Special Issue "Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Doug Brugge
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Interests: occupational and environmental health science, epidemiology and public health with an emphasis on community engagement and translation of the research evidence into policy and practice

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am organizing a Special Issue on “Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health” for the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. This journal is peer-reviewed and publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, I would refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

It is now well established that living near major roadways and highways is associated with increased risk of a range of adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, respiratory illnesses and neurological problems. Accordingly, research is focused increasingly on which pollutants in the environment near transportation are most responsible and how to reduce exposure through regional and local policy and though individual protective measures such as air filters.

For this issue, I invite submissions that in any way inform the issue of transportation-related pollution and health, including, but not limited to, environmental monitoring, epidemiology, policy, public health and community-level interventions.

If you have an idea and are not sure of the fit, just contact me via email and I will assess it.

The first round submission deadline: 1 September 2018

Prof. Dr. Doug Brugge
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Transportation
  • Air Pollution
  • Public Health

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
On the Need for Better Exposure Assessment for Air Pollution with High Spatial and Temporal Variation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091594 - 07 May 2019
Abstract
The mainstay of air pollution health research has been fine particulate matter pollution (PM2 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Submicron Particles Distribution Between Mountain and Urban Site: Contribution of the Transportation for Defining Environmental and Human Health Issues
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081339 - 14 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Transportation is one of the main causes of atmospheric pollution, especially in downtown big cities. Researchers usually point their attention to gaseous and/or particulate matter pollutants. This paper investigated the role of submicron particles, particularly the fraction ranging between 5–560 nm, in aerosol [...] Read more.
Transportation is one of the main causes of atmospheric pollution, especially in downtown big cities. Researchers usually point their attention to gaseous and/or particulate matter pollutants. This paper investigated the role of submicron particles, particularly the fraction ranging between 5–560 nm, in aerosol chemistry for identifying the contribution of autovehicular traffic and investigating the doses deposited in the human respiratory tract. Measurements carried out by two Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS, TSI) analyzers were simultaneously performed at two different sampling sites (an urban and a mountain site) during workdays and weekends in July. The total particle number (2–2.5 times higher in the urban site), the aerosol size distribution (different modes during the day), and the ultrafine/non-ultrafine particle ratios (ranging between 2–4 times between two sites) were investigated and discussed in relationship to the high autovehicular traffic in Rome and the almost null anthropogenic emissions at the mountain site, as well as the differing contributions of both to the “fresh nucleation” and to “aged aerosol”. Furthermore, the regional cumulative number doses deposited in the human respiratory tract were studied for both sites: The difference between the urban/mountain site was very high (up to 15 fold), confirming the pollutant role of transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Health Benefits from Upgrading Public Buses for Cleaner Air: A Case Study of Clark County, Nevada and the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050720 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Public transit buses, which move more than 5 billion passengers annually in the United States (U.S.), can contribute substantially to the environmental health burden through emitted air pollutants. As a leader in transforming to cleaner bus fleets, the Regional Transport Commission of Southern [...] Read more.
Public transit buses, which move more than 5 billion passengers annually in the United States (U.S.), can contribute substantially to the environmental health burden through emitted air pollutants. As a leader in transforming to cleaner bus fleets, the Regional Transport Commission of Southern Nevada (RTC) has been transitioning from diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses since 1999. By 2017, ~75% of RTC’s buses operating in Clark County, Nevada were CNG-powered. This study assesses the health benefits of the venture using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Co-Benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) model, considering the emission and exposure changes from the 2017 baseline for two hypothetical scenarios: (1) no transition (CC_D) and (2) complete transition (CC_N). The CC_D scenario shows realized health benefits, mostly due to avoided mortality, of $0.79–8.21 million per year for 2017 alone, while CC_N suggests an additional $0.88–2.24 million annually that could be achieved by completing the transition. The wide range of estimates partly reflects uncertainties in determining diesel bus emissions under business-as-usual. These health benefits were not limited locally, with ~70% going to other counties. Two national-scale scenarios, US_D and US_N, were also constructed to explore the health impact of transitioning from diesel to CNG buses across the U.S. As of 2017, with CNG powering only ~20% of transit bus mileages nationwide, there could be massive unrealized health benefits of $0.98–2.48 billion per year including 114–258 avoided premature deaths and >5000 avoided respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Taking into account the health benefits, economic costs, and the inter-state nature of air pollution, expanding federal assistances to accelerate a nationwide transition to cleaner bus fleets is highly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation and Source Apportionment of Air Pollutants in a Large Oceangoing Ship during Voyage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030389 - 30 Jan 2019
Abstract
The aims of this study were to determine compartmental air pollution during navigation of a large oceangoing ship and to identify preliminarily the major pollution sources. During the voyage of a bulk carrier ship, air samples were collected at 18 selected sites using [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to determine compartmental air pollution during navigation of a large oceangoing ship and to identify preliminarily the major pollution sources. During the voyage of a bulk carrier ship, air samples were collected at 18 selected sites using a stratified sampling method. The concentrations of 15 pollutants were determined using gas chromatography. Results showed the concentrations of these pollutants varied significantly among the sampling sites, indicating major pollution sources at or nearby those locations. Five common factors extracted using factor analysis explained 89.092% of the total variance. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the contributions to air pollution of these five common factors, i.e., the volatilization of ship paint, volatilization of ship-based oil, cooking activities, high-temperature release of rubber components on the ship and daily use of chemical products, and the application of deodorant and insecticide, were 41.07%, 25.14%, 14.37%, 11.78%, and 7.63%, respectively. Three significant groups were determined using cluster analysis based on their similarity, i.e., high, medium, and low pollution of sampling sites. This study established that the air of the bulk carrier ship was heavily polluted, and that effective identification of pollution sources could provide a scientific basis for its control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Potential Exposure of Bicyclists on Roadways to Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Findings from El Paso, Texas, Using Strava Metro Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030371 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
As bicycling on roadways can cause adverse health effects, there is an urgent need to understand how bicycle routes expose bicyclists to traffic emissions. Limited resources for monitoring reveal that bicycle travel patterns may constrain such understanding at the network level. This study [...] Read more.
As bicycling on roadways can cause adverse health effects, there is an urgent need to understand how bicycle routes expose bicyclists to traffic emissions. Limited resources for monitoring reveal that bicycle travel patterns may constrain such understanding at the network level. This study examined the potential exposure of bicyclists to traffic-related air pollution in El Paso, Texas, using Strava Metro data that revealed bicycle patterns across the city networks. An initial spatial mapping analysis was conducted to explore the spatial patterns of bicycling and traffic pollutant emission, followed by exploratory descriptive statistics. A spatial bicycle model was then developed to explore factors influencing bicycling activity in El Paso. Analysis results indicated significant associations between greater bicycle volume and both higher levels of particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and more frequent bus services, implying adverse health concerns related to traffic-related air pollution. The results also indicated significant effects of various environmental characteristics (e.g., roadway, bicycle infrastructure, topography, and demographics) on bicycling. The findings encourage extending this study to provide guidance to bicyclists whose regular trips take place on heavily trafficked roads and during rush hours in this region and to evaluate the net health impacts of on-road bicycling for the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Wearable Ultrafine Particle and Noise Monitoring Sensors Jointly Measure Personal Co-Exposures in a Pediatric Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030308 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have linked both traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and noise to adverse health outcomes, including increased blood pressure, myocardial infarction, and respiratory health. The high correlation between these environmental exposures and their measurement challenges have constrained research on how simultaneous exposure to [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have linked both traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and noise to adverse health outcomes, including increased blood pressure, myocardial infarction, and respiratory health. The high correlation between these environmental exposures and their measurement challenges have constrained research on how simultaneous exposure to TRAP and traffic noise interact and possibly enhance each other’s effect. The objective of this study was to deploy two novel personal sensors for measuring ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm diameter) and noise to concurrently monitor real-time exposures. Personal UFP monitors (PUFP, Enmont, LLC) were paired with NEATVIBEwear™ (Noise Exposure, Activity-Time and Vibration wearable), a personal noise monitoring device developed by the authors (Douglas Leaffer, Steve Doroff). A field-test of PUFP monitors co-deployed with NEATVIBEwear logged UFP, noise and ambient temperature exposure levels at 1-s resolution in an adolescent population in Cincinnati, OH to measure real-time exposures in microenvironments (transit, home, school). Preliminary results show that the concurrent measurement of noise exposures with UFP is feasible in a sample of physically active adolescent participants. Personal measurements of UFP and noise, measured prospectively in future studies, will enable researchers to investigate the independent and/or joint-effects of these health-relevant environmental exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Validating and Refining EPA’s Traffic Exposure Screening Measure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010003 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Exposure to high air pollutant concentrations results in significant health risks. Many communities of color and low-income communities face disproportionately higher levels of air pollution exposure. Environmental justice (EJ) screening tools play a critical role in focusing early attention on areas with a [...] Read more.
Exposure to high air pollutant concentrations results in significant health risks. Many communities of color and low-income communities face disproportionately higher levels of air pollution exposure. Environmental justice (EJ) screening tools play a critical role in focusing early attention on areas with a high likelihood of disparate health impacts. In 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) released EJScreen, a screening tool with indicators of a range of pollution burdens across the US. However, little is known about the accuracy of the screening estimates of pollution exposure. This study compares EJScreen’s traffic proximity air quality metric to dispersion modeling results. Using the area around the Houston Ship Channel, we conduct fine-grained air pollution dispersion modeling to evaluate how closely EJScreen’s indicator approximates estimated roadway air pollution concentrations. We find low correlation between modeled concentrations and the EJScreen roadway air pollution indicator. We extend EJScreen’s roadway air pollution screening method in three ways: (1) using a smaller unit of analysis, (2) accounting for the length of each road segment, and (3) accounting for wind direction. Using the Houston region, we use two of the methods and show that the proposed extensions provide a more accurate transportation air pollution screening assessment at the regional and local level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Mobile Measurements of Particulate Matter in a Car Cabin: Local Variations, Contrasting Data from Mobile versus Stationary Measurements and the Effect of an Opened versus a Closed Window
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122642 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Air pollution of particulate matter (PM) from traffic emissions has a significant impact on human health. Risk assessments for different traffic participants are often performed on the basis of data from local air quality monitoring stations. Numerous studies demonstrated the limitation of this [...] Read more.
Air pollution of particulate matter (PM) from traffic emissions has a significant impact on human health. Risk assessments for different traffic participants are often performed on the basis of data from local air quality monitoring stations. Numerous studies demonstrated the limitation of this approach. To assess the risk of PM exposure to a car driver more realistically, we measure the exposure to PM in a car cabin with a mobile aerosol spectrometer in Frankfurt am Main under different settings (local variations, opened versus a closed window) and compare it with data from stationary measurement. A video camera monitored the surroundings for potential PM source detection. In-cabin concentrations peaked at 508 µg m−3 for PM10, 133.9 µg m−3 for PM2.5, and 401.3 µg m−3 for coarse particles, and strongly depended on PM size and PM concentration in ambient air. The concentration of smaller particles showed low fluctuations, but the concentration of coarse particles showed high fluctuations with maximum values on busy roads. Several of these concentration peaks were assigned to the corresponding sources with characteristic particle size distribution profiles. The closure of the car window reduced the exposure to PM, and in particular to coarse particles. The mobile measured PM values differed significantly from stationary PM measures, although good correlations were computed for finer particles. Mobile rather than stationary measurements are essential to assess the risk of PM exposure for car passengers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Street Dust—Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Saudi Coastal City: Status, Profile, Sources, and Human Health Risk Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112397 - 29 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust pose a serious problem threatening both the environment and human health. Street dust samples were collected from five different land use patterns (traffic areas TRA, urban area URA, residential areas REA, mixed residential commercial areas MCRA [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust pose a serious problem threatening both the environment and human health. Street dust samples were collected from five different land use patterns (traffic areas TRA, urban area URA, residential areas REA, mixed residential commercial areas MCRA and suburban areas SUA) in Jeddah, a Saudi coastal city, and one in in Hada Al Sham, a rural area (RUA). This study aimed to investigate the status, profile, sources of PAHs and estimate their human health risk. The results revealed an average concentration of total PAHs of 3320 ng/g in street dust of Jeddah and 223 ng/g in RUA dust. PAHs with high molecular weight represented 83.38% of total PAHs in street dust of Jeddah, while the carcinogenic PAH compounds accounted 57.84%. The highest average concentration of total PAHs in street dust of Jeddah was found in TRA (4980 ng/g) and the lowest in REA (1660 ng/g). PAHs ratios indicated that the principal source of PAHs in street dust of Jeddah is pyrogenic, mainly traffic emission. Benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene (BaA/CHR) ratio suggests that PAHs in street dusts of Jeddah come mainly from emission of local sources, while PAHs in RUA might be transported from the surrounding urban areas. The estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) associated with exposure to PAHs in street dusts indicated that both dermal contact and ingestion pathways are major contributed to cancer risk for both children and adults. Based on BaPequivalence concentrations of total PAHs, ILCRIngestion, ILCRdermal and cancer risk values for children and adults exposed to PAHs in street dust of different areas in Jeddah were found between 10−6 and 10−4, indicating potential risk. The sequence of cancer risk was TRA > URA > MCRA > SUA > REA. Only exposure to BaP and DBA compounds had potential risk for both children and adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Child BMI—A Study of Prenatal Exposure to Nitrogen Oxides and Body Mass Index in Children at the Age of Four Years in Malmö, Sweden
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102294 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Traffic-related air pollution could be a danger to the health of children. Earlier studies have linked prenatal exposure to an increased risk of a range of diseases and negative health outcomes, including overweight and obesity. Presently, a knowledge gap exists in investigating the [...] Read more.
Traffic-related air pollution could be a danger to the health of children. Earlier studies have linked prenatal exposure to an increased risk of a range of diseases and negative health outcomes, including overweight and obesity. Presently, a knowledge gap exists in investigating the risk of overweight and obesity among children exposed to lower levels of air pollution in utero. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between prenatal traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxides (NOx) and traffic density) and childhood overweight and obesity in Malmö, Sweden. A cohort, based on attendance of a four-year check-up examination at Swedish Child Health Care (CHC) centers, and a parent-assessed questionnaire provided data on body-mass index adjusted for four-year-old children (ISO-BMI) as well as socioeconomic and health variables. We estimated exposure by using traffic density and levels of NOx at the maternal geocoded residential level. Analysis of 5815 children was performed using binary logistic regression models. This study showed no associations of increased risk for childhood overweight or obesity through to prenatal exposure to NOx in this low-exposure setting. We further suggest analysis of risks related to exposure levels ranging between the ones presented here and those proposed in previous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Fine-Scale Source Apportionment Including Diesel-Related Elemental and Organic Constituents of PM2.5 across Downtown Pittsburgh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102177 - 05 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may vary by composition, and the characterization of constituents may help to identify key PM2.5 sources, such as diesel, distributed across an urban area. The composition of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is complicated, [...] Read more.
Health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may vary by composition, and the characterization of constituents may help to identify key PM2.5 sources, such as diesel, distributed across an urban area. The composition of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is complicated, and elemental and organic carbon are often used as surrogates. Examining multiple elemental and organic constituents across urban sites, however, may better capture variation in diesel-related impacts, and help to more clearly separate diesel from other sources. We designed a “super-saturation” monitoring campaign of 36 sites to capture spatial variance in PM2.5 and elemental and organic constituents across the downtown Pittsburgh core (~2.8 km2). Elemental composition was assessed via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), organic and elemental carbon via thermal-optical reflectance, and organic compounds via thermal desorption gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (TD-GCMS). Factor analysis was performed including all constituents—both stratified by, and merged across, seasons. Spatial patterning in the resultant factors was examined using land use regression (LUR) modelling to corroborate factor interpretations. We identified diesel-related factors in both seasons; for winter, we identified a five-factor solution, describing a bus and truck-related factor [black carbon (BC), fluoranthene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), pyrene, total carbon] and a fuel oil combustion factor (nickel, vanadium). For summer, we identified a nine-factor solution, which included a bus-related factor (benzo[ghi]fluoranthene, chromium, chrysene, fluoranthene, manganese, pyrene, total carbon, total elemental carbon, zinc) and a truck-related factor (benz[a]anthracene, BC, hopanes, NO2, total PAHs, total steranes). Geographic information system (GIS)-based emissions source covariates identified via LUR modelling roughly corroborated factor interpretations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship of Time-Activity-Adjusted Particle Number Concentration with Blood Pressure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092036 - 18 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests long-term exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 µm) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether annual average UFP exposure was associated with measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests long-term exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 µm) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether annual average UFP exposure was associated with measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and hypertension prevalence among 409 adults participating in the cross-sectional Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) study. We used measurements of particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP) obtained from mobile monitoring campaigns in three near-highway and three urban background areas in and near Boston, Massachusetts to develop PNC regression models (20-m spatial and hourly temporal resolution). Individual modeled estimates were adjusted for time spent in different micro-environments (time-activity-adjusted PNC, TAA-PNC). Mean TAA-PNC was 22,000 particles/cm3 (sd = 6500). In linear models (logistic for hypertension) adjusted for the minimally sufficient set of covariates indicated by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), we found positive, non-significant associations between natural log-transformed TAA-PNC and SBP (β = 5.23, 95%CI: −0.68, 11.14 mmHg), PP (β = 4.27, 95%CI: −0.79, 9.32 mmHg), and hypertension (OR = 1.81, 95%CI: 0.94, 3.48), but not DBP (β = 0.96, 95%CI: −2.08, 4.00 mmHg). Associations were stronger among non-Hispanic white participants and among diabetics in analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and, separately, by health status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Patterns in Rush-Hour vs. Work-Week Diesel-Related Pollution across a Downtown Core
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091968 - 10 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Despite advances in monitoring and modelling of intra-urban variation in multiple pollutants, few studies have attempted to separate spatial patterns by time of day, or incorporated organic tracers into spatial monitoring studies. Due to varying emissions sources from diesel and gasoline vehicular traffic, [...] Read more.
Despite advances in monitoring and modelling of intra-urban variation in multiple pollutants, few studies have attempted to separate spatial patterns by time of day, or incorporated organic tracers into spatial monitoring studies. Due to varying emissions sources from diesel and gasoline vehicular traffic, as well as within-day temporal variation in source mix and intensity (e.g., rush-hours vs. full-day measures), accurately assessing diesel-related air pollution within an urban core can be challenging. We allocated 24 sampling sites across downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2.8 km2) to capture fine-scale variation in diesel-related pollutants, and to compare these patterns by sampling interval (i.e., “rush-hours” vs. “work-week” concentrations), and by season. Using geographic information system (GIS)-based methods, we allocated sampling sites to capture spatial variation in key traffic-related pollution sources (i.e., truck, bus, overall traffic densities). Programmable monitors were used to collect integrated work-week and rush-hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace elements, and diesel-related organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes), in summer and winter 2014. Land use regression (LUR) models were created for PM2.5, BC, total elemental carbon (EC), total organic carbon (OC), elemental (Al, Ca, Fe), and organic constituents (total PAHs, total hopanes), and compared by sampling interval and season. We hypothesized higher pollution concentrations and greater spatial contrast in rush-hour, compared to full work-week samples, with variation by season and pollutant. Rush-hour sampling produced slightly higher total PM2.5 and BC concentrations in both seasons, compared to work-week sampling, but no evident difference in spatial patterns. We also found substantial spatial variability in most trace elements and organic compounds, with comparable spatial patterns using both sampling paradigms. Overall, we found higher concentrations of traffic-related trace elements and organic compounds in rush-hour samples, and higher concentrations of coal-related elements (e.g., As, Se) in work-week samples. Mean bus density was the strongest LUR predictor in most models, in both seasons, under each sampling paradigm. Within each season and constituent, the bus-related terms explained similar proportions of variance in the rush-hour and work-week samples. Rush-hour and work-week LUR models explained similar proportions of spatial variation in pollutants, suggesting that the majority of emissions may be produced during rush-hour traffic across downtown. Results suggest that rush-hour emissions may predominantly shape overall spatial variance in diesel-related pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Relationship between Ridesharing and Public Transit Use in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081763 - 16 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Car travel accounts for the largest share of transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions in the United States (U.S.), leading to serious air pollution and negative health effects; approximately 76.3% of car trips are single-occupant. To reduce the negative externalities of cars, ridesharing and public [...] Read more.
Car travel accounts for the largest share of transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions in the United States (U.S.), leading to serious air pollution and negative health effects; approximately 76.3% of car trips are single-occupant. To reduce the negative externalities of cars, ridesharing and public transit are advocated as cost-effective and more environmentally sustainable alternatives. A better understanding of individuals’ uses of these two transport modes and their relationship is important for transport operators and policymakers; however, it is not well understood how ridesharing use is associated with public transit use. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between the frequency and probability of ridesharing use and the frequency of public transit use in the U.S. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were employed to investigate the associations between these two modes, utilizing individual-level travel frequency data from the 2017 National Household Travel Survey. The survey data report the number of times the respondent had used ridesharing and public transit in the past 30 days. The results show that, generally, a one-unit increase in public transit use is significantly positively related to a 1.2% increase in the monthly frequency of ridesharing use and a 5.7% increase in the probability of ridesharing use. Additionally, the positive relationship between ridesharing and public transit use was more pronounced for people who live in areas with a high population density or in households with fewer vehicles. These findings highlight the potential for integrating public transit and ridesharing systems to provide easier multimodal transportation, promote the use of both modes, and enhance sustainable mobility, which are beneficial for the environment and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030429 - 01 Mar 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure [...] Read more.
Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group). Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise. Exhaust was filtered to assess responses induced by the particulate and gas fractions. Short-term exposure to particulate matter from GDI engine exhaust induced upregulation of genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism (Cyp1b1) and inflammation (TNFα) in the lungs of non-allergic mice. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the particulate fraction of the exhaust, and this response was therefore likely attributable to the presence of these PAHs. The particle fraction of GDI engine exhaust further contributed to enhanced methacholine responsiveness in the central and peripheral tissues in animals with airway hyperresponsiveness. As GDI engines gain prevalence in the vehicle fleet, understanding the health impacts of their emissions becomes increasingly important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020374 - 22 Feb 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use [...] Read more.
Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park) during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and contamination factor (CF) results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between traffic volume and concentration for three heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V) in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between traffic volume and concentrations for four heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn) in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation-Related Air Pollution and Human Health)
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