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Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2022) | Viewed by 97572

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Research Centre for Public Health, Equity and Human Flourishing, Torrens University Australia, Adelaide Campus, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Interests: migration and migrants health; health inequities; communicable and non-communicable disease; social determinants of health; mixed methods research; global and public health in general
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Assistant Guest Editor
College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: public health; epidemiology; communicable disease; Tb/HIV care; sexual and reproductive health; social determinants of health

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Assistant Guest Editor
Centre for Public Health, Equity and Human Flourishing, Torrens University Australia, 88 Wakefield St., Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Interests: social determinants of health; HIV risk factors; HIV transmission and impacts; HIV care; access to healthcare services; mental health; migrants’ health; disability and social and emotional wellbeing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Assistant Guest Editor
School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Cairns, QLD 4701, Australia
Interests: migrant/refugee health; health equity; communicable and non-communicable diseases; epidemiology; social determinants of health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the centuries, migration has always been, to some extent, a feature of human populations, with people migrating and crisscrossing the globe for a wide range of reasons. In recent times, particularly during the 21st century, there have been significant increases and changes in international migration and resettlement patterns due to factors such as people’s ability to travel, ease of communication and technology, civil unrest and conflicts. As a result of these factors, global populations have increased and integrated across settings, challenging the differentiation between types of migrants such as refugees (those migrating because of factors such as civil unrest, wars, persecution or other vulnerability) and economic migrants.

This mixture of migration and resettlement patterns will continue for generations and due to these diverse, multicultural and complex communities, we will need more research to provide evidence to inform nations and global responses to any emergences. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the migration, resilience and vulnerability and general migrants’ health. Original research papers, case reports, reviews and conference papers are welcome to this issue. Articles dealing with new approaches to address issues, including migration (opportunities, challenges and vulnerability), migrants’ health, settlement and migrant health care service access and specific migrants’ subgroups will be accepted. Other manuscript types to be accepted will include methodological papers, position papers, policy briefs and reports and commentaries. We will accept manuscripts from different disciplines, including public health, social and behavioural sciences, anthropology, epidemiology, psychology and demography.

Dr. Lillian Mwanri
Dr. Hailay Gesesew
Dr. Nelsensius Klau Fauk
Dr. William Mude
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • migration
  • migrant health
  • mental health
  • refugee health
  • special migrants’ populations
  • resilience
  • vulnerability
  • public health
  • methodological approaches

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 257 KiB  
Editorial
Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health
by Lillian Mwanri, Nelsensius Klau Fauk, William Mude and Hailay Abrha Gesesew
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811525 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Migration has always been a feature of human populations, with people migrating and crisscrossing the globe for a wide range of reasons [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

9 pages, 496 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Myanmar Migrant Workers in Thailand
by Thin Nyein Nyein Aung, Yoshihisa Shirayama, Saiyud Moolphate, Thaworn Lorga, Warunyou Jamnongprasatporn, Motoyuki Yuasa and Myo Nyein Aung
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063511 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend worldwide, and the COVID-19 pandemic may interrupt or delay NCD care, the leading cause of mortality in Thailand, which is hosting 2–3 million migrant workers. The transition of epidemiological risk factors, limited access to [...] Read more.
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend worldwide, and the COVID-19 pandemic may interrupt or delay NCD care, the leading cause of mortality in Thailand, which is hosting 2–3 million migrant workers. The transition of epidemiological risk factors, limited access to health-promoting activities, and pandemic containment measures may adversely impact NCD risks. Therefore, hypertension and associated risk factors were determined among registered Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with structured questionnaires was conducted in Thailand in 2017. Having hypertension was analyzed as a dependent variable, and the associated risk factors were explored by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 414 participants with a mean age of 29.45 ± 9.03 years were included, and 27.8 percent of the study participants were hypertensive, which was a rate higher than that in their host country (24.7%) and country of origin (26.4%). An older age, being male, current alcohol drinking, and being overweight and obese with reference to the body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions: Our findings reaffirmed the idea that NCDs are important public health concerns, and a simple BMI measurement would be a valuable tool with which to determine hypertension risks. Targeted surveillance and an appropriate health policy are necessary for such a vulnerable population in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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15 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Internal Migration Experience and Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from China
by Xiaodong Zheng, Yue Zhang, Yu Chen and Xiangming Fang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010303 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to examine the association of internal migration experience with depressive symptoms among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, as well as explore possible mechanisms of the relationship. Methods: Participants were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to examine the association of internal migration experience with depressive symptoms among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, as well as explore possible mechanisms of the relationship. Methods: Participants were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative sample of residents aged 45 years and older (n = 43,854). Survey data on depressive symptoms and internal migration experience were collected from biennial CHARLS surveys (CHARLS 2011/2013/2015) and a unique CHARLS life history survey in 2014, respectively. Multiple logistic regressions and the Karlson–Holm–Breen (KHB) method were employed in the statistical analyses. Results: The overall prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults was 34.6%. Internal migration experience was associated with higher risks of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02–1.12, p < 0.01), especially among females (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14, p < 0.05), middle-aged adults (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.06–1.19, p < 0.001), rural-to-urban migrants who had not obtained an urban hukou (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07–1.19, p < 0.001), and those who had low migration frequency and first migrated out at 35 years of age or older. Chronic disease (17.98%, p < 0.001), physical injury (7.04%, p < 0.001), medical expenditure (7.98%, p < 0.001), pension insurance (4.91%, p < 0.001), and parent–child interaction (4.45%, p < 0.01) were shown to mediate the association of internal migration experience with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This study indicates that there is a significant association between internal migration experience and high risks of depression onset later in life. It is suggested to reduce institutional barriers for migrants and implement evidence-based interventions to improve migrants’ mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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13 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Impact of Family Separation on Subjective Time Pressure and Mental Health in Refugees from the Middle East and Africa Resettled in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Matthias Hans Belau, Heiko Becher and Alexander Kraemer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111722 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Little is known about social determinants among refugees resettled in Germany. This study aims to examine the impact of family separation on refugees’ subjective time pressure and mental health. Data come from the FlueGe Health Study (n = 208), a cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Little is known about social determinants among refugees resettled in Germany. This study aims to examine the impact of family separation on refugees’ subjective time pressure and mental health. Data come from the FlueGe Health Study (n = 208), a cross-sectional study administered by Bielefeld University. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate the effect of family separation on (i) being time-stressed and (ii) having a high risk for adverse mental health, considering sociodemographic and postmigration factors. As a result, more than 30% of participants with a spouse or partner and about 18% with a child or children reported separation. Multiple logistic regression showed that family separation was not associated with being time-stressed, but separation from at least one child was associated with adverse mental health (OR = 3.53, 95% CI = [1.23, 10.11]). In conclusion, family separation primarily contributes to adverse mental health among refugees from the Middle East and Africa resettled in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Therefore, policies and practices that facilitate family reunification can contribute significantly to the promotion of refugees’ mental health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
16 pages, 1636 KiB  
Article
Complexities of Socio-Labor Integration in Chile: Migrating Colombian Women’s Experiences
by Jimena Silva Segovia and Estefany Castillo Ravanal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111643 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
The objective of the article is to understand Afro-Colombian women’s emotional experiences of the migratory process, and their labor insertion in Chilean territory. The Antofagasta region is one of the doors that connects Chile with its neighbors; at the same time, it is [...] Read more.
The objective of the article is to understand Afro-Colombian women’s emotional experiences of the migratory process, and their labor insertion in Chilean territory. The Antofagasta region is one of the doors that connects Chile with its neighbors; at the same time, it is a national territory that is linked to important economic and human movements due to its mining activity. In the analysis of the data collected through of group and individual interviews conducted in the city of Antofagasta, we found experiences of xenophobia, labor abuse, discrimination, prejudices, and stereotypes articulated, along with the tendency of Chilean culture to value European traits over native Latin American traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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18 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Race, Ethnicity, Nativity and Perceptions of Health Risk during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US
by Thomas Jamieson, Dakota Caldwell, Barbara Gomez-Aguinaga and Cristián Doña-Reveco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111113 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
Previous research demonstrates that pandemics, including COVID-19, have disproportionate effects on communities of color, further exacerbating existing healthcare inequities. While increasing evidence points to the greater threat posed by COVID-19 to Latinx communities, less remains known about how identification as Latinx and migration [...] Read more.
Previous research demonstrates that pandemics, including COVID-19, have disproportionate effects on communities of color, further exacerbating existing healthcare inequities. While increasing evidence points to the greater threat posed by COVID-19 to Latinx communities, less remains known about how identification as Latinx and migration status influence their perception of risk and harm. In this article, we use cross-sectional data from a large national probability sample to demonstrate a large positive association between ethnic identity and migration status and perceptions of harm from COVID-19 in the US. We find that individuals identifying as Hispanic/Latinx and first-generation immigrants report significantly greater risks of becoming infected by COVID-19 in the next three months, and dying from the virus if they do contract it. Further, subgroup analysis reveals that health risks are especially felt by individuals of Mexican descent, who represent the largest share of US Latinxs. Collectively, our results provide evidence about how the pandemic places increased stress on people from Latinx and immigrant communities relative to White non-Hispanic individuals in the US. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
18 pages, 3534 KiB  
Article
Health Status and Barriers to Healthcare Access among “Son-in-Law Westerners”: A Qualitative Case Study in the Northeast of Thailand
by Sataporn Julchoo, Nareerut Pudpong, Mathudara Phaiyarom, Pigunkaew Sinam, Anon Khunakorncharatphong and Rapeepong Suphanchaimat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111017 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
The northeast of Thailand is well-known as a popular destination where many male Westerners marry Thai women and settle down there. However, little is known about their health and well-being. This study aims to explore the Western husbands’ health status and identify barriers [...] Read more.
The northeast of Thailand is well-known as a popular destination where many male Westerners marry Thai women and settle down there. However, little is known about their health and well-being. This study aims to explore the Western husbands’ health status and identify barriers hindering their healthcare access. A qualitative case study was conducted from November 2020 to May 2021. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 42 key informants who were involved with social and health issues among these expatriates were carried out. The social determinants framework was adapted for guiding the interviews. Data were triangulated with field notes, document reviews, and researchers’ observations. Inductive thematic analysis was applied. Results showed that most male expatriates who married Thai women in the northeast were in their retirement years and had non-communicable diseases, health risk behaviors, and mental health problems. Most of them did not purchase health insurance and held negative impressions toward Thai public hospitals’ quality of care, which was denoted as the main barrier to accessing healthcare services. Other significant barriers consisted of high treatment costs commonly charged by private hospitals and language issues. While the improvement of healthcare quality and the provision of friendly health services are important, public communication with foreign residents, especially male expatriates, is recommended to increase understanding and improve perceptions of the Thai healthcare systems. A regular population-based survey on the health and well-being of expatriates in Thailand, a cost study of a health insurance package, a survey study on willingness to pay for health insurance premiums, and a feasibility survey exploring the opportunity to establish either voluntary or compulsory health insurance among this group should be undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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13 pages, 2219 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Policies to Protect the Health of Urban Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand: A Qualitative Study and Delphi Survey
by Sataporn Julchoo, Mathudara Phaiyarom, Pigunkaew Sinam, Watinee Kunpeuk, Nareerut Pudpong and Rapeepong Suphanchaimat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010566 - 9 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2278
Abstract
The health of urban refugees and asylum seekers (URAS) in Bangkok has been neglected and health policies for USAR have not materialized. This study aimed to explore the views of stakeholders on policies to protect URAS well-being in Thailand. This study conducted a [...] Read more.
The health of urban refugees and asylum seekers (URAS) in Bangkok has been neglected and health policies for USAR have not materialized. This study aimed to explore the views of stakeholders on policies to protect URAS well-being in Thailand. This study conducted a mixed-methods approach comprising both in-depth interviews and Delphi survey. The interview findings revealed six main themes: (1) the government position on URAS; (2) opinions on Thailand becoming a party of the 1951 Refugee Convention; (3) NGOs on health promotion for URAS; (4) options on health insurance management for URAS; (5) working potential of URAS; and (6) uncertainty of future life plans for URAS. The Delphi survey showed that URAS should have the right to acquire a work permit and be enrolled in the public insurance scheme managed by the Ministry of Public Health. Moreover, the ideology of national security was more influential than the concept of human rights. The ambiguity of the central authorities’ policy direction to take care of URAS creates haphazard legal interpretations. The Delphi survey findings suggested the need for a more inclusive policy for URAS, however actual policy implementation requires further research on policy feasibility and acceptance by the wider public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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17 pages, 1496 KiB  
Article
A Cross-Sectional Quantitative Study on Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge and Access to Services of Arab and Kurdish Syrian Refugee Young Women Living in an Urban Setting in Lebanon
by Rayan Korri, Guenter Froeschl and Olena Ivanova
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189586 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3005
Abstract
Since data on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of young refugee women living in urban settings in Lebanon are particularly scarce, we aim through this exploratory study to assess the SRH knowledge and access to services of Arab and Kurdish Syrian refugee [...] Read more.
Since data on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of young refugee women living in urban settings in Lebanon are particularly scarce, we aim through this exploratory study to assess the SRH knowledge and access to services of Arab and Kurdish Syrian refugee young women living in Bourj Hammoud. From January to March 2020, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 297 Syrian Arab and Kurdish participants and aged 18–30 years old. It was found that participants coming from Syrian urban areas or who completed an education above secondary level have higher overall knowledge on SRH issues. Only a total of 148 out of the 297 participants (49.8%) knew a health facility in Bourj Hammoud that provides SRH services and among them 36.4% did not know which type of services are available there. The Syrian refugee young women’s access to SRH services is inadequate due to different obstacles. The overall knowledge level on different SRH topics is limited. The context of multiple crises in Lebanon should be taken into consideration when delivering future SRH services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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15 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Acculturation, Health Behaviors, and Social Relations among Chinese Immigrants Living in Spain
by Barbara Badanta, Juan Vega-Escaño, Sergio Barrientos-Trigo, Lorena Tarriño-Concejero, María Ángeles García-Carpintero Muñoz, María González-Cano-Caballero, Antonio Barbero-Radío, Domingo de-Pedro-Jimenez, Giancarlo Lucchetti and Rocío de Diego-Cordero
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147639 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3342
Abstract
This study aims to identify acculturation experiences about social relations and health behaviors of first-generation Chinese immigrants in the South of Spain, including food patterns, physical exercise, and tobacco and alcohol use. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify acculturation experiences about social relations and health behaviors of first-generation Chinese immigrants in the South of Spain, including food patterns, physical exercise, and tobacco and alcohol use. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, and field notes. All data were analyzed under the Berry’s Model of Acculturation. A total of 133 Chinese immigrants were included. Our findings show that separation was the dominant acculturation strategy, followed by integration and assimilation, while marginalization was not present in this immigrant population. Most of the immigrant population maintains a link to the customs of their home country, favoring the process of identity and collective self-esteem. These results can help health managers and the government to further understand Chinese immigrants in Europe and to establish appropriate health interventions to this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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14 pages, 383 KiB  
Article
Crossing Countries and Crossing Ages: The Difficult Transition to Adulthood of Unaccompanied Migrant Care Leavers
by Federica Gullo, Laura García-Alba, Amaia Bravo and Jorge F. del Valle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136935 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
The social changes experienced in many countries have prolonged the transition to adult life for young people. That being said, those who leave child care cannot afford this privilege, in that they do not benefit from the same support and resources, having to [...] Read more.
The social changes experienced in many countries have prolonged the transition to adult life for young people. That being said, those who leave child care cannot afford this privilege, in that they do not benefit from the same support and resources, having to confront an accelerated transition which exposes them to increased risk of negative outcomes and social exclusion. Moreover, this transition might be even riskier for unaccompanied migrant care leavers, who are four times as vulnerable, given their status as young people in care, as adolescents, as migrants and being unaccompanied. This paper seeks to explore the profiles, needs, and experiences of unaccompanied young migrants in comparison with other care leavers. Data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview to explore their pre-care, in-care, and aftercare experiences. A highly specific profile of unaccompanied young migrants has been revealed that differs from the other care leavers in terms of worse educational, occupational, and economic outcomes, limited support networks, and more obstacles to accessing aftercare supports. Conversely, they also exhibited some strengths, such as having less pre-care, in care, and aftercare traumatic experiences, less psychological distress and fewer risky behaviors compared with other care leavers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
25 pages, 416 KiB  
Article
Mentoring for Improving the Self-Esteem, Resilience, and Hope of Unaccompanied Migrant Youth in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area
by Xavier Alarcón, Magdalena Bobowik and Òscar Prieto-Flores
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105210 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3005
Abstract
In the last few years, the number of unaccompanied youths arriving in Europe has increased steadily. During their settlement in host countries, they are exposed to a great variety of vulnerabilities, which have an impact on their mental health. This research examines the [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the number of unaccompanied youths arriving in Europe has increased steadily. During their settlement in host countries, they are exposed to a great variety of vulnerabilities, which have an impact on their mental health. This research examines the effects of participation in a mentoring programme on the psychological and educational outcomes among unaccompanied migrant youths who live in the Barcelona metropolitan area. Data in this mixed-methods study were obtained from 44 surveys with mentored (treatment group) and non-mentored (control group) male youths who had recently turned 18, as well as through thirty semi-structured interviews with mentored youths, their adult mentors, and non-mentored youths. Our findings indicated that participation in the mentoring programme improved the mentored youths’ self-esteem, resilience, and hope, as well as their desired or expected educational outcomes in this new context. We conclude that well-targeted and problem-specific mentoring programmes have positive and marked effects on unaccompanied migrant youths’ mental health. The social and political implications of these outcomes are also discussed, providing information on how interventions can offer effective networks of support for the settlement and social inclusion of unaccompanied migrant youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
21 pages, 404 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Evaluation of a Mother and Child Center Providing Psychosocial Support to Newly Arrived Female Refugees in a Registration and Reception Center in Germany
by Catharina Zehetmair, David Kindermann, Inga Tegeler, Cassandra Derreza-Greeven, Anna Cranz, Hans-Christoph Friederich and Christoph Nikendei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094480 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
Female refugees are frequently exposed to sexualized, gender-based violence and harassment before, during, and after their flight. Yet female refugee-specific care and protection needs are rarely addressed in host countries. This study aimed to evaluate a mother and child center (MUKI) for female [...] Read more.
Female refugees are frequently exposed to sexualized, gender-based violence and harassment before, during, and after their flight. Yet female refugee-specific care and protection needs are rarely addressed in host countries. This study aimed to evaluate a mother and child center (MUKI) for female refugees in a reception and registration center in Germany. In 2017, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 16 female refugees attending the MUKI and with its five main staff members. We asked the participants about the MUKI’s relevance, encountered difficulties, and suggestions for improvement. The interviewees appreciated the MUKI’s sheltered environment, care services, and socializing opportunities, as well as its women-only concept. Overall, the participants saw overexertion, social engagement-related difficulties, and the MUKI’s noisy environment as key attendance barriers. Interviewed staff primarily reported problems regarding the working conditions, including the high staff and attendee turnover and low general service awareness. The participants advocated an expansion of the MUKI program. The MUKI project underlines that providing newly arrived, vulnerable female refugees with sheltered surroundings and psychosocial services is an essential step toward addressing female refugees’ specific care needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
15 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
Telling Our Stories: Resilience during Resettlement for African Skilled Migrants in Australia
by Lillian Mwanri, Leticia Anderson and Kathomi Gatwiri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083954 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3587
Abstract
Background: Emigration to Australia by people from Africa has grown steadily in the past two decades, with skilled migration an increasingly significant component of migration streams. Challenges to resettlement in Australia by African migrants have been identified, including difficulties securing employment, experiences of [...] Read more.
Background: Emigration to Australia by people from Africa has grown steadily in the past two decades, with skilled migration an increasingly significant component of migration streams. Challenges to resettlement in Australia by African migrants have been identified, including difficulties securing employment, experiences of racism, discrimination and social isolation. These challenges can negatively impact resettlement outcomes, including health and wellbeing. There has been limited research that has examined protective and resilience factors that help highly skilled African migrants mitigate the aforementioned challenges in Australia. This paper discusses how individual and community resilience factors supported successful resettlement Africans in Australia. The paper is contextualised within a larger study which sought to investigate how belonging and identity inform Afrodiasporic experiences of Africans in Australia. Methods: A qualitative inquiry was conducted with twenty-seven (n = 27) skilled African migrants based in South Australia, using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Participants were not directly questioned about ‘resilience,’ but were encouraged to reflect critically on how they navigated the transition to living in Australia, and to identify factors that facilitated a successful resettlement. Results: The study findings revealed a mixture of settlement experiences for participants. Resettlement challenges were observed as barriers to fully meeting expectations of emigration. However, there were significant protective factors reported that supported resilience, including participants’ capacities for excellence and willingness to work hard; the social capital vested in community and family support networks; and African religious and cultural values and traditions. Many participants emphasised their pride in their contributions to Australian society as well as their desire to contribute to changing narratives of what it means to be African in Australia. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that despite challenges, skilled African migrants’ resilience, ambition and determination were significant enablers to a healthy resettlement in Australia, contributing effectively to social, economic and cultural expectations, and subsequently meeting most of their own migration intentions. These findings suggest that resilience factors identified in the study are key elements of integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
16 pages, 379 KiB  
Article
A Walk-In Clinic for Newly Arrived Mentally Burdened Refugees: The Patient Perspective
by Catharina Zehetmair, Valentina Zeyher, Anna Cranz, Beate Ditzen, Sabine C. Herpertz, Rupert Maria Kohl and Christoph Nikendei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052275 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4505
Abstract
Providing refugees with psychosocial support is particularly important considering the high level of mental health problems prevalent in this population. A psychosocial walk-in clinic operating within a state reception and registration center in Germany has been supporting mentally burdened refugees since 2016. This [...] Read more.
Providing refugees with psychosocial support is particularly important considering the high level of mental health problems prevalent in this population. A psychosocial walk-in clinic operating within a state reception and registration center in Germany has been supporting mentally burdened refugees since 2016. This study focused on patients’ perspectives on their mental health burden, the psychosocial walk-in clinic, and future help seeking. We conducted interviews with n = 22 refugees attending the walk-in clinic from March to May 2019. Qualitative analysis focused on the following four topics: (1) mental burden from the patients’ perspective, (2) access to the psychosocial walk-in clinic, (3) perception of counseling sessions, and (4) perception of follow-up treatment. The results show that the majority of interviewees were burdened by psychological and somatic complaints, mostly attributed to past experiences and post-migratory stress. Therapeutic counseling and psychiatric medication were found to be particularly helpful. Most of the participants felt motivated to seek further psychosocial support. Key barriers to seeking psychosocial help included shame, fear of stigma, and lack of information. Overall, the psychosocial walk-in clinic is a highly valued support service for newly arrived refugees with mental health issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
13 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
African Refugee Youth’s Experiences of Navigating Different Cultures in Canada: A “Push and Pull” Experience
by Roberta L. Woodgate and David Shiyokha Busolo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042063 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
Refugee youth face challenges in navigating different cultures in destination countries and require better support. However, we know little about the adaptation experiences of African refugee youth in Canada. Accordingly, this paper presents the adaptation experiences of African refugee youth and makes recommendations [...] Read more.
Refugee youth face challenges in navigating different cultures in destination countries and require better support. However, we know little about the adaptation experiences of African refugee youth in Canada. Accordingly, this paper presents the adaptation experiences of African refugee youth and makes recommendations for ways to support youth. Twenty-eight youth took part in semi-structured interviews. Using a thematic analysis approach, qualitative data revealed four themes of: (1) ‘disruption in the family,’ where youth talked about being separated from their parent(s) and the effect on their adaptation; (2) ‘our cultures are different,’ where youth shared differences between African and mainstream Canadian culture; (3) ‘searching for identity: a cultural struggle,’ where youth narrated their struggles in finding identity; and (4) ‘learning the new culture,’ where youth narrated how they navigate African and Canadian culture. Overall, the youth presented with challenges in adapting to cultures in Canada and highlighted how these struggles were influenced by their migration journey. To promote better settlement and adaptation, youth could benefit from supports and activities that promote cultural awareness with attention to their migration experiences. Service providers could benefit from newcomer-friendly and culturally sensitive training on salient ways of how experiences of multiple cultures affect integration outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
10 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Changes in the Mental Health of North Korean Refugee Youths: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study
by Yoanna Seong and Subin Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041696 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
This study identified factors affecting changes in depression of 64 North Korean refugee youths (NKRYs) aged 13 to 23 years (40 female) using follow-up data over a three-year period. We collected intrapersonal factors (emotional regulation strategies, resilience, quality of life) and external factors [...] Read more.
This study identified factors affecting changes in depression of 64 North Korean refugee youths (NKRYs) aged 13 to 23 years (40 female) using follow-up data over a three-year period. We collected intrapersonal factors (emotional regulation strategies, resilience, quality of life) and external factors (psychological and practical support, family adaptation, and cohesion) to understand the preventative and risk factors affecting changes in depression. The trend of depression symptoms significantly increased, and the proportion of people classified as depressed (cut-off score = 21) increased steadily from 45.3% to 59.4% in the third year. In addition, we conducted a panel regression analysis, which showed that individual internal factors had a statistically significant effect on changes in depression. Specifically, expressive suppression of emotions was shown to increase depression over time. Resilience and life satisfaction were significant factors reducing depression in this study. On the other hand, external factors were not significantly related to changes over time in depression of NKRYs. Interventions for NKRYs at risk of depression are necessary and should include ways to enhance resilience and life satisfaction, and foster ego strength by recognizing emotions and promoting healthy emotional expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
13 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Alcohol, Other Drugs Use and Mental Health among African Migrant Youths in South Australia
by Lillian Mwanri and William Mude
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041534 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4707
Abstract
This paper was part of a large study that explored suicide among African youths in South Australia. The paper reports perspectives about alcohol and other drugs (AOD) use and mental health among African migrant and refugee youths in South Australia. The study employed [...] Read more.
This paper was part of a large study that explored suicide among African youths in South Australia. The paper reports perspectives about alcohol and other drugs (AOD) use and mental health among African migrant and refugee youths in South Australia. The study employed a qualitative inquiry, conducting 23 individual interviews and one focus group discussion with eight participants. An acculturative stress model informed data analysis, interpretation and the discussion of the findings that form the current paper. African migrant and refugee youths revealed challenging stressors, including related to cultural, socioeconomic, living conditions, and pre- and post-migration factors that contributed to mental health problems and the use of AOD in their new country. The traumatic loss of family members and social disruption experienced in their countries of origin were expressed as part of factors leading to migration to Australia. While in Australia, African migrant and refugee youths experienced substantial stressors related to inadequate socioeconomic and cultural support, discrimination, poverty, and unemployment. Participants believed that differences in cultural perspectives about AOD use that existed in Africa and Australia also shaped the experiences of social stressors. Additionally, participants believed that these cultural differences and the identified stressors determined AOD use and mental health problems. The findings highlight the need to understand these social and cultural contexts to improve mental health services and help reduce the use of AOD, which, when problematic, can influence the health and integration experiences of these populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
9 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Can Circumstances Be Softened? Self-Efficacy, Post-Migratory Stressors, and Mental Health among Refugees
by Henriëtte E. van Heemstra, Willem F. Scholte, Angela Nickerson and Paul A. Boelen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041440 - 4 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Post-migratory stressors (PS) are a risk factor for mental health problems among resettled refugees. There is a need to identify factors which can reduce this burden. Self-efficacy (SE) is associated with refugees’ mental health. The current study examined whether SE can protect this [...] Read more.
Post-migratory stressors (PS) are a risk factor for mental health problems among resettled refugees. There is a need to identify factors which can reduce this burden. Self-efficacy (SE) is associated with refugees’ mental health. The current study examined whether SE can protect this group from the impact of PS on mental wellbeing. Higher levels of PS were expected to be associated with higher levels of mental health problems. In addition, we expected this linkage to be moderated by lower SE. Questionnaires were administered to a non-clinical refugee sample (N = 114, 46% female, average age 35 SD = 10.42 years) with various backgrounds. The following questionnaires were used: the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) to assess mental health problems, the General Self-Efficacy Scale (SGES) to measure SE, and an adapted version of the Post-Migration Living Difficulties Checklist (PMLD) to measure PS. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. No significant contribution was found for SE or the interaction of SE and daily stressors, above and beyond the significant contribution of daily stressors to mental health problems. The findings reinforce that PS affects mental health and suggest that SE had a limited impact on mental health in this non-clinical sample of refugees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
11 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
The Reliability and Feasibility of the HESPER Web to Assess Perceived Needs in a Population Affected by a Humanitarian Emergency
by Karin Hugelius, Charles Nandain, Maya Semrau and Marie Holmefur
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041399 - 3 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Needs assessment is essential in the humanitarian response, and perceived needs can be associated with the levels of health in populations affected by humanitarian emergencies. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of The Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Web (HESPER [...] Read more.
Needs assessment is essential in the humanitarian response, and perceived needs can be associated with the levels of health in populations affected by humanitarian emergencies. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of The Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Web (HESPER Web) in a humanitarian context and to compare perceived needs of a random walk study sample with a self-selected study sample recruited though social media. The study context was the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya. An alternate forms reliability evaluation and a feasibility evaluation was conducted. In total, 308 refugees participated in the study. HESPER Web was found to be reliable and usable for assessing needs, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88, Cohen’s κ between 0.43 and 1.0 and a first priority need rating match of 81%. The HESPER Web was positively experienced, and the self-recruited study sample reported similar levels of needs and similar demographics as the randomized sample. The participants reported several unmet needs. HESPER Web offers a reliable tool for needs assessment in humanitarian emergencies where web-based surveys are considered as practical and suitable. It offers new possibilities for conducting remote assessments and research studies that include humanitarian populations that are rarely included in such evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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12 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
The Role of Culture and Religion on Sexual and Reproductive Health Indicators and Help-Seeking Attitudes amongst 1.5 Generation Migrants in Australia: A Quantitative Pilot Study
by Tinashe Dune, David Ayika, Jack Thepsourinthone, Virginia Mapedzahama and Zelalem Mengesha
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031341 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3476
Abstract
In Australia, 1.5 generation migrants (those who migrated as children) often enter a new cultural and religious environment, with its own set of constructs of sexual and reproductive health (SRH), at a crucial time in their psychosexual development—puberty/adolescence. Therefore, 1.5 generation migrants may [...] Read more.
In Australia, 1.5 generation migrants (those who migrated as children) often enter a new cultural and religious environment, with its own set of constructs of sexual and reproductive health (SRH), at a crucial time in their psychosexual development—puberty/adolescence. Therefore, 1.5 generation migrants may thus have to contend with constructions of SRH from at least two cultures which may be at conflict on the matter. This study was designed to investigate the role of culture and religion on sexual and reproductive health indicators and help-seeking amongst 1.5 generation migrants. An online survey was completed by 111 participants who answered questions about their cultural connectedness, religion, sexual and reproductive health and help-seeking. Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to analyse the data. There was no significant difference between ethnocultural groups or levels of cultural connectedness in relation to sexual and reproductive health help-seeking attitudes. The results do suggest differences between religious groups in regard to seeking help specifically from participants’ parents. Notably, participants who reported having ‘no religion’ were more likely to seek help with sexual and reproductive health matters from their parent(s). Managing cross-cultural experiences is often noted in the extant literature as a barrier to sexual and reproductive health help-seeking. However, while cultural norms of migrants’ country of origin can remain strong, it is religion that seems to have more of an impact on how 1.5 generation migrants seek help for SRH issues. The findings suggest that 1.5 generation migrants may not need to adapt their religious beliefs or practices, despite entering a new ethnocultural environment. Given that religion can play a role in the participants’ sexual and reproductive health, religious organizations are well-placed to encourage young migrants to adopt help-seeking attitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
18 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing the Settlement Intentions of Chinese Migrants in Cities: An Analysis of Air Quality and Higher Income Opportunity as Predictors
by Bo Li, Qingfeng Cao and Muhammad Mohiuddin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207432 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3160
Abstract
With rapid urbanization, the air pollution issue is becoming an increasingly serious issue given that people are strongly swayed in their location choice to settle down in a growing urban area where most job opportunities have been created. This study investigated the influences [...] Read more.
With rapid urbanization, the air pollution issue is becoming an increasingly serious issue given that people are strongly swayed in their location choice to settle down in a growing urban area where most job opportunities have been created. This study investigated the influences of both air quality and income on the settlement intentions of Chinese migrants by using microlevel samples of the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) data from 2017 and the annual average concentration of PM2.5 (particles with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm in the air) to measure a city’s air quality. The results showed that the settlement decisions of Chinese migrants involved a trade-off between income and air quality. Poorer air quality could significantly decrease the settlement intention, while a higher income could significantly increase the settlement intention of Chinese migrants. However, as the migrants’ income opportunity increased at a location, the negative influence of poorer air quality on the settlement intention at that location gradually declined. Specifically, when deciding whether to settle down in cities, the migrants with a non-agricultural “hukou” (household registration) tended to pay more attention to air quality than the migrants with an agricultural “hukou,” and migrants who moved farther away in geographic distance tended to pay more attention to income. It was concluded that the influences of air quality and income on the settlement intentions of the migrants were robust and consistent after using different estimation methods and considering the issue of endogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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13 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Negotiating Identity and Belonging in a New Space: Opportunities and Experiences of African Youths in South Australia
by William Mude and Lillian Mwanri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155484 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
This paper was part of a large study that aimed to explore determinants of increased suicides among African youths in South Australia. As part of this larger study, narratives from participants indicated that identity crisis could be a potential determinant of suicide. This [...] Read more.
This paper was part of a large study that aimed to explore determinants of increased suicides among African youths in South Australia. As part of this larger study, narratives from participants indicated that identity crisis could be a potential determinant of suicide. This paper reports on how African youths negotiate and form identity in Australia. A qualitative inquiry was undertaken with 31 African youths using a focus group and individual interviews. Data analysis was guided by a framework for qualitative research. These youths negotiated multiple identities, including those of race, gender, ethnicity and their origin. ‘Freedom and opportunity’, ‘family relationships’, ‘neither belonging here nor there’ and ‘the ability to cope against the paradox of resourcefulness in Australia’ appeared to be important themes in negotiating individual identities. An opportunity was used to acknowledge privileges available in Australia relative to Africa. However, the extent to which individuals acted on these opportunities varied, affecting a person’s sense of purpose, identity formation and belonging in Australia. The loss of social networks following migration, and cultural differences between African and Australian societies, shaped the experience of belonging and identity formation. These findings are crucial as they indicate the need for policies and practices that consider experiences of youths as they form their identity in Australia. Further studies with large numbers of participants are needed to explore these issues further among African youths in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
18 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Migrant Women’s Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Malaysia: A Qualitative Study
by Tharani Loganathan, Zhie X. Chan, Allard W. de Smalen and Nicola S. Pocock
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155376 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 8042
Abstract
Providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to migrant workers is key to fulfilling sustainable developmental goals. This study aims to explore key informants’ views on the provision of SRH services for migrant women in Malaysia, exploring the provision of SRH education, contraception, [...] Read more.
Providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to migrant workers is key to fulfilling sustainable developmental goals. This study aims to explore key informants’ views on the provision of SRH services for migrant women in Malaysia, exploring the provision of SRH education, contraception, abortion, antenatal and delivery, as well as the management of gender-based violence. In-depth interviews of 44 stakeholders were conducted from July 2018 to July 2019. Data were thematically analysed. Migrant workers that fall pregnant are unable to work legally and are subject to deportation. Despite this, we found that insufficient SRH information and contraceptive access are provided, as these are seen to encourage promiscuity. Pregnancy, rather than sexually transmitted infection prevention, is a core concern among migrant women, the latter of which is not adequately addressed by private providers. Abortions are often seen as the only option for pregnant migrants. Unsafe abortions occur which are linked to financial constraints and cultural disapproval, despite surgical abortions being legal in Malaysia. Pregnant migrants often delay care-seeking, and this may explain poor obstetric outcomes. Although health facilities for gender-based violence are available, non-citizen women face additional barriers in terms of discrimination and scrutiny by authorities. Migrant women face extremely limited options for SRH services in Malaysia and these should be expanded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
17 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
A System Model of Post-Migration Risk Factors Affecting the Mental Health of Unaccompanied Minor Refugees in Austria—A Multi-Step Modeling Process Involving Expert Knowledge from Science and Practice
by Nicole Hynek, Arleta Franczukowska, Lydia Rössl, Günther Schreder, Anna Faustmann, Eva Krczal, Isabella Skrivanek, Isolde Sommer and Lukas Zenk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145058 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Various studies have indicated that unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) have a higher risk of suffering from mental health problems than do accompanied minor refugees and general population norm. However, only a few studies provide data on UMRs regarding post-migration risk factors, their interrelations, [...] Read more.
Various studies have indicated that unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) have a higher risk of suffering from mental health problems than do accompanied minor refugees and general population norm. However, only a few studies provide data on UMRs regarding post-migration risk factors, their interrelations, and their influence on mental health. In this study, system models of post-migration risk factors for mental health and their interactions were developed in the case of Austria. In three consecutive interactive workshops with scientists and practitioners, fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping techniques were used to integrate the experts’ knowledge. The resulting final system model consists of 11 risk factors (e.g., social contacts in the host country, housing situation, or professional health care services). The model provides a deeper insight into the complexity of interrelated direct, indirect, and reciprocal relations, as well as self-reinforcing triads. This systemic approach provides a sound basis for further investigations, taking into account the inherent complex multifactorial dependencies in this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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11 pages, 1270 KiB  
Article
Asylum Seekers and Swiss Nationals with Low-Acuity Complaints: Disparities in the Perceived level of Urgency, Health Literacy and Ability to Communicate—A Cross-Sectional Survey at a Tertiary Emergency Department
by Karsten Klingberg, Adrian Stoller, Martin Müller, Sabrina Jegerlehner, Adam D. Brown, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, Anne Jachmann and David Srivastava
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082769 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Background: Emergency departments (EDs) are being increasingly used for low-acuity conditions and as primary care providers. Research indicates that patients with the status of asylum seeker (AS) may be seeking care in EDs at higher levels than nationals. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Background: Emergency departments (EDs) are being increasingly used for low-acuity conditions and as primary care providers. Research indicates that patients with the status of asylum seeker (AS) may be seeking care in EDs at higher levels than nationals. The aim of this study was to identify disparities in the use of emergency care between AS and Swiss nationals (SN) with non-urgent complaints. Methods: Data were obtained from a survey in the period 01/12/2016–31/07/2017 of walk-in low-acuity patients attending the ED of the University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). AS and a gender, age-matched control group of SN of ≥16 years of age were included. Sociodemographic and survey data comprised information about health-seeking behavior in the home and reception country, knowledge of health care systems (HCSs), barriers to care and perceived acuity of the visit. Furthermore, attending physicians assessed the level of urgency of each case. Results: Among AS patients, 30.2% reported that they had no knowledge of the Swiss HCS. In total, 14.2% considered that their medical needs were non-urgent. On the other hand, 43.4% of the attending physicians in the ER considered that the medical needs were non-urgent. This contrast was less pronounced in SN patients. The majority of AS (63.2%) and SN (67.6%) patients sought care from the ED without first contacting a GP. In 53.8% of cases, an interpreter was needed during the ED consultation. Conclusions: Several factors associated with health-seeking behavior in the ED differed between AS and SN patients. Measures to increase health literacy, provision of easily accessible primary care services and intercultural-trained staff could improve quality of care and reduce the usage of EDs as primary care providers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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18 pages, 2853 KiB  
Article
The Relationship Exploration between Public Migration Attention and Population Migration from a Perspective of Search Query
by Chun Li, Jianhua He and Xingwu Duan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072388 - 1 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
Rapid population migration has been viewed as a critical factor impacting urban network construction and regional sustainable development. The supervision and analysis of population migration are necessary for guiding the optimal allocation of urban resources and for attaining the high efficiency development of [...] Read more.
Rapid population migration has been viewed as a critical factor impacting urban network construction and regional sustainable development. The supervision and analysis of population migration are necessary for guiding the optimal allocation of urban resources and for attaining the high efficiency development of region. Currently, the explorations of population migration are often restricted by the limitation of data. In the information era, search engines widely collect public attention, implying potential individual actions, and freely provide open, timelier, and large-scope search query data for helping explore regional phenomena and problems. In this paper, we endeavor to explore the possibility of adopting such data to depict population migration. Based on the search query from Baidu search engine, three migration attention indexes (MAIs) are constructed to capture public migration attention in cyber space. Taking three major urban agglomerations in China as case study, we conduct the correlation analysis among the cyber MAIs and population migration in geographical space. Results have shown that external-MAI and local-MAI can positively reflect the population migration inner regions and across regions from a holistic lens and that intercity-MAI can be a helpful supplement for the delineation of specific population flow. Along with the accumulation of cyber search query data, its potential in exploring population migration can be further reinforced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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Review

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18 pages, 1278 KiB  
Review
Communication Experiences in Primary Healthcare with Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Literature Review and Narrative Synthesis
by Pinika Patel, Sarah Bernays, Hankiz Dolan, Danielle Marie Muscat and Lyndal Trevena
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041469 - 4 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5609
Abstract
Refugee and asylum seeker population numbers are rising in Western countries. Understanding the communication experiences, within healthcare encounters, for this population is important for providing better care and health outcomes. This review summarizes the literature on health consultation communication experiences of refugees and [...] Read more.
Refugee and asylum seeker population numbers are rising in Western countries. Understanding the communication experiences, within healthcare encounters, for this population is important for providing better care and health outcomes. This review summarizes the literature on health consultation communication experiences of refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to 31 March 2019. Studies were included if they aimed to improve, assess or report on communication/interaction in the primary health care consultation setting with refugees or asylum seekers, and were conducted in Western countries. A narrative synthesis of the literature was undertaken. Thematic analysis of the 21 included articles, showed that refugees and asylum seekers experience a range of communication challenges and obstacles in primary care consultations. This included practical and relational challenges of organizing and using informal and formal interpreters and cultural understanding of illness and healthcare. Non-verbal and compassionate care aspects of communication emerged as an important factor in helping improve comfort and trust between healthcare providers (HCP) and refugees and asylum seekers during a healthcare encounter. Improvements at the systems level are needed to provide better access to professional interpreters, but also support compassionate and humanistic care by creating time for HCPs to build relationships and trust with patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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13 pages, 336 KiB  
Review
Boundaries of Belonging: Theorizing Black African Migrant Experiences in Australia
by Kathomi Gatwiri and Leticia Anderson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010038 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4954
Abstract
As nationalist ideologies intensify in Australia, so do the experiences of ‘everyday racism’ and exclusion for Black African immigrants. In this article, we utilize critical theories and engage with colonial histories to contextualize Afrodiasporic experiences in Australia, arguing that the conditional acceptance of [...] Read more.
As nationalist ideologies intensify in Australia, so do the experiences of ‘everyday racism’ and exclusion for Black African immigrants. In this article, we utilize critical theories and engage with colonial histories to contextualize Afrodiasporic experiences in Australia, arguing that the conditional acceptance of Black bodies within Australian spaces is contingent upon the status quo of the white hegemony. The tropes and discourses that render the bodies of Black African migrants simultaneously invisible and hyper-visible indicate that immigration is not only a movement of bodies, but also a phenomenon solidly tied to global inequality, power, and the abjection of blackness. Drawing on critical race perspectives and theories of belonging, we highlight through use of literature how Black Africans in Australia are constructed as ‘perpetual strangers’. As moral panics and discourses of hyper-criminality are summoned, the bordering processes are also simultaneously co-opted to reinforce scrutiny and securitization, with significant implications for social cohesion, belonging and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
14 pages, 376 KiB  
Review
Superdiversity and Disability: Social Changes for the Cohesion of Migrations in Europe
by Mª del Carmen Martín-Cano, Cristina Belén Sampedro-Palacios, Adrián Jesús Ricoy-Cano and Yolanda María De La Fuente-Robles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186460 - 4 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
In recent years, international migration has changed considerably, improving our understanding of the diversity of migrants, something that until recently was viewed as a fixed pattern associated with the ethnic group in question. At the same time, in the international context, the importance [...] Read more.
In recent years, international migration has changed considerably, improving our understanding of the diversity of migrants, something that until recently was viewed as a fixed pattern associated with the ethnic group in question. At the same time, in the international context, the importance and the need to recognize the rights of people with disabilities has grown. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a more detailed analysis of this phenomenon in Europe, from the perspective of superdiversity, which covers the different variables that come into play, as well as the responses to the diverse needs that are provided through the action protocols in host countries. To address the objective of this research, we present a critical review of the migration policies undertaken at the European level, methodologically approached using the causal inference model. Our findings show a lack of structure of social and professional intervention policies, at the international level, towards refugees with disabilities. We conclude by presenting a series of political guidelines that rely on scientific evidence to improve the lives of migrants with disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Resilience, Vulnerability and Migrants’ Health)
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