Special Issue "Environmental Chemical Mixture at Low Concentration and Children’s Health"

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hyunok Choi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Departments of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, University at Albany, School of Public Health, USA
Tel. +1-518-402-0401; Fax: +1-518-474-9899
Dr. Birgit Claus Henn
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Boston University Boston, MA, USA
Interests: environmental epidemiology, children's health, chemical mixtures, neurodevelopment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A typical human exposure scenario to environmental chemicals could be characterized as a setting that lies in their occurrence as a complex mixture at a generally low exposure range. Under an environmentally-relevant mixture exposure scenario, the risk posed by constituent compounds is typically argued to be too low in concentration to pose a significant risk. However, to date, such an argument is based on the toxicity of a single compound. When toxicity data are available, human health risks from exposure to a mixture is presumed to follow either independent effects or a concentration addition model. However, a growing body of data suggests that the joint effect of human exposure to a mixture could be additive, synergistic, or antagonistic.

As of today, protective public health legislation within the US and Europe are largely based on single compound toxicity data. As human exposure to environmental chemicals is diverse, complex, and temporally variable, there is a growing recognition of the urgent need to protect the public through a deeper understanding the health risks of complex mixtures.

Additional sources of uncertainty regarding human health risks due to the exposure to mixtures stem from the lack of data for personal exposure/internal dose, temporal persistence of exposure, and a host’s underlying susceptibility (e.g., age, gender, genetic predisposition). Therefore, the goal of the present Special Issue is to provide a venue for presenting both experimental and human exposure, as well as health outcome data. In particular, quantification of exposure to complex mixtures, based on the use of biomarkers, is particularly encouraged. In addition, joint exposure and the associated effects of exposure concentrations and/or doses are sought.

In order to stimulate data generation, both clinically-meaningful outcomes, as well as intermediate (i.e., pre-clinical) health outcomes, are sought for this Special Issue.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to the use of environmental chemical mixture applications within public health. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Hyunok Choi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Quantitative structure–activity relationships
  • Mixture toxicity
  • Concentration addition
  • Independent action
  • Quantitative structure–activity relationship
  • Methodology
  • Mixture toxicity
  • Biological Interactions
  • Synergistic effect
  • Antagonistic effects
  • Multicomponent mixtures,
  • Mode of action
  • First order approximation for the joint effect

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling Unobserved Heterogeneity in Susceptibility to Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene Concentration among Children with Allergic Asthma Using an Unsupervised Learning Algorithm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010106 - 10 Jan 2018
Abstract
Current studies of gene × air pollution interaction typically seek to identify unknown heritability of common complex illnesses arising from variability in the host’s susceptibility to environmental pollutants of interest. Accordingly, a single component generalized linear models are often used to model the [...] Read more.
Current studies of gene × air pollution interaction typically seek to identify unknown heritability of common complex illnesses arising from variability in the host’s susceptibility to environmental pollutants of interest. Accordingly, a single component generalized linear models are often used to model the risk posed by an environmental exposure variable of interest in relation to a priori determined DNA variants. However, reducing the phenotypic heterogeneity may further optimize such approach, primarily represented by the modeled DNA variants. Here, we reduce phenotypic heterogeneity of asthma severity, and also identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with phenotype subgroups. Specifically, we first apply an unsupervised learning algorithm method and a non-parametric regression to find a biclustering structure of children according to their allergy and asthma severity. We then identify a set of SNPs most closely correlated with each sub-group. We subsequently fit a logistic regression model for each group against the healthy controls using benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as a representative airborne carcinogen. Application of such approach in a case-control data set shows that SNP clustering may help to partly explain heterogeneity in children’s asthma susceptibility in relation to ambient B[a]P concentration with greater efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances and Health Outcomes in Children: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070691 - 27 Jun 2017
Cited by 30
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), chemicals used to make products stain and stick resistant, have been linked to health effects in adults and adverse birth outcomes. A growing body of literature also addresses health effects in children exposed to PFAS. This review summarizes the epidemiologic [...] Read more.
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), chemicals used to make products stain and stick resistant, have been linked to health effects in adults and adverse birth outcomes. A growing body of literature also addresses health effects in children exposed to PFAS. This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or childhood exposure to PFAS and health outcomes in children as well as to provide a risk of bias analysis of the literature. A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed for studies on PFAS and child health outcomes. We identified 64 studies for inclusion and performed risk of bias analysis on those studies. We determined that risk of bias across studies was low to moderate. Six categories of health outcomes emerged. These were: immunity/infection/asthma, cardio-metabolic, neurodevelopmental/attention, thyroid, renal, and puberty onset. While there are a limited number of studies for any one particular health outcome, there is evidence for positive associations between PFAS and dyslipidemia, immunity (including vaccine response and asthma), renal function, and age at menarche. One finding of note is that while PFASs are mixtures of multiple compounds few studies examine them as such, therefore the role of these compounds as complex mixtures remains largely unknown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Pesticide Profiles Used on Agricultural Fields near Maternal Residences during Pregnancy and IQ at Age 7 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050506 - 09 May 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
We previously showed that potential prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, yet the effects of joint exposure to multiple pesticides is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate associations between the joint distribution of agricultural use [...] Read more.
We previously showed that potential prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, yet the effects of joint exposure to multiple pesticides is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate associations between the joint distribution of agricultural use patterns of multiple pesticides (denoted as “pesticide profiles”) applied near maternal residences during pregnancy and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) at 7 years of age. Among a cohort of children residing in California’s Salinas Valley, we used Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data to characterize potential exposure from use within 1 km of maternal residences during pregnancy for 15 potentially neurotoxic pesticides from five different chemical classes. We used Bayesian profile regression (BPR) to examine associations between clustered pesticide profiles and deficits in childhood FSIQ. BPR identified eight distinct clusters of prenatal pesticide profiles. Two of the pesticide profile clusters exhibited some of the highest cumulative pesticide use levels and were associated with deficits in adjusted FSIQ of −6.9 (95% credible interval: −11.3, −2.2) and −6.4 (95% credible interval: −13.1, 0.49), respectively, when compared with the pesticide profile cluster that showed the lowest level of pesticides use. Although maternal residence during pregnancy near high agricultural use of multiple neurotoxic pesticides was associated with FSIQ deficit, the magnitude of the associations showed potential for sub-additive effects. Epidemiologic analysis of pesticides and their potential health effects can benefit from a multi-pollutant approach to analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fetal Exposure to Asian Sand Dust on Development and Reproduction in Male Offspring
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111173 - 23 Nov 2016
Abstract
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproduction in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproduction have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure [...] Read more.
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproduction in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproduction have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproduction in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproduction of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproduction of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders. Full article
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