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Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 111994

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2. School of Public Health and Health Management, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: occupational health; human toxicology; environmental health; disaster risk reduction; worker safety; hospital safety; patient safety; safety culture; epidemiology; statistics

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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore S, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA; World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Occupational Health
Interests: health Worker occupational health; occupational health in LMICs; toxicology; surveillance

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Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, International Centre for Rural Health of the Santi Paolo e Carlo ASST of Milan, 20142 Milano, Italy
Interests: occupational health; human toxicology; public health; worker safety; occupational health surveillance
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Healthcare workers or health workers, commonly defined as health service providers, health management workers, or support workers, are necessary for the functioning of health systems. Projections made by the World Health Organization indicate that 18 million health workers will be lacking worldwide in 2030, with a larger shortage in low- and middle-income countries. This is the result of a mismatch between the training/education of health workers, employment strategies, and populations needs, with an increasing lack of health workers in rural, remote, and under-served areas. Among various factors influencing the health workforce in general, safety, health, and wellbeing of healthcare workers are crucial for their retention and healthy aging.

Healthcare workers not only represent the point of care for millions of patients around the world in regular times, but their role becomes really prominent during health emergencies, such as various disasters, floods, earthquakes, and the recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. Caring for the important and vulnerable population of healthcare workers is a priority, both in peace and in emergencies. Methods and strategies to assess the types of exposure and risk they are subjected to in the workplace, the availability and use of adequate personal protective equipment, the effects of long working hours, as well as other factors influencing their physical, mental, and social wellbeing, the early detection of diseases among healthcare workers, and interventions which could reduce the impact of these damaging factors are highly needed.

Dr. Stefan Mandić-Rajčević
Prof. Dr. Melissa McDiarmid
Prof. Dr. Claudio Colosio
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Health care workers
  • Safety
  • Health
  • Wellbeing
  • Exposure assessment
  • Risk assessment
  • Evidence-based interventions
  • Emergency response
  • Disaster risk reduction
  • COVID-19

Published Papers (30 papers)

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13 pages, 396 KiB  
Article
The Association of Life Events Outside the Workplace and Burnout: A Cross-Sectional Study on Nursing Assistants
by Mariana Tortorelli, Telma Ramos Trigo, Renata Bolibio, Camila Colás Sabino de Freitas, Floracy Gomes Ribeiro, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Dan V. Iosifescu and Renério Fráguas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159342 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Background: Burnout, by definition, is related to adverse chronic workplace stressors. Life events outside the workplace have been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity. However, it is unknown whether life events outside the workplace increase the severity of burnout. Purpose: The [...] Read more.
Background: Burnout, by definition, is related to adverse chronic workplace stressors. Life events outside the workplace have been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity. However, it is unknown whether life events outside the workplace increase the severity of burnout. Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between burnout and life events outside the workplace in nursing assistants. Methods: In an observational, cross-sectional, single-site study of 521 nursing assistants at a university hospital, we assessed burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and life events with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. We constructed equations of multiple linear regression analyses that included each burnout subscale as the dependent variable and a domain of life events as the independent variable. Results were adjusted for potential confounders, including gender, no religion or faith, years of work, and depression. Results: An increase in the number of life events in the domain of personal changes or difficulties (e.g., personal injury or illness, sexual difficulties, change in recreation, church activities, social activities, sleeping habits, eating habits and revision of personal habits) was associated with increased severity of emotional exhaustion. An increase in the number of life events in the domain of changes in familial situation and in the domains of death of relatives or friends were associated with increased severity of depersonalization. Those associations were independent of work-related life events and other potential confounders. Conclusions: Life events outside the workplace may increase the levels of burnout in nursing assistants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
13 pages, 859 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Risk, Work, and Lifestyle Changes on Mental Health of Healthcare Workers Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Awatef Ergai, LeeAnna Spiva, Lin Li, Ryan Breshears and Ginny Zhan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095420 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak is significantly affecting the mental health of healthcare workers worldwide. This study aims to investigate the mental health outcomes of healthcare workers in a health system located in southeastern US during the first peak of the pandemic and examine the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak is significantly affecting the mental health of healthcare workers worldwide. This study aims to investigate the mental health outcomes of healthcare workers in a health system located in southeastern US during the first peak of the pandemic and examine the association of specific factors on the mental well-being of healthcare workers. A cross-sectional survey of 388 healthcare workers was conducted. Data were collected using a 79-item questionnaire, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) instrument, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and general distress, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. Accordingly, 30.1%, 28.7%, and 39.4% of respondents reported depression, anxiety, and distress symptoms, respectively. Younger workers and females reported higher mental symptomologies. We identified significant, nontraditional factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers: healthcare procedure change, concern of exposing family to COVID-19, number of missed shifts, and access to psychological resources/services. These findings emphasize the importance of providing the proper training to reduce concerns of exposing family members and psychological interventions to promote mental health well-being for healthcare workers during the stressful COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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23 pages, 4637 KiB  
Article
The Second Side of the Coin—Resilience, Meaningfulness and Joyful Moments in Home Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Doris Gebhard, Julia Neumann, Magdalena Wimmer and Filip Mess
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073836 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Nursing literature predominantly focuses on job demands but is scarce for resources related to nurses’ work. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, resources that can buffer the health-impairing effects of increased demands gain importance. The aim of this study is to explore [...] Read more.
Nursing literature predominantly focuses on job demands but is scarce for resources related to nurses’ work. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, resources that can buffer the health-impairing effects of increased demands gain importance. The aim of this study is to explore resilience, meaning of work and joyful moments in home health care workers in South Germany during the pandemic. Resilience and meaning of work were measured quantitatively; moments of joy were investigated qualitatively by audio diaries and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. In all, 115 home health care workers (mean age = 47.83 ± 11.72; 81.75% female) filled in the questionnaires and 237 diary entries were made by 23 persons (mean age = 46.70 ± 10.40; 91.30% female). The mean scores of resilience (5.52 ± 1.04; 1–7) and meaning of work (4.10 ± 0.92; 1–5) showed high levels, with significantly higher values in females. Home care workers experienced joyful moments 334 times in 60 different types in the categories of social relationships, work content, work organization, work environment and self-care. A deeper understanding of resilience, meaning of work and joyful moments provides a basis for the development of worksite health promotion programs that address both demands and resources in home health care workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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14 pages, 2754 KiB  
Article
Predictors of eHealth Literacy and Its Associations with Preventive Behaviors, Fear of COVID-19, Anxiety, and Depression among Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by Ha T. T. Tran, Minh H. Nguyen, Thu T. M. Pham, Giang B. Kim, Hiep T. Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh Nguyen, Hoa T. B. Dam, Thai H. Duong, Yen H. Nguyen, Thao T. Do, Thao T. P. Nguyen, Thuy T. Le, Hien T. T. Do, Tham T. Nguyen, Khue M. Pham and Tuyen Van Duong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073766 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4446
Abstract
Background: The infodemic has been co-existing with the COVID-19 pandemic with an influx of misinformation and conspiracy theories. These affect people’s psychological health and adherence to preventive measures. eHealth literacy (eHEALS) may help with alleviating the negative effects of the infodemic. As nursing [...] Read more.
Background: The infodemic has been co-existing with the COVID-19 pandemic with an influx of misinformation and conspiracy theories. These affect people’s psychological health and adherence to preventive measures. eHealth literacy (eHEALS) may help with alleviating the negative effects of the infodemic. As nursing students are future healthcare professionals, having adequate eHEALS skills is critically important in their clinical practice, safety, and health. This study aimed to (1) explore the eHEALS level and its associated factors, and (2) examine the associations of eHEALS with preventive behaviors, fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S), anxiety, and depression among nursing students. Methods: We surveyed 1851 nursing students from 7 April to 31 May 2020 from eight universities across Vietnam. Data were collected, including demographic characteristics, eHEALS, adherence to preventive behaviors (handwashing, mask-wearing, physical distancing), FCV-19S, anxiety, and depression. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed appropriately to examine associations. Results: The mean score of eHEALS was 31.4 ± 4.4. The eHEALS score was significantly higher in males (unstandardized regression coefficient, B, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.73; p = 0.019), and students with a better ability to pay for medication (B, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.19; p < 0.001), as compared to their counterparts. Nursing students with a higher eHEALS score had a higher likelihood of adhering to hand-washing (odds ratio, OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.22; p < 0.001), mask-wearing (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.19; p < 0.001), keeping a safe physical distance (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.25; p < 0.001), and had a lower anxiety likelihood (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.99; p = 0.011). Conclusions: Nursing students who were men and with better ability to pay for medication had higher eHEALS scores. Those with higher eHEALS scores had better adherence to preventive measures, and better psychological health. The development of strategies to improve eHEALS of nursing students may contribute to COVID-19 containment and improve their psychological health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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12 pages, 383 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Primary Health Care Professionals: Cross-Sectional Study in a Large Brazilian Municipality
by Luciano Garcia Lourenção, Bruno Martinez Rigino, Natalia Sperli Geraldes Marin dos Santos Sasaki, Maria Jaqueline Coelho Pinto, Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães Ximenes Neto, Flávio Adriano Borges, Maria de Lourdes Sperli Geraldes Santos, José Gustavo Monteiro Penha, Daniela Menezes Galvão, Betânia Maria Pereira dos Santos, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm Cunha, Jacqueline Flores de Oliveira, Max dos Santos Afonso, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Cunha, Francielle Garcia da Silva, Neyson Pinheiro Freire, Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento, Sidiane Teixeira Rodrigues, Taisa Moitinho de Carvalho, Messias Lemos, Juliana Lima da Cunha and Neide Aparecida Micelli Domingosadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063332 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the coping strategies used by primary healthcare (PHC) professionals. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study realized with professionals working in primary healthcare units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data [...] Read more.
Objective: To analyze the coping strategies used by primary healthcare (PHC) professionals. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study realized with professionals working in primary healthcare units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data collection, we used an instrument developed by the researchers containing sociodemographic and professional variables, as well as the Problem Coping Modes Scale (EMEP). Results: We evaluated 333 PHC professionals. A difference was observed between the scores of the four coping strategies (p < 0.001), with the highest score for the problem-focused strategy (3.8) and the lowest score for the emotion-focused strategy (2.4). Physicians had the lowest scores in coping strategies focused on religious practices/fantastical thinking (p < 0.001) and pursuit of social support (p = 0.045), while community health agents had the highest scores in these coping strategies. Conclusions: Professionals working in PHC have different coping strategies for the problems and stressful situations experienced in the work environment. These strategies can involve more positive attitudes focused on confrontation and problem solving, and on emotional responses that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial of the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
15 pages, 983 KiB  
Article
Protected 911: Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Prehospital COVID-19 High-Risk Response Team
by Justin Mausz, Nicholas A. Jackson, Corey Lapalme, Dan Piquette, Dave Wakely and Sheldon Cheskes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053004 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Patients with COVID-19 who require aerosol-generating medical procedures (such as endotracheal intubation) are challenging for paramedic services. Although potentially lifesaving for patients, aerosolizing procedures carry an increased risk of infection for paramedics, owing to the resource limitations and complexities of the pre-hospital setting. [...] Read more.
Patients with COVID-19 who require aerosol-generating medical procedures (such as endotracheal intubation) are challenging for paramedic services. Although potentially lifesaving for patients, aerosolizing procedures carry an increased risk of infection for paramedics, owing to the resource limitations and complexities of the pre-hospital setting. In this paper, we describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a novel pre-hospital COVID-19 High-Risk Response Team (HRRT) in Peel Region in Ontario, Canada. The mandate of the HRRT was to attend calls for patients likely to require aerosolizing procedures, with the twofold goal of mitigating against COVID-19 infections in the service while continuing to provide skilled resuscitative care to patients. Modelled after in-hospital ‘protected code blue’ teams, operationalizing the HRRT required several significant changes to standard paramedic practice, including the use of a three-person crew configuration, dedicated safety officer, call–response checklists, multiple redundant safety procedures, and enhanced personal protective equipment. Less than three weeks after the mandate was given, the HRRT was operational for a 12-week period during the first wave of COVID-19 in Ontario. HRRT members attended ~70% of calls requiring high risk procedures and were associated with improved quality of care indicators. No paramedics in the service contracted COVID-19 during the program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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12 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Emotional Stability, Psychological Well-Being and Life Satisfaction of Romanian Medical Doctors during COVID-19 Period: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Lorena Mihaela Muntean, Aurel Nireștean, Cosmin Octavian Popa, Elena Gabriela Strete, Dana Valentina Ghiga, Andreea Sima-Comaniciu and Emese Lukacs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052937 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4741
Abstract
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the fast progression of modern society, occupational stress has recently reached alarming levels with consequences for doctors’ psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship among emotional stability, psychological well-being, and [...] Read more.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the fast progression of modern society, occupational stress has recently reached alarming levels with consequences for doctors’ psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship among emotional stability, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction of medical doctors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 280 medical doctors from Romania between February 2021 and September 2021, in the period between the third and fourth pandemic waves, who were evaluated by the DECAS, ASSET, and Satisfaction with Life scales. Our results showed that emotional stability is negatively correlated with psychological well-being (r = −0.526, p < 0.000) and positively correlated with life satisfaction (r = 0.319, p < 0.0001). Between psychological well-being and life satisfaction, we found a negative correlation (r = −0.046, p < 0.001). This study shows that there is a correlation among emotional stability, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction, which is why it can be considered that Romanian doctors have generated coping mechanisms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
13 pages, 4968 KiB  
Article
I Trust You: Does This Matter in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment, Continuous Commitment and Intention to Leave among Young Female Healthcare Professionals?
by Hassane Gharbi, Nadir Aliane and Abu Elnasr E. Sobaih
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052843 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
This research examines the direct influence of sexual harassment by superiors on subordinates’ young female trust in their superiors. The research also examines the mediating role of trust in the relationship between sexual harassment and continuous commitment as well as intention to leave. [...] Read more.
This research examines the direct influence of sexual harassment by superiors on subordinates’ young female trust in their superiors. The research also examines the mediating role of trust in the relationship between sexual harassment and continuous commitment as well as intention to leave. For this purpose, a pre-tested questionnaire survey was self-dropped and collected by the research team to young female professionals, who are in their early career (within five years of their career), in public hospitals in the cities of Tunis, Sfax and Sousse, Tunisia. The results were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. The results of structural model, interestingly, showed no significant effect of sexual harassment by superiors on their subordinates’ trust. Hence, trust in superiors has no mediating role in the relationship between sexual harassment and continuous commitment as well as intention to leave. However, sexual harassment by superiors was found to directly and positively influence young female professionals’ intention to leave the job. Additionally, trust in superiors was found to negatively influence both young female professionals’ continuous commitment and their intention to leave. The results have certain theoretical and managerial implications, particularly in relation to young female professional in the healthcare sector, which is vital for Tunisia and every country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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13 pages, 780 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Healthcare Workers before the Vaccination in Poland: Evolution from the First to the Second Pandemic Outbreak
by Izabela Korona-Głowniak, Michał Mielnik, Martyna Podgajna, Ewelina Grywalska, Marek Hus, Katarzyna Matuska, Beata Wojtysiak-Duma, Dariusz Duma, Andrzej Glowniak and Anna Malm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042319 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are on the frontline, struggling with the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To describe recent or past infections, the serological assays enabled the assessment of the immune response developed in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are on the frontline, struggling with the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To describe recent or past infections, the serological assays enabled the assessment of the immune response developed in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period when testing was hardly available. In this study, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in HCWs in a Polish teaching hospital and the Regional Occupational Medicine Center after both the first and the second waves. ELISA-based tests for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were used to determine immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in volunteer HCWs who worked in those institutions in May 2020 (208 participants aged 47.1 ± 12.5, 88% women) and in December 2020 (179 participants aged 45.2 ± 12.4, 86% woman). Risk factors for seropositivity were also assessed using a questionnaire filled out by all participants. We reported a significant increase in seroprevalence after the second wave (22.9%) compared with the first outbreak (2.4%) (OR 12.1; 95%CI 4.6–31.3; p < 0.0001). An association between IgG seroprevalence and severity of infections was noted. Furthermore, we demonstrated that amongst medical personnel, nurses exhibited a proportionally higher SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Moreover, given the high seroprevalence in non-clinical group of HCWs, we suggest that community transmission can play a superior role to workplace exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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11 pages, 380 KiB  
Article
Mental Health Problems among COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers and the Other Country-Level Epidemics: The Case of Mexico
by Rebeca Robles, Silvia Morales-Chainé, Alejandro Bosch, Claudia Astudillo-García, Miriam Feria, Sara Infante, Natasha Alcocer-Castillejos, Leticia Ascencio, Janet Real-Ramírez, Dulce Díaz, Héctor Francisco Gómez-Estrada, Claudia Becerra, Raúl Escamilla, Alejandra López-Montoya, Ana Beristain-Aguirre, Hamid Vega, Dení Álvarez-Icaza, Evelyn Rodríguez, Sol Durand, Ana Fresán, María-Elena Medina-Mora, Carmen Fernández-Cáceres and Eduardo Ángel Madrigal de Leónadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010421 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
COVID-19 frontline healthcare workers (FHCW) are struggling to cope with challenges that threaten their wellbeing. We examine the frequency and predictors of the most frequent mental health problems (MHP) among FHCW during the first COVID-19 peak in Mexico, one of the most severely [...] Read more.
COVID-19 frontline healthcare workers (FHCW) are struggling to cope with challenges that threaten their wellbeing. We examine the frequency and predictors of the most frequent mental health problems (MHP) among FHCW during the first COVID-19 peak in Mexico, one of the most severely affected countries in terms of FHCW’s COVID-19 mortality. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 8 and August 18, 2020. A total of 47.5% of the sample (n = 2218) were FHCW. The most frequent MHP were insomnia, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health anxiety/somatization (whole sample: 45.7, 37.4, 33.9, and 21.3%; FHCW: 52.4, 43.4, 40.3 and 26.1, respectively). As compared to during the initial COVID-19 phase, depression and health anxiety/somatization symptoms as well as experiences of grieving due to COVID-19, personal COVID-19 status, and having relatives and close friends with COVID-19 were more frequent during the COVID-19 peak. Obesity, domestic violence, personal COVID-19 status, and grieving because of COVID-19 were included in regression models for main FHCW’s MHP during the COVID-19 peak. In conclusion, measures to decrease other country-level epidemics contributing to the likelihood of COVID-19 complications (obesity) and MHP (domestic violence) as well as FHCW´s probability of COVID-19 infection could safeguard not only their physical but also mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
13 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Attitudes towards Mandatory Occupational Vaccination and Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccine during the First Pandemic Wave among Mongolian Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by Battsetseg Turbat, Bold Sharavyn and Feng-Jen Tsai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010329 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Mandatory occupational vaccination for health care workers (HCWs) is a debatable issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine Mongolian HCWs’ attitudes towards mandatory occupational vaccination, the intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine, and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Mandatory occupational vaccination for health care workers (HCWs) is a debatable issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine Mongolian HCWs’ attitudes towards mandatory occupational vaccination, the intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine, and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study based on an online survey with a convenience sampling strategy was conducted from February to April 2021 among 238 Mongolia HCWs. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed for analysis. While only 39.9% of HCWs were aware of recommended occupational vaccinations, they highly agreed with the mandatory occupational vaccination on HCWs (93.7%). The agreement rate is significantly higher than their attitude toward general vaccination (93.7% vs. 77.8%). HCW’s willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine was high (67.2%). HCWs aged 26–35 years old who worked in tertiary level hospitals had less willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine (50%). Participants with lower confidence in the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine (ORs = 15.659) and less positive attitudes toward general vaccination (ORs = 5.288) were less likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Mongolian HCWs’ agreement rate of mandatory occupational vaccination is higher than other countries. Their intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine is high and associated with confidence in the effectiveness of the vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
20 pages, 435 KiB  
Article
Obesity and Diet Predict Attitudes towards Health Promotion in Pre-Registered Nurses and Midwives
by Holly Blake, Kathryn Watkins, Matthew Middleton and Natalia Stanulewicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413419 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4971
Abstract
Nurses and midwives are integral to public health promotion; in the UK, they are advised to act as role models by their governing body, but overweight or obesity rates are high. We explored whether obesity and dietary habits are related to attitudes towards [...] Read more.
Nurses and midwives are integral to public health promotion; in the UK, they are advised to act as role models by their governing body, but overweight or obesity rates are high. We explored whether obesity and dietary habits are related to attitudes towards healthy role modelling and health promotion practice. A total of 346 pre-registered UK nurses and midwives (92.6% female; 18–53 years) completed an online survey. Items included body composition, dietary habits assessed by the Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire (LBQ), attitudes towards being role models for health (RA: role attitudes) and attitudes toward health promotion practice (ATHPP): 33.8% of the sample self-reported as overweight or obese; 67.6% did not consume 5-a-day portions of fruit/veg; 31.5% reported a healthy diet; and 89.6% believed their diet could be healthier. Positive RA was significantly linked to health promotion engagement (HP) (ß = 0.33, p < 0.001). Positive ATHPP was significantly predicted by lower BMI (ß = −0.08, p = 0.078), positive RA (ß = 0.67, p < 0.001), lower HP (ß = −0.25, p < 0.001) and male gender (ß = 0.09, p = 0.02). Greater confidence in patients valuing healthcare professional’s advice was predicted by healthier diet (ß = 0.11, p = 0.03), lower BMI (ß = −0. 16, p < 0.01), more positive RA (ß = 0.14, p < 0.01) as well as HP engagement during training (ß = 0.20, p < 0.01). One’s own motivation to promote health, similarly to ATHPP, was predicted by RA (ß = 0.17, p = 0.001) and previous HP engagement (ß = 0.39, p < 0.001). Findings show that overweight and obesity are prevalent in pre-registered nurses and midwives; the majority did not consume a healthy diet. Individual’s body composition, diet and attitudes towards role modelling are positively associated with their attitudes towards, and confidence in, health promotion practice. Experiences of health promotion practice during training can have either a positive or a negative influence on attitudes. Mentors and educators could actively promote healthy lifestyles for pre-registered nurses and midwives and facilitate more opportunities for health promotion practice during placements, which includes time for reflection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
11 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Pediatric Dentists’ Service Provisions in South-East Europe during the First Wave of COVID-19 Epidemic: Lessons Learned about Preventive Measures and Personal Protective Equipment Use
by Ana Vuković, Stefan Mandić-Rajčević, Ruxandra Sava-Rosianu, Marcela D Betancourt, Edit Xhajanka, Neada Hysenaj, Elmedin Bajric, Amila Zukanović, Vrassidas Philippides, Marios Zosimas, Maroufidis Nikolaos, Zoran Vlahović, Marijan Denkovski, Tamara Peric, Dejan Markovic and Guglielmo Campus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211795 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
Introduction: Having in mind the importance of providing continuous pediatric dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic and the fact that children have similar viral loads to adults, the potential to spread the virus to others, and with variable clinical presentation of COVID-19 infection, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Having in mind the importance of providing continuous pediatric dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic and the fact that children have similar viral loads to adults, the potential to spread the virus to others, and with variable clinical presentation of COVID-19 infection, this study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on pediatric dentistry service provision, risks, and preventive measures before and during dental treatment. Method: Structured and closed epidemiological cross-sectional survey involved seven Southeastern European countries. The questionnaire was developed using the modified Delphi method, pretested, and tested in North Italy during April 2020. The sample consisted of licensed dental professionals reached via national dental chambers and social media using the best strategies according to the national setting. Results: A total of 3227 dentists participated in the survey, and we included 643 specialists in this study—among them, 164 were pediatric dentists. Most pediatric dentists worked in the public sector (61.0%) and provided emergency (64.6%) and routine dental treatment (18.3%) during the outbreak. One-third of pediatric dentists were COVID-19 tested, statistically significantly more than other specialties, and 3.0% tested COVID-19 positive. In addition, significantly more pediatric dentists (13.4%) reported the presence of at least one symptom related to COVID-19 compared to other specialists (6.1%). None of the pediatric dentists reported PPE shortage. However, 26.2% of all specialists stated that they lacked clear step by step professional guidance in a national language. Similarly, in both groups, around 10% of specialists attended education on coronavirus. Conclusions: Considering that most pediatric dentists provided dental treatment during lockdown in their countries in public health centers and that they will continue to work during pandemic, our results suggest that pediatric dentists might be at higher risk of COVID-19 infection. Further research should focus on finding better ways to promote and adapt preventive, protective measures and PPE in the pediatric dental setting to be behaviorally acceptable. Moreover, additional efforts should be invested in dental education regarding COVID-19 in the mother tongue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
13 pages, 1512 KiB  
Article
Control and Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Outbreaks among Healthcare Workers from 129 Healthcare Facilities in Mexico
by César Pineda-Santoyo, Abraham Campos-Romero, Marco A. Luna-Ruiz Esparza, Liliana E. López-Luna, Martha E. Sánchez-Zarate, Abraham Zepeda-González, Miguel A. Fernández-Rojas and Jonathan Alcántar-Fernández
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211772 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Few reports have shared the workflows to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections among risk groups, including healthcare workers (HCWs). This study describes an occupational health program implemented to reduce the incidence of COVID-19 and establishes a back-to-work algorithm in HCWs of 129 Salud Digna outpatient [...] Read more.
Few reports have shared the workflows to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections among risk groups, including healthcare workers (HCWs). This study describes an occupational health program implemented to reduce the incidence of COVID-19 and establishes a back-to-work algorithm in HCWs of 129 Salud Digna outpatient care clinics in Mexico. This program was composed of training plans, screening SARS-CoV-2 infections, the containment of infections, follow-up COVID-19 cases, and continuing supervision in addition to the steady supply and training for the correct use of PPE. From 16 April 2020 to 15 April 2021, 7376 individuals were enrolled, of which 423 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused the follow-up. In the cohort studied, we found a COVID-19 incidence of 35.4% (2610 individuals), lower hospitalization (0.11%), ICU (0.04%) and lethality rate (0.04%). Additionally, 85.9% of COVID-19 cases tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 after 14 days of the first positive test with an average isolation time of 26–33 days. Finally, 99% of people received personal protective equipment and adequate training to use it. Our results show that the program implemented reduced the hospitalization ICU admission and lethality in HCWs; we consider this workflow to help other workplaces offer safe conditions for HCWs and patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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11 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Half-Year Longitudinal Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-Antibodies and Rule Compliance in German Hospital Employees
by Jonas Herzberg, Tanja Vollmer, Bastian Fischer, Heiko Becher, Ann-Kristin Becker, Hany Sahly, Human Honarpisheh, Salman Yousuf Guraya, Tim Strate and Cornelius Knabbe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010972 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, is an occupational health risk, especially for healthcare employees due to their higher exposure and consequently higher risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. This study was designed to determine the longitudinal seroprevalence of specific immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies [...] Read more.
COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, is an occupational health risk, especially for healthcare employees due to their higher exposure and consequently higher risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. This study was designed to determine the longitudinal seroprevalence of specific immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies in employees in a hospital setting. All employees in a secondary care hospital, including healthcare and non-healthcare workers, were invited to participate in this single-center study. After an initial screening, a 6-month follow-up was carried out, which included serological examination for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and a questionnaire for self-reported symptoms, self-perception, and thoughts about local and national hygiene and pandemic plans. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 0.74% among 406 hospital employees (0.75% in healthcare workers, 0.72% in non-healthcare workers), initially recruited in April 2020, in their follow-up blood specimens in October 2020. In this study, 30.54% of the participants reported using the official German coronavirus mobile application and the majority were content with the local and national rules in relation to coronavirus-related restrictions. At the 6-month follow-up, the 0.74% seroprevalence was below the reported seroprevalence of 1.35% in the general German population. The prevalence in healthcare workers in direct patient care compared with that in workers without direct patient contact did not differ significantly. Further follow-up to monitor the seroprevalence in the high-risk healthcare sector during the ongoing global pandemic is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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13 pages, 1087 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Quality of Nursing Work Life and Uniformed Nurses’ Attitudes and Practices Related to COVID-19 in the Philippines: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Juneffer Villamen Navales, Amadou Wurry Jallow, Chien Yu Lai, Chieh Yu Liu and Shu Wen Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 9953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199953 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5954
Abstract
(1) Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide. Uniformed nurses have played a critical role during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines; however, uptake of literature is limited. This study assessed the relationship between quality of nursing work life (QNWL) and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide. Uniformed nurses have played a critical role during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines; however, uptake of literature is limited. This study assessed the relationship between quality of nursing work life (QNWL) and nurses’ attitudes and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Participants were recruited from four government hospitals in the Manila metropolitan area of the Philippines. Participants completed three questionnaires in an online survey: a demographic questionnaire, a QNWL questionnaire, and the attitude and practices toward COVID-19 questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, an independent t-test, a one-way analysis of variance, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and hierarchical linear regression were applied for data analysis. (3) Results: The mean age of the participants was 29 years. Most of the participants were single women who were not certified in their specialties. A total of QNWL scores were high, indicating that the participants displayed favorable attitudes and practices in relation to COVID-19. A statistically significant relationship was observed between QNWL, specialty certification, and practices related to COVID-19. Practices related to COVID-19 were a significant predictor of QNWL and one of its subscales, work design. (4) Conclusion: Young adult uniformed nurses in the Philippines have assumed numerous responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Providing these frontline nurses with comprehensive specialized education and training is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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17 pages, 419 KiB  
Article
Tough Love Lessons: Lateral Violence among Hospital Nurses
by María Joao Vidal-Alves, David Pina, Esteban Puente-López, Aurelio Luna-Maldonado, Aurelio Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Teresa Magalhães, Yolanda Pina-López, José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández and Begoña Martínez Jarreta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179183 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6053
Abstract
Background: Workplace violence is a growing social problem among many professions, but it particularly affects the health sector. Studies have mainly focused on evaluating user violence toward health professionals, with less attention being paid to other sources of conflict, such as co-workers themselves. [...] Read more.
Background: Workplace violence is a growing social problem among many professions, but it particularly affects the health sector. Studies have mainly focused on evaluating user violence toward health professionals, with less attention being paid to other sources of conflict, such as co-workers themselves. There are different manifestations of this violence in what has been called a context of tolerated or normalized violence among co-workers. However, its effects are far from being tolerable, as they have an impact on general health and job satisfaction and contribute to burnout among professionals. Based on this idea, and following the line of the previous literature, nursing staff are a population at high risk of exposure to workplace violence. For this reason, the present study aims to evaluate exposure to lateral violence or violence among co-workers in nursing staff in public health services and the relationship of this exposure with some of the most studied consequences. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional associative study was carried out in which scales of workplace violence (HABS-CS), burnout (MBI-GS), job satisfaction (OJS), and general health (GHQ-28) were applied to a sample of 950 nursing staff from 13 public hospitals located in the southeast of Spain. (3) Results: The results show that nursing staff have a high exposure to violence from their co-workers, which is more common in male nurses. Greater exposure is observed in professionals with between 6 and 10 years of experience in the profession, and it is not characteristic of our sample to receive greater violence when they have less experience or are younger. A positive correlation is observed with high levels of burnout and a negative correlation with general health and job satisfaction. (4) Conclusions: The results of this work contribute to increasing the scientific evidence of the consequences of a type of workplace violence frequent among nursing staff and to which less attention has been paid in relative terms to other types of prevalent violence. Organizations should be aware of the importance of this type of workplace violence, its frequency and impact, and implement appropriate prevention policies that include the promotion of a culture that does not reward violence or minimize reporting. A change of mentality in the academic environment is also recommended in order to promote a more adequate training of nursing staff in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
9 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Health Impact and Psychosocial Perceptions among French Medical Residents during the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by David Lucas, Sandrine Brient, Bisi Moriamo Eveillard, Annabelle Gressier, Tanguy Le Grand, Richard Pougnet, Jean-Dominique Dewitte and Brice Loddé
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168413 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2307
Abstract
This study compared the impact on mental health and the psychosocial perceptions of medical residents and healthcare workers (HCWs) in a hospital after the first peak of the SARS-CoV2 outbreak in France. A validated version of the SATIN questionnaire with a modified scoring [...] Read more.
This study compared the impact on mental health and the psychosocial perceptions of medical residents and healthcare workers (HCWs) in a hospital after the first peak of the SARS-CoV2 outbreak in France. A validated version of the SATIN questionnaire with a modified scoring system was used to collect data on health and psychosocial factors. This questionnaire was sent to all workers at the hospital in July 2020 and was self-administered online. Using a multivariate multinomial regression model, the study included demographic variables such as age, gender, years at workplace and the relevant of covariate as HCW status. One thousand, four hundred and six questionnaires were available for analysis including 393 non-HCWs, 891 HCWs and 122 medical residents. Medical resident status is a risk factor for stress (OR 4.77 [2.48–9.18] p < 0.001), worse global health (OR 4 [1.7–9.6] p < 0.001) and mental health (OR 2.58 [1.3–5.1] p = 0.02), negative perception of work demand (OR 8.25 [3.5–19.6] p <0.001), work activity environment (OR 3.18 [1.5–6.7] p = 0.02) and organizational context (OR 4.9 [2.38–10.4] p <0.001). Action on collective support, protection equipment, organizational context and framework are important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
11 pages, 491 KiB  
Article
Safety Performance of Healthcare Professionals: Validation and Use of the Adapted Workplace Health and Safety Instrument
by Lina Heier, Nikoloz Gambashidze, Judith Hammerschmidt, Donia Riouchi, Matthias Weigl, Andrew Neal, Andrea Icks, Peter Brossart, Franziska Geiser and Nicole Ernstmann
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157816 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2757
Abstract
Improving patient safety and reducing occupational accidents are two of the main challenges in healthcare. Instruments to measure safety performance and occupational safety are rare. This study aimed to prepare and validate a German version of the adapted workplace health and safety instrument [...] Read more.
Improving patient safety and reducing occupational accidents are two of the main challenges in healthcare. Instruments to measure safety performance and occupational safety are rare. This study aimed to prepare and validate a German version of the adapted workplace health and safety instrument to assess the safety performance of healthcare professionals. Overall, 168 healthcare professionals participated in this explorative cross-sectional study. The instrument consists of 16 items related to safety performance in four dimensions. We calculated mean values and standard deviations for each individual item and those of the four dimensions of the instrument. We evaluated internal consistency and construct validity, explored the dimensionality of the instrument through exploratory factor analysis, and tested how our data fit with the original model with confirmatory factor analysis. Among the participants, 73.8% were nurses and nurses in training, with the majority of the sample being female (71.9%) and younger than 30 (52.5%). Cronbach’s alpha for all four dimensions was >0.7. All items were loaded on factors according to the original theoretical model. Confirmatory factor analysis showed good model fit (normed χ²/df = 1.43 (≤2.5), root mean square error of approximation = 0.06 (≤0.07), goodness of fit index = 0.90 (>0.90), comparative fit index = 0.95 (≥0.90), and Tucker–Lewis index = 0.93 (>0.90). The German version of the instrument demonstrated acceptable properties and was a good fit to the original theoretical model, allowing measurement of healthcare professionals’ safety knowledge, motivation, compliance, and participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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15 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Chinese Version of a School-to-Work Transition Anxiety Scale for Healthcare Students
by Tzu-Yun Hung, Hung-Chang Liao and Ya-huei Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147658 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this paper was to develop an appropriate scale measuring healthcare students’ anxiety during the transition from school to work. Methods: After an extensive literature review and panel discussion to prove the face validity and content validity, the initial item [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this paper was to develop an appropriate scale measuring healthcare students’ anxiety during the transition from school to work. Methods: After an extensive literature review and panel discussion to prove the face validity and content validity, the initial item pool was reduced to 52 items. In a pilot study, a sample of four hundred and twenty-four healthcare students participated, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used. Psychometric properties—construct validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, goodness of fit, and reliabilities—were also analyzed. Results: After the use of EFA, the 52 items were reduced to 31 items in four factors, with 66.70% of the total variance explained. The Cronbach’s alpha values ranged between 0.91 and 0.93. The study also used CFA to validate the EFA model, and the results demonstrated that with the same thirty-one items in a 7-point Likert scale, the model was a better fit in four factors: “inexperience in professional knowledge and skills” (nine items; factor loadings: 0.642–0.867; 43.72% of the variance explained), “fear of death” (eight items; factor loadings: 0.745–0.831; 9.94% of the variance explained), “fear of being infected” (eight items; factor loadings: 0.678–0.866; 7.86% of the variance explained), and “interpersonal interactions” (six items; factor loadings: 0.704–0.913; 5.18% of the variance explained). The CFA model demonstrated a good model fit in the χ2/df ratio (1.17; p = 0.016), CFI (0.99), TFI (0.99), and RMSEA (0.02). The composite reliabilities ranged from 0.89 to 0.92, confirming the StWTA-HS scale’s stability and internal consistency. The convergent validity and discriminant validity were also confirmed. The StWTA-HS scale has been proven to be a stable scale to measure healthcare students’ school-to-work transition anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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12 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Physiological Response during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with Personal Protective Equipment: A Randomized Crossover Study
by María Fernández-Méndez, Martín Otero-Agra, Felipe Fernández-Méndez, Santiago Martínez-Isasi, Myriam Santos-Folgar, Roberto Barcala-Furelos and Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137093 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is required for the self-protection of healthcare workers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients at risk of aerosol transmission of infectious agents. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of personal protective equipment [...] Read more.
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is required for the self-protection of healthcare workers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients at risk of aerosol transmission of infectious agents. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of personal protective equipment on physiological parameters during CPR. A randomized, quasi-experimental, crossover design was used. The study was carried out in a training and simulation emergency box and the total sample consisted of 20 healthcare professionals. Two CPR tests were compared with the recommended sequence of 30 chest compressions and 2 ventilations. The duration of each test was 20 min. One of the CPR tests was carried out without using any PPE (CPR_control), i.e., performed with the usual clothing of each rescuer. The other test was carried out using a CPR test with PPE (i.e., CPR_PPE). The main variables of interest were: CPR quality, compressions, ventilations, maximum heart rate, body fluid loss, body temperature, perceived exertion index, comfort, thermal sensation and sweating. The quality of the CPR was similar in both tests. The maximum heart rate was higher in the active intervals (compressions + bag-valve-mask) of the test with PPE. CPR_PPE meant an increase in the perceived effort, temperature at the start of the thermal sensation test, thermal comfort and sweating, as opposed to CPR performed with usual clothing. Performing prolonged resuscitation with PPE did not influence CPR quality, but caused significant physiological demands. Rescuers were more fatigued, sweated more and their thermal comfort was worse. These results suggest that physical preparation should be taken into account when using PPE and protocols for physiological recovery after use should also be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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12 pages, 548 KiB  
Article
Hospital Employees’ Well-Being Six Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: Results from a Psychological Screening Program in Italy
by Giulia Lamiani, Lidia Borghi, Silvia Poli, Katia Razzini, Claudio Colosio and Elena Vegni
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115649 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak has taken a heavy toll on the mental well-being of healthcare workers. This study aims to describe a psychological screening program developed at a large University Hospital in Milan, Italy, and assess the psychological outcomes of employees and associated factors. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak has taken a heavy toll on the mental well-being of healthcare workers. This study aims to describe a psychological screening program developed at a large University Hospital in Milan, Italy, and assess the psychological outcomes of employees and associated factors. A survey was electronically conducted among hospital employees between July and October 2020. Sociodemographic data, information about COVID-19 experience and three scales assessing anxiety (STAI-Y1), depression (HAM-D) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-5) were collected. A total of 308 employees (80% women; mean age 45.1 years) responded: 16% physicians, 68% other healthcare professionals, and 16% administrative staff. Employees reported moderate/severe symptoms of anxiety (23%), depression (53%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (40%). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, having suffered a loss for COVID-19 in the personal context was independently associated with higher risk of moderate/severe anxiety (OR = 2.40; 95% CI 1.16–4.98), being female was associated with higher risk of moderate/severe depression (OR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.43–5.59), and having had a family member affected by COVID-19 was associated with higher risk of moderate/severe post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.75; 95% CI 1.01–7.48). COVID-19 personal experience may have a profound impact on hospital workers’ mental health and should be considered in supportive interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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10 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Healthcare Workers in Germany: A Follow-Up Study
by Johannes Korth, Benjamin Wilde, Sebastian Dolff, Jasmin Frisch, Michael Jahn, Adalbert Krawczyk, Mirko Trilling, Leonie Schipper, Sebastian Cordes, Birgit Ross, Monika Lindemann, Andreas Kribben, Ulf Dittmer, Oliver Witzke, Anke Herrmann and Olympia Evdoxia Anastasiou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094540 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 is a worldwide challenge for the medical sector. Healthcare workers (HCW) are a cohort vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to frequent and close contact with COVID-19 patients. However, they are also well trained and equipped with protective gear. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 is a worldwide challenge for the medical sector. Healthcare workers (HCW) are a cohort vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to frequent and close contact with COVID-19 patients. However, they are also well trained and equipped with protective gear. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody status was assessed at three different time points in 450 HCW of the University Hospital Essen in Germany. HCW were stratified according to contact frequencies with COVID-19 patients in (I) a high-risk group with daily contacts with known COVID-19 patients (n = 338), (II) an intermediate-risk group with daily contacts with non-COVID-19 patients (n = 78), and (III) a low-risk group without patient contacts (n = 34). The overall seroprevalence increased from 2.2% in March–May to 4.0% in June–July to 5.1% in October–December. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection rate was not significantly different between the high-risk group (1.8%; 3.8%; 5.5%), the intermediate-risk group (5.1%; 6.3%; 6.1%), and the low-risk group (0%, 0%, 0%). The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence remained low in HCW in western Germany one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany, and hygiene standards seemed to be effective in preventing patient-to-staff virus transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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10 pages, 578 KiB  
Article
A Longitudinal Seroprevalence Study Evaluating Infection Control and Prevention Strategies at a Large Tertiary Care Center with Low COVID-19 Incidence
by Lorenz Schubert, Robert Strassl, Heinz Burgmann, Gabriella Dvorak, Matthias Karer, Michael Kundi, Manuel Kussmann, Heimo Lagler, Felix Lötsch, Christopher Milacek, Markus Obermueller, Zoe Oesterreicher, Christoph Steininger, Karin Stiasny, Florian Thalhammer, Ludwig Traby, Zoltan Vass, Matthias Gerhard Vossen, Lukas Weseslindtner, Stefan Winkler and Selma Tobudicadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084201 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Personal protective equipment and adherence to disinfection protocols are essential to prevent nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Here, we evaluated infection control measures in a prospective longitudinal single-center study at the Vienna General Hospital, the biggest tertiary care center in [...] Read more.
Personal protective equipment and adherence to disinfection protocols are essential to prevent nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Here, we evaluated infection control measures in a prospective longitudinal single-center study at the Vienna General Hospital, the biggest tertiary care center in Austria, with a structurally planned low SARS-CoV-2 exposure. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were assessed by Abbott ARCHITECT chemiluminescent assay (CLIA) in 599 health care workers (HCWs) at the start of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in early April and two months later. Neutralization assay confirmed CLIA-positive samples. A structured questionnaire was completed at both visits assessing demographic parameters, family situation, travel history, occupational coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure, and personal protective equipment handling. At the first visit, 6 of 599 participants (1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. The seroprevalence increased to 1.5% (8/553) at the second visit and did not differ depending on the working environment. Unprotected SARS-CoV-2 exposure (p = 0.003), positively tested family members (p = 0.04), and travel history (p = 0.09) were more frequently reported by positively tested HCWs. Odds for COVID-19 related symptoms were highest for congestion or runny nose (p = 0.002) and altered taste or smell (p < 0.001). In conclusion, prevention strategies proved feasible in reducing the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients and among HCWs in a low incidence hospital, not exceeding the one described in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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13 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
The Importance of Contextualized Psychosocial Risk Indicators in Workplace Stress Assessment: Evidence from the Healthcare Sector
by Luca Menghini and Cristian Balducci
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063263 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3184
Abstract
The routine assessment of workplace stress is mostly based on standardized self-report tools, including generic psychosocial risk indicators (G-PRIs) designed to fit very heterogeneous occupational sectors. However, the use “by default” of such indicators might be inadequate when they fail to characterize the [...] Read more.
The routine assessment of workplace stress is mostly based on standardized self-report tools, including generic psychosocial risk indicators (G-PRIs) designed to fit very heterogeneous occupational sectors. However, the use “by default” of such indicators might be inadequate when they fail to characterize the specificity of the work environment; hence, the inclusion of more contextualized indicators (C-PRIs) has been recommended. We aimed at evaluating the additional contribution of three C-PRIs (Work–Family Conflict, Emotional Demands, and Excessive Demands from Patients) in predicting individual outcomes (Emotional Exhaustion, Turnover Intentions) compared to commonly used G-PRIs (e.g., Demand, Control, Support), in a sample of 787 healthcare workers involved in a routine workplace stress assessment. Multilevel hierarchical regression supported the additional contributions of C-PRIs in predicting both outcomes over G-PRIs, sex, age and shift work. More robust and consistent evidence emerged for Emotional Exhaustion, which was significantly predicted by all C-PRIs, whereas Turnover Intentions was only predicted by the C-PRI Emotional Demands. Importantly, not all G-PRIs showed a relationship with the two outcomes. Taken together, our results support the importance of including C-PRIs in workplace stress assessment carried out by organizations, which should be selected based on literature search and discussion with the stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
12 pages, 691 KiB  
Article
Sickness Presenteeism in Shift and Non-Shift Nurses: Using the Fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey
by Ari Min, Minkyung Kang and Hye Chong Hong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063236 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3696
Abstract
Nurses have reported higher rates of sickness presenteeism than other workers, which is particularly problematic because this problem is linked to care quality and patient safety. This secondary data analysis study aimed to identify the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and explore related factors [...] Read more.
Nurses have reported higher rates of sickness presenteeism than other workers, which is particularly problematic because this problem is linked to care quality and patient safety. This secondary data analysis study aimed to identify the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and explore related factors among shift and non-shift nurses using the Fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey. A total of 272 nurses in Korean hospitals were included. The survey included questions on working conditions, health status, and sickness presenteeism. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify associated factors of sickness presenteeism. Overall, 21.8% of the participants reported experiencing sickness presenteeism; shift nurses experienced more sickness presenteeism than non-shift nurses. Sickness presenteeism was greater in shift nurses who did not have rest breaks during work and in nurses who experienced quick return. Additionally, the odds of sickness presenteeism were approximately four times greater in shift nurses who experienced sleep disturbance and about four times higher in shift nurses who experienced health problems. Among non-shift nurses, the odds of sickness presenteeism were about 15 times greater in those who worked ≥53 h per week. Nurse managers and administrators should prevent sickness presenteeism in hospital nurses to provide quality care and enhance productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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17 pages, 371 KiB  
Article
Occupational Health and Safety Measures in German Outpatient Care Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study
by Mara Shirin Hetzmann, Natascha Mojtahedzadeh, Albert Nienhaus, Volker Harth and Stefanie Mache
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062987 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4128
Abstract
Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, outpatient caregivers are exposed to new serious health threats at work. To protect their health, effective occupational health and safety measures (OHSM) are necessary. Outpatient caregivers (n = 15) participated in semi-structured telephone interviews [...] Read more.
Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, outpatient caregivers are exposed to new serious health threats at work. To protect their health, effective occupational health and safety measures (OHSM) are necessary. Outpatient caregivers (n = 15) participated in semi-structured telephone interviews in May/June 2020 (1) to examine the pandemic-related OHSM that have been implemented in their outpatient care services, as well as (2) to identify their corresponding unmet needs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed by using qualitative content analysis in accordance with Mayring. Available OHSM in outpatient care services described by outpatient caregivers mainly included personal protective equipment (PPE) and surface disinfection means after an initial shortage in the first peak of the pandemic. Further OHSM implied social distancing, increased hygiene regulations and the provision of pandemic-related information by the employer, as well as the possibility to consult a company doctor. Our study revealed that OHSM were largely adapted to the health threats posed by COVID-19, however an optimum has not yet been achieved. There is still a need for improvement in the qualitative and quantitative supply of PPE, as well as on the organisational level, e.g., with regard to the development of pandemic plans or in work organisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
13 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Psychological Adjustment of Healthcare Workers in Italy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Differences in Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Burnout, Secondary Trauma, and Compassion Satisfaction between Frontline and Non-Frontline Professionals
by Carmen Trumello, Sonia Monique Bramanti, Giulia Ballarotto, Carla Candelori, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Monia Crudele, Lucia Lombardi, Silvia Pignataro, Maria Luisa Viceconti and Alessandra Babore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228358 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 184 | Viewed by 16684
Abstract
Emergency situations have been associated with negative psychological adjustment outcomes in healthcare professionals, although studies on the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic amongst Italian health workers are limited. The main aim of this study was to investigate the psychological adjustment [...] Read more.
Emergency situations have been associated with negative psychological adjustment outcomes in healthcare professionals, although studies on the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic amongst Italian health workers are limited. The main aim of this study was to investigate the psychological adjustment of healthcare professionals during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating differences according to working or not with patients affected by COVID-19 and in areas with a more severe spread of this pandemic. Healthcare professionals’ attitudes toward psychological support were analyzed. The levels of anxiety, depression, psychological stress, and professional quality of life (compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue) and attitudes toward psychological support were measured among 627 Italian healthcare workers (mean age = 40.55 years; SD = 11.49; range: 27–72). Significantly higher levels of stress, burnout, secondary trauma, anxiety, and depression were observed among professionals working with COVID-19 patients. Higher levels of stress and burnout and lower levels of compassion satisfaction were detected in professionals working in areas with higher rates of contagion. No interaction effects were found between working (or not) with patients affected by COVID-19 and working (or not) in areas with a more severe diffusion of this pandemic. Finally, in the group of professionals who worked with COVID-19 patients, the percentage of professionals who thought to ask for psychological support was twice that of the group that did not work with COVID-19 patients. The overall findings indicate that the mental health of frontline healthcare workers requires further consideration and that targeted prevention and intervention programs are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)

Review

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13 pages, 2793 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Prevalence among Healthcare Workers. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Tafadzwa Dzinamarira, Grant Murewanhema, Malizgani Mhango, Patrick Gad Iradukunda, Itai Chitungo, Moreblessing Mashora, Pelagia Makanda, James Atwine, Munashe Chimene, Elliot Mbunge, Munyaradzi Paul Mapingure, Innocent Chingombe, Godfrey Musuka, Sphamandla Josias Nkambule and Bernard Ngara
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010146 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 6620
Abstract
Understanding the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers is a critical component to inform occupational health policy and strategy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to map and analayse the available global evidence on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare [...] Read more.
Understanding the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers is a critical component to inform occupational health policy and strategy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to map and analayse the available global evidence on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers. The random-effects adjusted pooled prevalence of COVID-19 among those studies that conducted the test using the antibody (Ab) method was 7% [95% CI: 3 to 17%]. The random-effects adjusted pooled prevalence of COVID-19 among those studies that conducted the test using the PCR method was 11% [95% CI: 7 to 16%]. We found the burden of COVID-19 among healthcare workers to be quite significant and therefore a cause for global health concern. Furthermore, COVID-19 infections among healthcare workers affect service delivery through workers’ sick leave, the isolation of confirmed cases and quarantine of contacts, all of which place significant strain on an already shrunken health workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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12 pages, 363 KiB  
Review
The Healthcare Sector Employer’s Duty of Care: Implications for Worker Well-Being
by Melissa McDiarmid, Marian Condon and Joanna Gaitens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116015 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3513
Abstract
Pandemic diseases of this century have differentially targeted healthcare workers globally. These infections include Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Ebola. The COVID-19 pandemic has continued this pattern, putting healthcare workers [...] Read more.
Pandemic diseases of this century have differentially targeted healthcare workers globally. These infections include Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Ebola. The COVID-19 pandemic has continued this pattern, putting healthcare workers at extreme risk. Just as healthcare workers have historically been committed to the service of their patients, providing needed care, termed their “duty of care”, so too do healthcare employers have a similar ethical duty to provide care toward their employees arising from historical common law requirements. This paper reports on results of a narrative review performed to assess COVID-19 exposure and disease development in healthcare workers as a function of employer duty of care program elements adopted in the workplace. Significant duty of care deficiencies reported early in the pandemic most commonly involved lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) availability. Beyond worker safety, we also provide evidence that an additional benefit of employer duty of care actions is a greater sense of employee well-being, thus aiding in the prevention of healthcare worker burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Health and Wellbeing of Healthcare Workers)
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