Special Issue "Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marco Mascitti

Guest Editor
Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy
Interests: oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral epidemiology; dental public health; head and neck tumors; odontogenic tumors; community dentistry
Prof. Dr. Giuseppina Campisi

Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
Interests: oral medicine; Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw; head and neck oncology; viral oral infections; dental public health; teledentistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aging of the global population is one of the challenges that dentistry must face in the 21st century, with important implications for health and society. The presence of several medical and dental conditions simultaneously impacts the oral health status of older adults. Furthermore, other factors like psychological, cognitive, and social conditions can further worsen the quality of life of these patients. The scientific community has questioned the traditional medical approach centered on the disease and is paying increasing attention to the patient's involvement in the diagnosis and treatment process, starting from the narrative interview, understood as different from the traditional anamnesis and able to detect the patient's universe.

In addition to oral health management in older adults, Public Dentistry must also face other issues, such as oral cancer, potentially malignant disorders, and adverse drug reactions such as mucositis and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), an emerging adverse drug reaction characterized by the progressive destruction and death of maxillary and mandibular bones.

In recent years, technological advances have led to the development of “Telehealth”, defined as the distribution of health-related services via electronic information and telecommunication technologies. The application of this new approach in the field of Public Dentistry, also called “Teledentistry”, can be used to assist general dentists and improve services to underserved populations.

Nevertheless, technological and therapeutic advances are insufficient on their own. Indeed, the increasingly obvious limits found in the approach of the current health care systems "focused on illness" require a radical rethinking by health professionals, in approach and methodology. For this reason,  a new paradigm “focuses on patients” with the aim of reducing inadequate medical practices to ensure more accurate diagnoses and avoid the waste of limited resources.

For this Special Issue we invite submissions in every field of research on Public Dentistry. The topics may include (but are not limited to):

• Applied epidemiology of oral diseases;
• Dental health practice and impact (clinical, social);
• Oral health promotion and disease prevention;
• Public health programs/interventions;
• Narrative dentistry and team management;
• New approaches and technologies in Public Dentistry;
• Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities;
• COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 Dental emergency and issues around.

Dr. Marco Mascitti
Prof. Dr. Giuseppina Campisi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral cancer
  • osteonecrosis of the jaw
  • Teledentistry
  • geriatric dentistry
  • oral epidemiology
  • oral health
  • public dentistry
  • oral prevention
  • slow dentistry
  • COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Dental Public Health Landscape: Challenges, Technological Innovation and Opportunities in the 21st Century and COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103636 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
In response to the 2008 economic and financial crisis and to its effects on healthcare systems, dental care has become unaffordable for many people, and a huge number of patients worldwide are avoiding or skipping necessary dental treatments [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Geriatric Dentistry Curriculum in Six Continents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134682 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of geriatric dentistry (GD) in the curricula of worldwide dental schools, and to identify and compare their curriculum content. Eighty-three dental schools (16.4% response rate), from 24 countries, in six continents, completed a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of geriatric dentistry (GD) in the curricula of worldwide dental schools, and to identify and compare their curriculum content. Eighty-three dental schools (16.4% response rate), from 24 countries, in six continents, completed a 25-item online questionnaire, to assess their GD curriculum, and were included in the study. GD was a mandatory course in 56 dental schools (67.5%), an independent subject in 14 schools (16.9%), and was taught as a series of lectures in 31 schools (37.4%). Clinically, 56 dental schools (67.5%) had some form of mandatory education in GD. The type of school, location and method of presentation were not associated with greater interest in expanding their curriculum in GD (p = 0.256, p = 0.276, and p = 0.919, respectively, using the Chi-square test). We found GD is a curriculum requirement in most of the surveyed dental schools and is becoming more common among dental school curricula. This survey is the first study to present data from dental schools from all continents, using a web-based survey which is a resourceful, less-expensive tool to gather data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of a U-Shaped Automatic Electric Toothbrush in Dental Plaque Removal: A Cross-Over Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134649 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of this single-use, four-treatment, four-period (visit), cross-over, mono-centered, examiner-blind, cross-over randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy in dental plaque removal of a U-shaped automatic electric toothbrush (U) compared to a conventional powered toothbrush (P), a habitual [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this single-use, four-treatment, four-period (visit), cross-over, mono-centered, examiner-blind, cross-over randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy in dental plaque removal of a U-shaped automatic electric toothbrush (U) compared to a conventional powered toothbrush (P), a habitual toothbrushing procedure (H), and no brushing (N). Methods: Eligible participants were volunteer students. Primary outcome measure was the reduction in full-mouth plaque score (FMPS) after brushing. The secondary outcome variable was a visual analogic scale (VAS) on subjective clean mouth sensation. Mixed models were performed for difference in FMPS and VAS. Results: Twenty-two participants were randomized to the treatments in the four periods of the study. The differences between treatments in FMPS reduction after brushing were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The differences were statistically significant between the U and P groups (difference −48; 95% CI from −54 to −41) favoring the P group, and between the U and H groups (difference −45; 95% CI from −52 to −39) favoring the H group. On the contrary, the difference between the U and N groups was not significant (difference 5; 95% CI from −2 to 12) favoring the U group. The differences between treatments in clean mouth VAS was statistically significant (p < 0.0001) favoring the P and H groups. Conclusions: The U-shaped automatic electric toothbrush tested in this study proved to be not effective in removing dental plaque. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
Facial Skin Temperature and Discomfort When Wearing Protective Face Masks: Thermal Infrared Imaging Evaluation and Hands Moving the Mask
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134624 - 27 Jun 2020
Abstract
Individual respiratory protective devices and face masks represent critical tools in protecting health care workers in hospitals and clinics, and play a central role in decreasing the spread of the high-risk pandemic infection of 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of the present [...] Read more.
Individual respiratory protective devices and face masks represent critical tools in protecting health care workers in hospitals and clinics, and play a central role in decreasing the spread of the high-risk pandemic infection of 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to compare the facial skin temperature and the heat flow when wearing medical surgical masks to the same factors when wearing N95 respirators. A total of 20 subjects were recruited and during the evaluation, each subject was invited to wear a surgical mask or respirator for 1 h. The next day in the morning at the same hour, the same subject wore a N95 mask for 1 h with the same protocol. Infrared thermal evaluation was performed to measure the facial temperature of the perioral region and the perception ratings related to the humidity, heat, breathing difficulty, and discomfort were recorded. A significant difference in heat flow and perioral region temperature was recorded between the surgical mask and the N95 respirator (p < 0.05). A statistically significant difference in humidity, heat, breathing difficulty, and discomfort was present between the groups. The study results suggest that N95 respirators are able to induce an increased facial skin temperature, greater discomfort and lower wearing adherence when compared to the medical surgical masks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
Career Prospects of Young Dentists in Switzerland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124310 - 16 Jun 2020
Abstract
The observational cross-sectional study was aimed to obtain information on the promotion and development of young professionals in Switzerland. An online survey with 20 questions was sent out. Data was collected on participants’ demographic data, including age, gender, level of qualification, place of [...] Read more.
The observational cross-sectional study was aimed to obtain information on the promotion and development of young professionals in Switzerland. An online survey with 20 questions was sent out. Data was collected on participants’ demographic data, including age, gender, level of qualification, place of work, information on employment, future perspectives, and career prospects. The survey was sent out to 1920 practitioners, of which 440 (22.9%) responded (37.1% males and 62.9% females). Of them, 76.6% were members of the Swiss Dental Association (SSO) 15.9% students, and 7.5% non-SSO members. Most participants had parents with a dental education (80.9%), and 19.8% did not. Young dentists in Switzerland most often saw their career prospects as neutral (39.8%) or rather positive (39.3%). Whereas significantly fewer dentists had a negative view of their professional future (16.8%), including more women than men, the fewest dentists of both sexes (4.1%) saw their career prospects as positive by far. The majority of young dentists were satisfied with their career prospects. Within the limitations of the current study, the reasons for this need further investigation. Despite good career prospects, there is a desire among young colleagues for cantonal practice assistance and mentoring programs, as well as support in finding a job and in taking the plunge into self-employment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
Open AccessArticle
Functional Dentition and 12-Month Changes in Body Measurements among Thai Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124200 - 12 Jun 2020
Abstract
This study evaluated the association of functional dentition with 12-month changes in body measurements and nutrient intake among older adults. Data from 651 community dwellers, aged 60 years and over, in Phetchaburi, Thailand, were analysed (retention rate: 83%). Data were collected via interviews [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the association of functional dentition with 12-month changes in body measurements and nutrient intake among older adults. Data from 651 community dwellers, aged 60 years and over, in Phetchaburi, Thailand, were analysed (retention rate: 83%). Data were collected via interviews (including a semi-structured food frequency questionnaire), anthropometric measurements and dental examinations. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusted for baseline sociodemographic factors, behaviours, chronic conditions and medications. On average, participants experienced a significant increase in body mass index (BMI) and significant decreases in waist circumference (WC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF). A negative, albeit not significant, association between functional dentition and change in BMI was observed after adjusting for confounders. Whilst participants who had non-functional dentition without dentures experienced increases in BMI (predicted mean change: 0.25; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.09, 0.41), those who had non-functional dentition with dentures (0.21; 95%CI: −0.08, 0.50) and functional dentition (−0.07; 95%CI: −0.42, 0.28) remained stable. No similar trends were noted for WC or TSF. Functional dentition was not associated with changes in nutrient intake either. The findings provide little evidence on the association of functional dentition with short-term changes in nutrient intake or nutritional status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
Open AccessArticle
Association of Work Patterns and Periodontitis Prevalence in Korean Adults Aged 50 Years or Older: A Nationwide Representative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114006 - 04 Jun 2020
Abstract
This study analyzed the relationship between the work pattern and the prevalence of periodontitis. We analyzed the data of 3320 adults (1779 men, 1543 women) aged 51–80 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2015). The work pattern was divided [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the relationship between the work pattern and the prevalence of periodontitis. We analyzed the data of 3320 adults (1779 men, 1543 women) aged 51–80 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2015). The work pattern was divided into two groups (regular and irregular). The periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index. We observed a statistically significant difference in the association between work patterns and prevalence of periodontitis in Korean women aged over 50 years. For female workers with irregular work patterns, the prevalence of periodontitis was lower than that in workers with regular work patterns by 10.3% (40.3% vs. 30.0%, p = 0.011). The annual health examination rate was significantly higher in the irregular group than in the regular group (for men 77.9% vs. 73.5%; p < 0.001, for women 76.4% vs. 75.9%; p < 0.001). In female workers with irregular work patterns, the annual dental examination rate was significantly higher than that in workers with a regular work pattern by 7.7% (34.3% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.043). In conclusion we found a statistically significant difference between the work patterns and prevalence of periodontitis in Korean women aged over 50 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
Epidemiological Aspects and Psychological Reactions to COVID-19 of Dental Practitioners in the Northern Italy Districts of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103459 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The outbreak and diffusion of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (Sars-CoV-2) and COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) have caused an emergency status in the health system, including in the dentistry environment. Italy registered the third highest number of COVID-19 cases in the world and [...] Read more.
The outbreak and diffusion of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (Sars-CoV-2) and COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) have caused an emergency status in the health system, including in the dentistry environment. Italy registered the third highest number of COVID-19 cases in the world and the second highest in Europe. An anonymous online survey composed of 40 questions has been sent to dentists practicing in the area of Modena and Reggio Emilia, one of the areas in Italy most affected by COVID-19. The survey was aimed at highlighting the practical and emotional consequences of COVID-19 emergence on daily clinical practice. Specifically, it assessed dentists’ behavioral responses, emotions and concerns following the Sars-CoV-2 pandemic restrictive measures introduced by the Italian national administrative order of 10 March 2020 (DM-10M20), as well as the dentists’ perception of infection likelihood for themselves and patients. Furthermore, the psychological impact of COVID-19 was assessed by means of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 test (GAD-7), that measures the presence and severity of anxiety symptoms. Using local dental associations (ANDI-Associazione Nazionale Dentisti Italiani, CAO-Commissione Albo Odontoiatri) lists, the survey was sent by email to all dentists in the district of Modena and Reggio Emilia (874 practitioners) and was completed by 356 of them (40%). All dental practitioners closed or reduced their activity to urgent procedures, 38.2% prior to and 61.8% after the DM-10M20. All reported a routinely use of the most common protective personal equipment (PPE), but also admitted that the use of PPE had to be modified during COVID-19 pandemic. A high percentage of patients canceled their previous appointments after the DM-10M20. Almost 85% of the dentists reported being worried of contracting the infection during clinical activity. The results of the GAD-7 (General Anxiety Disorder-7) evaluation showed that 9% of respondents reported a severe anxiety. To conclude, the COVID-19 emergency is having a highly negative impact on the activity of dentists practicing in the area of Modena and Reggio Emilia. All respondents reported practice closure or strong activity reduction. The perception of this negative impact was accompanied by feelings of concern (70.2%), anxiety (46.4%) and fear (42.4%). The majority of them (89.6%) reported concerns about their professional future and the hope for economic measures to help dental practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
Open AccessArticle
Can Teledentistry Improve the Monitoring of Patients during the Covid-19 Dissemination? A Descriptive Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103399 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this pilot study was to describe the advantages of telemedicine (TM) in dental practice during the current national emergency condition due to the Covid-19 dissemination. At Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology—Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, regional reference center for [...] Read more.
The aim of this pilot study was to describe the advantages of telemedicine (TM) in dental practice during the current national emergency condition due to the Covid-19 dissemination. At Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology—Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, regional reference center for Covid-19—two groups of patients were determined: patients with urgent conditions (group U) and patients in follow-up (group F). Both groups were instructed to implement remote consultations using a messaging service (WhatsApp Messenger, WhatsApp Inc., Mountain View, California, USA) to send photos. A total of 418 photos were collected by 57 patients. Thirty-four photos were obtained by five patients in the U group after surgical procedures. All patients sent photos on the established evening, except for two patients who sent two photos outside the set days. In the F group, 384 photos were collected by 52 patients. None of them sent more photos than the number that was established by the protocol. Telemedicine allowed a monitoring of all patients, reducing costs and limiting human contact, decreasing the risk of Covid-19 dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
Dentistry during the COVID-19 Epidemic: An Italian Workflow for the Management of Dental Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093325 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak has raised concerns about infection control all over the world. Among health workers, dentists are particularly exposed to the COVID-19 infection risk. The aim of this paper is to present a workflow to manage dental procedures already in use at [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak has raised concerns about infection control all over the world. Among health workers, dentists are particularly exposed to the COVID-19 infection risk. The aim of this paper is to present a workflow to manage dental procedures already in use at the Dental Unit of the University Hospital of Messina. The proposed workflow accounts for the many aspects of dental practitioners’ risk in the COVID-19 era, and focuses on the assessment of patient risk level, a two-phase dental procedure management (remote and face-to-face), and the use of specific preventive measures. No cases of COVID-19 infection were detected among patients and staff of the dental unit in a two-month period of time while using this protocol. This workflow seems a promising and effective solution to manage dental procedures during the COVID-19 outbreak, and could be implemented in both public and private practices until the emergency is contained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Periodontal Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144923 - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
This review provides a detailed description of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), focusing on those that are known to have critical roles in bone and periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory process initiated by anaerobic bacteria, which promote the host immune response in the [...] Read more.
This review provides a detailed description of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), focusing on those that are known to have critical roles in bone and periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory process initiated by anaerobic bacteria, which promote the host immune response in the form of a complex network of molecular pathways involving proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, growth factors, and MMPs. MMPs are a family of 23 endopeptidases, collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This study critically discusses the available research concerning the involvement of the MMPs in periodontal disease development and progression and presents possible therapeutic strategies. MMPs participate in morphogenesis, physiological tissue turnover, and pathological tissue destruction. Alterations in the regulation of MMP activity are implicated in the manifestation of oral diseases, and MMPs comprise the most important pathway in tissue destruction associated with periodontal disease. MMPs can be considered a risk factor for periodontal disease, and measurements of MMP levels may be useful markers for early detection of periodontitis and as a tool to assess prognostic follow-ups. Detection and inhibition of MMPs could, therefore, be useful in periodontal disease prevention or be an essential part of periodontal disease therapy, which, considering the huge incidence of the disease, may greatly improve oral health globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Covid-19 Pandemic: What Changes for Dentists and Oral Medicine Experts? A Narrative Review and Novel Approaches to Infection Containment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113793 - 27 May 2020
Abstract
The authors performed a narrative review on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- CoronaVirus-2 ( SARS-CoV-2) and all infectious agents with the primary endpoints to illustrate the most accepted models of safety protocols in dentistry and oral medicine, and to propose an easy view of [...] Read more.
The authors performed a narrative review on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- CoronaVirus-2 ( SARS-CoV-2) and all infectious agents with the primary endpoints to illustrate the most accepted models of safety protocols in dentistry and oral medicine, and to propose an easy view of the problem and a comparison (pre- vs post-COVID19) for the most common dental procedures. The outcome is forecast to help dentists to individuate for a given procedure the differences in terms of safety protocols to avoid infectious contagion (by SARS-CoV-2 and others dangerous agents). An investigation was performed on the online databases Pubmed and Scopus using a combination of free words and Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms: “dentist” OR “oral health” AND “COVID-19” OR “SARS-CoV-2” OR “coronavirus-19”. After a brief excursus on all infectious agents transmittable at the dental chair, the authors described all the personal protective equipment (PPE) actually on the market and their indications, and on the basis of the literature, they compared (before and after COVID-19 onset) the correct safety procedures for each dental practice studied, underlining the danger of underestimating, in general, dental cross-infections. The authors have highlighted the importance of knowing exactly the risk of infections in the dental practice, and to modulate correctly the use of PPE, in order to invest adequate financial resources and to avoid exposing both the dental team and patients to preventable risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessReview
COVID-19 Surface Persistence: A Recent Data Summary and Its Importance for Medical and Dental Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093132 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Recently, due to the coronavirus pandemic, many guidelines and anti-contagion strategies continue to report unclear information about the persistence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the environment. This certainly generates insecurity and fear in people, with an important psychological component that is not [...] Read more.
Recently, due to the coronavirus pandemic, many guidelines and anti-contagion strategies continue to report unclear information about the persistence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the environment. This certainly generates insecurity and fear in people, with an important psychological component that is not to be underestimated at this stage of the pandemic. The purpose of this article is to highlight all the sources currently present in the literature concerning the persistence of the different coronaviruses in the environment as well as in medical and dental settings. As this was a current study, there are still not many sources in the literature, and scientific strategies are moving towards therapy and diagnosis, rather than knowing the characteristics of the virus. Such an article could be an aid to summarize virus features and formulate new guidelines and anti-spread strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Public Health: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities)
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