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Open AccessArticle

Hydrologic Modeling for Sustainable Water Resources Management in Urbanized Karst Areas

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Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6.627 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil
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EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG-424, Km 45 Caixa Postal: 285 ou 151, Sete Lagoas 35701-970, Minas Gerais, Brazil
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EMBRAPA Solos, Rua Jardim Botânico, nº 1.024, Bairro Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro 22460-000, Brazil
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Geographic Information Science Group, Institute of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07749 Jena, Germany
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Centro de Investigação e Tecnologias Agroambientais e Biológicas, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Ap 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Centro de Química de Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Ap 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142542
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
The potential of karst aquifers as a drinking water resource is substantial because of their large storage capacity gained in the course of carbonate dissolution. Carbonate dissolution and consequent development of preferential paths are also the reasons for the complex behavior of these aquifers as regards surface and underground flow. Hydrological modeling is therefore of paramount importance for an adequate assessment of flow components in catchments shaped on karsts. The cross tabulation of such components with geology, soils, and land use data in Geographic Information Systems helps decision makers to set up sustainable groundwater abstractions and allocate areas for storage of quality surface water, in the context of conjunctive water resources management. In the present study, a hydrologic modeling using the JAMS J2000 software was conducted in a karst area of Jequitiba River basin located near the Sete Lagoas town in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results revealed a very high surface water component explained by urbanization of Sete Lagoas, which hampers the recharge of 7.9 hm3 yr−1 of storm water. They also exposed a very large negative difference (−8.3 hm3 yr−1) between groundwater availability (6.3 hm3 yr−1) and current groundwater abstraction from the karst aquifer (14.6 hm3 yr−1), which is in keeping with previously reported water table declines around drilled wells that can reach 48 m in old wells used for public water supply. Artificial recharge of excess surface flow is not recommended within the urban areas, given the high risk of groundwater contamination with metals and hydrocarbons potentially transported in storm water, as well as development of suffosional sinkholes as a consequence of concentrated storm flow. The surface component could however be stored in small dams in forested areas from the catchment headwaters and diverted to the urban area to complement the drinking water supply. The percolation in soil was estimated to be high in areas used for agriculture and pastures. The implementation of correct fertilizing, management, and irrigation practices are considered crucial to attenuate potential contamination of groundwater and suffosional sinkhole development in these areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst aquifers; recharge; land use and occupation; waterproofing; hydrologic modeling; JAMS J2000; water resources management; sustainability karst aquifers; recharge; land use and occupation; waterproofing; hydrologic modeling; JAMS J2000; water resources management; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cardoso de Salis, H.H.; Monteiro da Costa, A.; Moreira Vianna, J.H.; Azeneth Schuler, M.; Künne, A.; Sanches Fernandes, L.F.; Leal Pacheco, F.A. Hydrologic Modeling for Sustainable Water Resources Management in Urbanized Karst Areas. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2542. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142542

AMA Style

Cardoso de Salis HH, Monteiro da Costa A, Moreira Vianna JH, Azeneth Schuler M, Künne A, Sanches Fernandes LF, Leal Pacheco FA. Hydrologic Modeling for Sustainable Water Resources Management in Urbanized Karst Areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(14):2542. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142542

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cardoso de Salis, Hugo H.; Monteiro da Costa, Adriana; Moreira Vianna, João H.; Azeneth Schuler, Marysol; Künne, Annika; Sanches Fernandes, Luís F.; Leal Pacheco, Fernando A. 2019. "Hydrologic Modeling for Sustainable Water Resources Management in Urbanized Karst Areas" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 14: 2542. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142542

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