Special Issue "A Policy Focused Approach to Public Health and Air, Water and/or Soil Pollution"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jason K. Levy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management, University of Hawaii, Kapolei, HI 96707, USA
Interests: disaster risk governance; sustainable hazard mitigation; stochastic and statistical hydrology; sociohydrology; fluvial and marine disasters; global climate change, computational intelligence for water management; hydrologic resilience; process-based modeling of coupled human–water systems; inundation; economics of water resources management; drought
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

A major challenge in human health research is improving our knowledge about the impacts of water, soil and air pollution on health endpoints such as mortality and hospital admissions under conditions of climate change. While we encourage scholarship dealing with the relationships among pollution and human health, an integrated, policy-focused approach is emphasized .Varoius industrial and energy scenarios can be used to highlight the impact of policy decisions on public health. For example, if market conditions cause a large number of industries to burn cleaner fuels, how would that impact the health of the surrounding community. If, at the same time, climate change leads to longer episodes of extreme heat and more power consumption, how would that increase the risk of smog events and the health of vulnerable populations with respiratory diseases? Advances in decision analysis, machine learning and big data can be useful to answer these questions. The goal of this special Issue on pollution and human health is to perform policy-relevant research that contributes to informed decision-making about atmospheric health hazards under conditions of climate change. For example, it is expected that policy recommendations can capitalize on novel and insightful air quality models, particularly innovative approaches for the emission, deposition, and transport aspects of air pollutants. This Special Issue represents an effort to capture current developments in the field and provide a forum for cutting edge contributions to the literature. We highlight novel policy insights as well as fundamental research and analyses on development and evaluation of air, water and/or soil quality and exposure models. Research papers, analytical reviews, case studies, conceptual frameworks, and policy-relevant articles are encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Jason K. Levy
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091033 - 08 Sep 2017
Abstract
The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm−2 in soils, the peak [...] Read more.
The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm−2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were Ct = 0.0227e0.0566t (R2 = 0.9154) and Ct = 0.0298e−0.0306t (R2 = 0.7156), and were Ct = 3.8435e0.055t (R2 = 0.9698) and Ct = 1.5627e−0.048t (R2 = 0.9634) for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091013 - 04 Sep 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. [...] Read more.
This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Delay Discounting as an Index of Sustainable Behavior: Devaluation of Future Air Quality and Implications for Public Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090997 - 01 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Poor air quality and resulting annual deaths represent significant public health concerns. Recently, rapid delay discounting (the devaluation of future outcomes) of air quality has been considered a potential barrier for engaging in long term, sustainable behaviors that might help to reduce emissions [...] Read more.
Poor air quality and resulting annual deaths represent significant public health concerns. Recently, rapid delay discounting (the devaluation of future outcomes) of air quality has been considered a potential barrier for engaging in long term, sustainable behaviors that might help to reduce emissions (e.g., reducing private car use, societal support for clean air initiatives). Delay discounting has been shown to be predictive of real world behavior outside of laboratory settings, and therefore may offer an important framework beyond traditional variables thought to measure sustainable behavior such as importance of an environmental issue, or environmental attitudes/values, although more research is needed in this area. We examined relations between discounting of air quality, respiratory health, and monetary gains and losses. We also examined, relations between discounting and self-reported importance of air quality and respiratory health, and nature relatedness. Results showed rapid delay discounting of all outcomes across the time frames assessed, and significant positive correlations between delay discounting of air quality, respiratory health, and monetary outcomes. Steeper discounting of monetary outcomes relative to air quality and respiratory health outcomes was observed in the context of gains; however, no differences in discounting were observed across losses of monetary, air quality, and respiratory health. Replicating the sign effect, monetary outcomes were discounted more steeply than monetary losses. Importance of air quality, respiratory health and nature relatedness were significantly and positively correlated with one another, but not with degree of delay discounting of any outcome, demonstrating the need for more comprehensive measures that predict pro-environmental behaviors that might benefit individuals and public health over time. These results add to our understanding of decision-making, and demonstrate alarming rates of delay discounting of air quality and health. These results implicate a major public health concern and potential barriers to individual and societal behavior that reduce pollution and emissions for conservation of clean air. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Short-Term Set-Aside Management Practices on Soil Microorganism and Enzyme Activity in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080913 - 14 Aug 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Set-aside farmland can effectively improve the self-rehabilitation of arable soil. Long-term set-asides however cannot satisfy provisionment, therefore the use of short-term set-asides to restore cultivated soil is a better option. Few studies have compared short-term set-aside patterns, and the effects of set-asides on [...] Read more.
Set-aside farmland can effectively improve the self-rehabilitation of arable soil. Long-term set-asides however cannot satisfy provisionment, therefore the use of short-term set-asides to restore cultivated soil is a better option. Few studies have compared short-term set-aside patterns, and the effects of set-asides on soil microbial community and enzyme enzymes. We analyzed the bacterial structure, microbial biomass carbon/nitrogen and enzyme activity of farmland soil under different set-aside regimes in the Yellow River Delta of China. Bacterial alpha diversity was relatively lower under only irrigation, and farmyard manure applications showed clear advantages. Set-asides should consider their influence on soil organic carbon and nitrogen, which were correlated with microbial community structure. Nitrospira (0.47–1.67%), Acidobacteria Gp6 (8.26–15.91%) and unclassified Burkholderiales (1.50–2.81%) were significantly altered (p < 0.01). Based on functions of these genera, some set-aside patterns led to a relative balance in nitrogen and carbon turnover. Partial treatments showed a deficiency in organic matter. In addition, farmyard manure may lead to the increased consumption of organic matter, with the exception of native plants set-asides. Conventional farming (control group) displayed a significant enzyme activity advantage. Set-aside management practices guided soil microbial communities to different states. Integrated soil microbiota and the content of carbon and nitrogen, native plants with farmyard manure showed an equilibrium state relatively, which would be helpful to improve land quality in the short-term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Environment Assessment as an Ecological Red Line Management Tool for Marine Wetland Protection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080870 - 02 Aug 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
A ‘red line’ was established, identifying an area requiring for ecological protection in Tianjin, China. Within the protected area of the red line area, the Qilihai wetland is an important ecotope with complex ecological functions, although the ecosystem is seriously disturbed due to [...] Read more.
A ‘red line’ was established, identifying an area requiring for ecological protection in Tianjin, China. Within the protected area of the red line area, the Qilihai wetland is an important ecotope with complex ecological functions, although the ecosystem is seriously disturbed due to anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas. This study assesses the water quality status of the Qilihai wetlands to identify the pollution sources and potential improvements based on the ecological red line policy, to improve and protect the waters of the Qilihai wetlands. An indicator system was established to assess water quality status using single factor evaluation and a comprehensive evaluation method, supported by data from 2010 to 2013. Assessment results show that not all indicators met the requirement of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) and that overall, waters in the Qilihai wetland were seriously polluted. Based on these findings we propose restrictions on all polluting anthropogenic activities in the red line area and implementation of restoration projects to improve water quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geochemical Background and Baseline Values Determination and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of the Andes Mountain Range (Cajamarca-Huancavelica, Peru)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080859 - 31 Jul 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) as well as various parameters (pH, organic carbon, granulometric analysis and cation exchange capacity) were analyzed in 77 soil samples collected in the mining areas of [...] Read more.
Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) as well as various parameters (pH, organic carbon, granulometric analysis and cation exchange capacity) were analyzed in 77 soil samples collected in the mining areas of La Zanja and Colquirrumi (Department of Cajamarca) and Julcani (Department of Huancavelica). Our study proposed geochemical baseline values for heavy metals in a natural region (La Zanja) from samples collected during the period of the environmental impact study (2006), that is, from an earlier period which occurred at the beginning of the exploitation of the current gold mine. The baseline values obtained were as follows: 8.26 mg kg−1 for Cr; 56.97 mg kg−1 for Ni; 22, 20 mg kg−1 for the Cu; 47.42 mg kg−1 for Zn; 27.50 mg kg−1 for As; 4.36 mg kg−1 for Cd; 4.89 mg kg−1 for Hg, and 44.87 mg kg−1 for Pb. Through the use of different indices of heavy metal contamination (geo-accumulation index (Igeo), improved Nemerow index (IIN) and potential ecological risk index (RI)), the degree of pollution caused by mining activities in two areas, Colquirrumi and Julcani, which have a high density of mining sites in operation, was determined. The values obtained from these indices indicated that the Colquirrumi region was the most contaminated, followed by Julcani. The area of La Zanja, despite being free of mining operations, presented slight diffuse pollution. Several positive correlations were obtained, with a high level of significance, between pH, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, and the Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations of the soils. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals was realized by means of the interpolation method of ordinary kriging. The results obtained and the experience gained in this work were necessary to facilitate the identification of soil contamination processes in high altitude areas of the Andes Western Cordillera (Peru) as a basis for taking appropriate measures when restoring soils, during mine closure processes, and to protect the quality of soil resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070670 - 22 Jun 2017
Cited by 22
Abstract
Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in [...] Read more.
Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis®μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis®μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis®μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis®μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Analysis of Ambient PM2.5 Exposure and Bladder Cancer Mortality in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050508 - 10 May 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is receiving intense regulatory attention in Taiwan. In previous studies, the effect of air pollution on bladder cancer has been explored. This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of atmospheric PM [...] Read more.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is receiving intense regulatory attention in Taiwan. In previous studies, the effect of air pollution on bladder cancer has been explored. This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of atmospheric PM2.5 and other local risk factors on bladder cancer mortality based on available 13-year mortality data. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to estimate and interpret the spatial variability of the relationships between bladder cancer mortality and ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and other variables were covariates used to adjust for the effect of PM2.5. After applying a GWR model, the concentration of ambient PM2.5 showed a positive correlation with bladder cancer mortality in males in northern Taiwan and females in most of the townships in Taiwan. This is the first time PM2.5 has been identified as a risk factor for bladder cancer based on the statistical evidence provided by GWR analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ambient Air Pollution and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Beijing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040423 - 14 Apr 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5–10 (coarse particulate matter), [...] Read more.
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5–10 (coarse particulate matter), PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) between 2013 and 2015 using a time-stratified case-crossover study design. We obtained health data from the nationwide emergency medical service database; 4720 OHCA cases of cardiac origin were identified. After adjusting for relative humidity and temperature, the highest odds ratios of OHCA for a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were observed at Lag Day 1 (1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.10), with strong associations with advanced age (aged ≥70 years) (1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13) and stroke history (1.11; 95% CI: 1.06–1.16). PM2.5–10 and NO2 also showed significant associations with OHCAs, whereas SO2, CO, and O3 had no effects. After simultaneously adjusting for NO2 and SO2 in a multi-pollutant model, PM2.5 remained significant. The effects of PM2.5 in the single-pollutant models for cases with hypertension, respiratory disorders, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease were higher than those for cases without these complications; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The results support that elevated PM2.5 exposure contributes to triggering OHCA, especially in those who are advanced in age and have a history of stroke. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pollutants’ Release, Redistribution and Remediation of Black Smelly River Sediment Based on Re-Suspension and Deep Aeration of Sediment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040374 - 01 Apr 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Heavily polluted sediment is becoming an important part of water pollution, and this situation is particularly acute in developing countries. Sediment has gradually changed from being the pollution adsorbent to the release source and has influenced the water environment and public health. In [...] Read more.
Heavily polluted sediment is becoming an important part of water pollution, and this situation is particularly acute in developing countries. Sediment has gradually changed from being the pollution adsorbent to the release source and has influenced the water environment and public health. In this study, we evaluated the pollutant distribution in sediment in a heavily polluted river and agitated the sediment in a heavily polluted river to re-suspend it and re-release pollutants. We found that the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water were significantly increased 60 min after agitation. The distribution of the pollutants in the sediment present high concentrations of pollutants congregated on top of the sediment after re-settling, and their distribution decreased with depth. Before agitation, the pollutants were randomly distributed throughout the sediment. Secondly, deep sediment aeration equipment (a micro-porous air diffuser) was installed during the process of sedimentation to study the remediation of the sediment by continuous aeration. The results revealed that deep sediment aeration after re-suspension significantly promoted the degradation of the pollutants both in overlying water and sediment, which also reduced the thickness of the sediment from 0.9 m to 0.6 m. Therefore, sediment aeration after suspension was efficient, and is a promising method for sediment remediation applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Requalification of a Brazilian Trichoderma Collection and Screening of Its Capability to Decolourise Real Textile Effluent
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040373 - 01 Apr 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, [...] Read more.
Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma, have also been used for textile effluents treatment. The main aim of the present study was to requalify a Brazilian Trichoderma culture collection of 51 Trichoderma strains, isolated from different sources in Brazil and preserved in the oldest Latin-American Fungal Service Culture Collection, The Micoteca URM WDCM 804 (Recife, Brazil). Fungal isolates were re-identified through a polyphasic approach including macro- and micro-morphology and molecular biology, and screened for their capability to decolourise real effluents collected directly from storage tanks of a textile manufacture. Trichoderma atroviride URM 4950 presented the best performance on the dye decolourisation in real textile effluent and can be considered in a scale-up process at industrial level. Overall, the potential of Trichoderma strains in decolourising real textile dye present in textile effluent and the production of the oxidative enzymes Lac, LiP and MnP was demonstrated. Fungal strains are available in the collection e-catalogue to be further explored from the biotechnological point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030300 - 14 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface [...] Read more.
The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10−4/Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China’s mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Miniaturized Monitors for Assessment of Exposure to Air Pollutants: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080909 - 12 Aug 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Air quality has a huge impact on different aspects of life quality, and for this reason, air quality monitoring is required by national and international regulations. Technical and procedural limitations of traditional fixed-site stations for monitoring or sampling of air pollutants are also [...] Read more.
Air quality has a huge impact on different aspects of life quality, and for this reason, air quality monitoring is required by national and international regulations. Technical and procedural limitations of traditional fixed-site stations for monitoring or sampling of air pollutants are also well-known. Recently, a different type of miniaturized monitors has been developed. These monitors, due to their characteristics (e.g., low cost, small size, high portability) are becoming increasingly important for individual exposure assessment, especially since this kind of instrument can provide measurements at high spatial and temporal resolution, which is a notable advantage when approaching assessment of exposure to environmental contaminants. The aim of this study is indeed to provide information regarding current knowledge regarding the use of miniaturized air pollutant sensors. A systematic review was performed to identify original articles: a literature search was carried out using an appropriate query for the search of papers across three different databases, and the papers were selected using inclusion/exclusion criteria. The reviewed articles showed that miniaturized sensors are particularly versatile and could be applied in studies with different experimental designs, helping to provide a significant enhancement to exposure assessment, even though studies regarding their performance are still sparse. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070826 - 22 Jul 2017
Cited by 32
Abstract
Abstract: The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and [...] Read more.
Abstract: The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure pathways. Full article
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