was recruited for this research and his competition bicycle, helmet, suit, and shoes were used. A three-dimensional (3D) geometry was obtained with a 3D scan with the subject in a static aero position. A domain with 7 m of length, 2.5 m of width and 2.5 m of height was created around the cyclist. The domain was meshed with 42 million elements. Numerical simulations by computer fluid dynamics (CFD) fluent numerical code were conducted at speeds between 1 m/s and 22 m/s, with increments of 1 m/s. The drag coefficient ranged between 0.60 and 0.95 across different speeds and Re. The highest value was observed at 2 m/s (Cd = 0.95) and Re of 3.21 × 105, whereas the lower Cd was noted at 9 m/s (Cd = 0.60) and 9.63 × 105. A drag crisis was noted between 3 m/s and 9 m/s. Pressure Cd ranged from 0.35 to 0.52 and the lowest value was observed at 3 m/s and the highest at 2 m/s. The viscous drag coefficient ranged between 0.15 and 0.43 and presented a trend decreasing from 4 m/s to 22 m/s. Coaches, cyclists, researchers, and support staff must consider that Cd varies with speed and Re, and the bicycle–cyclist dimensions, shape, or form may affect drag and performance estimations. As a conclusion, this preliminary work noted a drag crisis between 3 m/s and 9 m/s in a cyclist in the aero position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Knowing the Task’s Duration on Soccer Players’ Positioning and Pacing Behaviour during Small-Sided Games
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113843 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
The study aimed to identify how the manipulation of knowledge regarding a training task duration constrains the pacing and tactical behaviour of soccer players when playing small-sided games (SSG). Twenty professional and experienced soccer players participated in a cross-sectional field study using three [...] Read more.
The study aimed to identify how the manipulation of knowledge regarding a training task duration constrains the pacing and tactical behaviour of soccer players when playing small-sided games (SSG). Twenty professional and experienced soccer players participated in a cross-sectional field study using three conditions: not informed on the duration of the SSG, which ended after 20 min (Unknown Condition); briefed about playing the SSG for 10 min, but after they completed the 10-min game, they were requested to complete another 10 min (Partial Condition) and informed before that they would play for 20 min (Known Condition). A global positioning system was used to measure the total distance covered and distances of different exercise training zones (walking to sprinting) and to access the dynamic players positioning through the distance from each player to all the teammates and opponents. Additionally, approximate entropy was measured to identify the regularity pattern of each gathered individual variable. The results indicate that the first 10 min of each scenario presented a higher physical impact independently of the initial information. During this time, the tactical behaviour also revealed higher variability. An increase in the distance of the teammates during the second period of 10-min for the Known scenario was also found, which may result from a lower pacing strategy. This study showed that the prior knowledge of the task duration led to different physical and tactical behaviours of the players. Furthermore, the relationship between the physical impact and the regularity of team game patterns should be well analysed by the coach, because the physical impact may be harmful to the development of the collective organization of the team. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior and Physical Fitness in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228660 - 21 Nov 2020
Abstract
Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor to health. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine associations between objectively measured sedentary time and physical fitness components in healthy adults. Methods: Four electronic databases (Web [...] Read more.
Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor to health. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine associations between objectively measured sedentary time and physical fitness components in healthy adults. Methods: Four electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed and Sport Discus) were searched (up to 20 September 2020) to retrieve studies on healthy adults which used observational, cohort and cross-sectional designs. Studies were included if sedentary time was measured objectively and examined associations with the health- or skill-related attributes of physical fitness (e.g., muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance). After applying additional search criteria, 21 papers (11,101 participants) were selected from an initial pool of 5192 identified papers. Results: Significant negative associations were found between total sedentary time with cardiorespiratory fitness (r = −0.164, 95%CI: −0.240, −0.086, p < 0.001), muscular strength (r = −0.147, 95%CI: −0.266, −0.024, p = 0.020) and balance (r = −0.133, 95%CI: −0.255, −0.006, p = 0.040). Conclusions: The evidence found suggests that sedentary time can be associated with poor physical fitness in adults (i.e., muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and balance), so strategies should be created to encourage behavioral changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Training in Sport and Exercise)
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